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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
One-unit versus two-unit cord-blood transplantation for hematologic cancers.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Umbilical-cord blood has been used as the source of hematopoietic stem cells in an estimated 30,000 transplants. The limited number of hematopoietic cells in a single cord-blood unit prevents its use in recipients with larger body mass and results in delayed hematopoietic recovery and higher mortality. Therefore, we hypothesized that the greater numbers of hematopoietic cells in two units of cord blood would be associated with improved outcomes after transplantation.
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Impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease on late relapse and survival on 7489 patients after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Purpose: Malignancy relapse remains a major obstacle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with fewer relapses. However, when studying effects of cGVHD on relapse it is difficult to separate from acute GVHD effects as most cases of cGVHD occur within the first year post-transplant at the time when acute GVHD is still active. Experimental design: The current study based on CIBMTR registry data investigated cGVHD and its association with the incidence of late relapse and survival in 7489 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who were leukemia-free at12 months after myeloablative allogeneic HCT. Results: Forty-seven percent of the study population was diagnosed with cGVHD at 12 months after transplant. The protective effect of cGVHD on relapse was present only in patients with CML (RR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37-0.59, P <0.0001). cGVHD was significantly associated with higher risk of treatment related mortality, (RR: 2.43, 95% CI: 2.09-2.82, P <0.0001) and inferior overall survival (RR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.41-1.73, P <0.0001) for all diseases. In patients with CML all organ sites and presentation types of cGVHD were equally associated with lower risk of late relapse. Conclusions: These results indicate that clinically relevant anti-leukemia effects of cGVHD on late relapses are present only in CML but not in AML, ALL or MDS. Chronic GVHD in patients who are one year survivors after myeloablative allogeneic HCT is primarily associated with higher TRM and inferior survival.
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HLA-C expression levels define permissible mismatches in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Life-threatening GVHD limits the use of HLA-C-mismatched unrelated donors in transplantation. Clinicians lack criteria for donor selection when HLA-C mismatched donors are a patient's only option for cure. We examined the role for HLA-C expression levels to identify permissible HLA-C mismatches. The median fluorescence intensity (MFI), a proxy of HLA-C expression, was assigned to each HLA-C allotype in 1975 patients and their HLA-C-mismatched unrelated transplant donors. The association of outcome with the level of expression of patients' and donors' HLA-C allotypes was evaluated in multivariable models. Increasing expression level of the patient's mismatched HLA-C allotype was associated with increased risks of grades III-IV acute GVHD [odds ratio (OR), 1.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.62; P = .003], non-relapse mortality [hazard ratio (HR), 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.39; P = .005) and mortality (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.27; P = .009). Increasing expression level among HLA-C mismatches with residue 116 or residues 77/80 mismatching was associated with increased non-relapse mortality (HR, 1.31 and 1.38, respectively; 95% CI, 1.09-1.58 and 1.14-1.67, respectively; P = .004 and .0009, respectively). The immunogenicity of HLA-C mismatches in unrelated donor transplantation is influenced by the expression level of the patient's mismatched HLA-C allotype. HLA-C expression levels, provide new information on mismatches that should be avoided, and extend understanding of HLA-C-mediated immune responses in human disease.
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Recommendations for Donor HLA Assessment and Matching for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Consensus Opinion of the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducts large, multi-institutional clinical trials with the goal of improving the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with life-threatening disorders. Well designed HCT trials benefit from standardized criteria for defining diagnoses, treatment plans and graft source selection. In this perspective, we summarize evidence supporting criteria for the selection of related and unrelated adult volunteer progenitor cell donors or umbilical cord blood units. These standardized criteria for graft source selection have been adopted by the BMT CTN to enhance the interpretation of clinical findings within and among future clinical protocols.
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Phase III clinical trial steroids/mycophenolate mofetil vs steroids/placebo as therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease: BMT CTN 0802.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Corticosteroids are the accepted primary therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), but durable responses are seen in only about half the patients. BMT-CTN 0802, a phase III multi-center randomized double blinded trial, was designed to test whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) plus corticosteroids was superior to corticosteroids alone as initial therapy for acute GvHD. Patients with newly diagnosed acute GvHD were eligible if required systemic therapy. Patients were randomized to receive prednisone with either MMF or placebo. The primary endpoint was acute or chronic GvHD-free survival at day 56 after initiation of therapy. A futility rule for GvHD free survival at day 56 was met at a planned interim analysis after 235 eligible patients (out of 372) were enrolled: 116 to MMF, 119 to placebo. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between treatment groups including grade and organ distribution of GvHD. GvHD free survival at day 56, cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD at 12 months, overall survival, EBV reactivation, cumulative incidence of severe, life threatening infections, cumulative incidence of relapse at 12 months, quality of severe infections were similar. The addition of MMF to corticosteroids as initial therapy of acute GvHD does not improve GvHD-free survival compared with treatment with corticosteroids alone. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01002742.
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Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch increases mortality after myeloablative unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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We examined current outcomes of unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to determine the clinical implications of donor-recipient HLA matching. Adult and pediatric patients who had first undergone myeloablative-unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome between 1999 and 2011 were included. All had high-resolution typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1. Of the total (n = 8003), cases were 8/8 (n = 5449), 7/8 (n = 2071), or 6/8 (n = 483) matched. HLA mismatch (6-7/8) conferred significantly increased risk for grades II to IV and III to IV acute graft vs host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, transplant-related mortality (TRM), and overall mortality compared with HLA-matched cases (8/8). Type (allele/antigen) and locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) of mismatch were not associated with overall mortality. Among 8/8 matched cases, HLA-DPB1 and -DQB1 mismatch resulted in increased acute GVHD, and HLA-DPB1 mismatch had decreased relapse. Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 allele mismatch was associated with higher TRM compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch or HLA-DPB1 match and increased overall mortality compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch in 8/8 (and 10/10) matched cases. Full matching at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 is required for optimal unrelated donor HCT survival, and avoidance of nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in otherwise HLA-matched pairs is indicated.
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HLA match likelihoods for hematopoietic stem-cell grafts in the U.S. registry.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially lifesaving therapy for several blood cancers and other diseases. For patients without a suitable related HLA-matched donor, unrelated-donor registries of adult volunteers and banked umbilical cord-blood units, such as the Be the Match Registry operated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), provide potential sources of donors. Our goal in the present study was to measure the likelihood of finding a suitable donor in the U.S. registry.
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Tacrolimus/sirolimus vs tacrolimus/methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis after matched, related donor allogeneic HCT.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in approximately 35% of matched, related donor (MRD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. We sought to determine if the combination of tacrolimus and sirolimus (Tac/Sir) was more effective than tacrolimus and methotrexate (Tac/Mtx) in preventing acute GVHD and early mortality after allogeneic MRD HCT in a phase 3, multicenter trial. The primary end point of the trial was to compare 114-day grades 2-4 acute GVHD-free survival using an intention-to-treat analysis of 304 randomized subjects. There was no difference in the probability of day 114 grades 2-4 acute GVHD-free survival (67% vs 62%, P = .38). Grades 2-4 GVHD was similar in the Tac/Sir and Tac/Mtx arms (26% vs 34%, P = .48). Neutrophil and platelet engraftment were more rapid in the Tac/Sir arm (14 vs 16 days, P < .001; 16 vs 19 days, P = .03). Oropharyngeal mucositis was less severe in the Tac/Sir arm (peak Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale score 0.70 vs 0.96, P < .001), but otherwise toxicity was similar. Chronic GVHD, relapse-free survival, and overall survival at 2 years were no different between study arms (53% vs 45%, P = .06; 53% vs 54%, P = .77; and 59% vs 63%, P = .36). Based on similar long-term outcomes, more rapid engraftment, and less oropharyngeal mucositis, the combination of Tac/Sir is an acceptable alternative to Tac/Mtx after MRD HCT. This study was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute; and the trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00406393.
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Exercise and stress management training prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation: Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) 0902.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Studies show that engaging patients in exercise and/or stress management techniques during hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) improves quality of life. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network tested the efficacy of training patients to engage in self-directed exercise and stress management during HCT. The study randomized 711 patients at 21 centers to receive 1 of 4 training interventions before HCT: a self-directed exercise program, a self-administered stress management program, both, or neither. Participants completed self-reported assessments at enrollment and up to 180 days after HCT. Randomization was stratified by center and transplant type. There were no differences in the primary endpoints of the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 at day +100 among the groups, based on an intention-to-treat analysis. There also were no differences in overall survival, days of hospitalization through day +100 post-HCT, or in other patient-reported outcomes, including treatment-related distress, sleep quality, pain, and nausea. Patients randomized to training in stress management reported more use of those techniques, but patients randomized to training in exercise did not report more physical activity. Although other studies have reported efficacy of more intensive interventions, brief training in an easy-to-disseminate format for either self-directed exercise or stress management was not effective in our trial.
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Validation and refinement of the Disease Risk Index for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Because the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is predominantly influenced by disease type and status, it is essential to be able to stratify patients undergoing HCT by disease risk. The Disease Risk Index (DRI) was developed for this purpose. In this study, we analyzed 13,131 patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who underwent HCT between 2008 and 2010. The DRI stratified patients into 4 groups with 2-year overall survival (OS) ranging from 64% to 24% and was the strongest prognostic factor, regardless of age, conditioning intensity, graft source, or donor type. A randomly selected training subgroup of 9849 patients was used to refine the DRI, using a multivariable regression model for OS. This refined DRI had improved prediction ability for the remaining 3282 patients compared with the original DRI or other existing schemes. This validated and refined DRI can be used as a 4- or 3-group index, depending on the size of the cohort under study, for prognostication; to facilitate the interpretation of single-center, multicenter, or registry studies; to adjust center outcome data; and to stratify patients entering clinical trials that enroll patients across disease categories.
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Multicenter biologic assignment trial comparing reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant to hypomethylating therapy or best supportive care in patients aged 50 to 75 with intermediate-2 and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: Blood and Marrow Transplan
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens made it possible to offer allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) to older patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, the relative risks and benefits of alloHCT compared with novel nontransplant therapies continue to be the source of considerable uncertainty. We will perform a prospective biologic assignment trial to compare RIC alloHCT with nontransplant therapies based on donor availability. Primary outcome is 3-year overall survival. Secondary outcomes include leukemia-free survival, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Four hundred patients will be enrolled over roughly 3 years. Planned subgroup analyses will evaluate key biologic questions, such as the impact of age and response to hypomethylating agents on treatment effects. Findings from this study potentially may set a new standard of care for older MDS patients who are considered candidates for alloHCT.
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Graft-versus-host disease and survival after cord blood transplantation for acute leukemia: a comparison of Japanese versus White populations.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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An earlier report identified higher risks of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in White children compared with the Japanese after HLA-matched sibling transplantations. The current analysis explored whether racial differences are associated with GVHD risks after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. Included are patients of Japanese descent (n = 257) and Whites (n = 260; 168 of 260 received antithymocyte globulin [ATG]). Transplants were performed in the United States or Japan between 2000 and 2009; patients were aged 16 years or younger, had acute leukemia, were in complete remission, and received a myeloablative conditioning regimen. The median ages of the Japanese and Whites who received ATG were younger at 5 years compared with 8 years for Whites who did not receive ATG. In all groups most transplants were mismatched at 1 or 2 HLA loci. Multivariate analysis found no differences in risks of acute GVHD between the Japanese and Whites. However, chronic GVHD was higher in Whites who did not receive ATG compared with the Japanese (hazard ratio, 2.16; P < .001), and treatment-related mortality was higher in Whites who received ATG compared with the Japanese (relative risk, 1.81; P = .01). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in overall survival between the 3 groups.
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Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor: enbrel (etanercept) for the treatment of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: blood and marrow transplant clinical trials network protocol.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a diffuse, noninfectious lung injury that occurs acutely after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). IPS-related mortality has been historically high (>50%) despite treatment with systemic corticosteroids and supportive care measures. We have now examined the role of tumor necrosis factor inhibition in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of corticosteroids with etanercept or placebo. Thirty-four subjects (?18 years) with IPS after HCT were randomized to receive methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day) plus etanercept (0.4 mg/kg twice weekly × 4 weeks; n = 16) or placebo (n = 18). No active infections and a pathogen-negative bronchoscopy were required at study entry. Response (alive, with complete discontinuation of supplemental oxygen support) and overall survival were examined. This study, originally planned to accrue 120 patients, was terminated prematurely due to slow accrual. In the limited number of patients examined, there were no differences in response rates at day 28 of study. Ten of 16 patients (62.5% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 35.4% to 84.8%]) receiving etanercept and 12 of 18 patients (66.7% [95% CI, 41.0% to 86.7%]) receiving placebo met the day 28 response definition (P = 1.00). The median survival was 170 days (95% CI, 11 to 362) with etanercept versus 64 days (95% CI, 26 to 209) with placebo (P = .51). Among responders, the median time to discontinuation of supplemental oxygen was 9 days (etanercept) versus 7 days (placebo). Therapy was well tolerated, with 1 toxicity-related death from infectious pneumonia in the placebo arm. The treatment of IPS with corticosteroids in adult HCT recipients was associated with high early response rates (>60%) compared with historical reports, with poor overall survival. The addition of etanercept did not lead to further increases in response, although the sample size of this truncated trial preclude a definitive conclusion.
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Impact of allele-level HLA matching on outcomes after myeloablative single unit umbilical cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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We studied the effect of allele-level matching at human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 in 1568 single umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantations for hematologic malignancy. The primary end point was nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Only 7% of units were allele matched at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1; 15% were mismatched at 1, 26% at 2, 30% at 3, 16% at 4, and 5% at 5 alleles. In a subset, allele-level HLA match was assigned using imputation; concordance between HLA-match assignment and outcome correlation was confirmed between the actual and imputed HLA-match groups. Compared with HLA-matched units, neutrophil recovery was lower with mismatches at 3, 4, or 5, but not 1 or 2 alleles. NRM was higher with units mismatched at 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 alleles compared with HLA-matched units. The observed effects are independent of cell dose and patient age. These data support allele-level HLA matching in the selection of single UCB units.
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Better leukemia-free and overall survival in AML in first remission following cyclophosphamide in combination with busulfan compared with TBI.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Cyclophosphamide combined with total body irradiation (Cy/TBI) or busulfan (BuCy) are the most widely used myeloablative conditioning regimens for allotransplants. Recent data regarding their comparative effectiveness are lacking. We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research for 1230 subjects receiving a first hematopoietic cell transplant from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling or from an unrelated donor during the years 2000 to 2006 for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) after conditioning with Cy/TBI or oral or intravenous (IV) BuCy. Multivariate analysis showed significantly less nonrelapse mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.86; P = .007), and relapse after, but not before, 1 year posttransplant (RR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08-0.65; P = .006), and better leukemia-free survival (RR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55-0.88; P = .003) and survival (RR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52-0.88; P = .003) in persons receiving IV, but not oral, Bu compared with TBI. In combination with Cy, IV Bu is associated with superior outcomes compared with TBI in patients with AML in first CR.
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Impact of donor source on hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched related donor (MRD) and matched unrelated donors (MUD) produces similar survival for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Whether these results can be extended to patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is unknown. Therefore, analysis of post-HCT outcomes for MDS was performed. Outcomes of 701 adult MDS patients who underwent HCT between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed (MRD [n = 176], 8 of 8 HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 allele matched MUD [n = 413], 7 of 8 MUD [ n = 112]). Median age was 53 years (range, 22-78 years). In multivariate analyses, MRD HCT recipients had similar disease free survival (DFS) and survival rates compared with 8 of 8 MUD HCT recipients (relative risk [RR] 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.42] and 1.24 [95% CI 0.98-1.56], respectively), and both MRD and 8 of 8 MUD had superior DFS (RR 1.47 [95% CI 1.10-1.96] and 1.29 [95% CI 1.00-1.66], respectively) and survival (RR 1.62 [95% CI 1.21-2.17] and 1.30 [95% CI 1.01-1.68], respectively) compared with 7 of 8 MUD HCT recipients. In patients with MDS, MRD remains the best stem cell source followed by 8 of 8 MUD. Transplantation from 7 of 8 MUD is associated with significantly poorer outcomes.
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Role of reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in older patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes: an international collaborative decision analysis.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal hematopoietic disorders that are more common in patients aged ? 60 years and are incurable with conventional therapies. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is potentially curative but has additional mortality risk. We evaluated RIC transplantation versus nontransplantation therapies in older patients with MDS stratified by International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk.
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Divergent effects of novel immunomodulatory agents and cyclophosphamide on the risk of engraftment syndrome after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Engraftment syndrome (ES) is an increasingly observed and occasionally fatal complication after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). In this study, we demonstrate that the incidence of ES is significantly increased in patients undergoing autologous PBSCT for multiple myeloma in comparison to patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma. Multivariate analysis revealed that age > 60 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 2.62; P = .013) and transplantation for multiple myeloma (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.60 to 4.90; P = .0003) were associated with an increased risk of this complication. When stratified for myeloma patients only, age > 60 (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.87; P = .013) and prior treatment with both lenalidomide and bortezomib (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.11 to 3.04; P = .0001) were associated with an increased incidence of ES. Conversely, lack of exposure to cyclophosphamide from either chemomobilization or as a component of the pretransplantation therapeutic regimen increased the risk of this complication (HR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.91 to 4.87; P <.0001). These studies demonstrate that the pretransplantation exposure of multiple myeloma patients to novel immunomodulatory agents and cyclophosphamide significantly affects the subsequent risk of developing ES.
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Multiple mismatches at the low expression HLA loci DP, DQ, and DRB3/4/5 associate with adverse outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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A single mismatch in highly expressed HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci (HEL) is associated with worse outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, while less is known about the cumulative impact of mismatches in the lesser expressed HLA loci DRB3/4/5, DQ, and DP (LEL). We studied whether accumulation of LEL mismatches is associated with deleterious effects in 3853 unrelated donor transplants stratified according to number of matches in the HEL. In the 8/8 matched HEL group, LEL mismatches were not associated with any adverse outcome. Mismatches at HLA-DRB1 were associated with occurrence of multiple LEL mismatches. In the 7/8 HEL group, patients with 3 or more LEL mismatches scored in the graft-versus-host vector had a significantly higher risk of mortality (1.45 and 1.43) and transplant-related mortality (1.68 and 1.54) than the subgroups with 0 or 1 LEL mismatches. No single LEL locus had a more pronounced effect on clinical outcome. Three or more LEL mismatches are associated with lower survival after 7/8 HEL matched transplantation. Prospective evaluation of matching for HLA-DRB3/4/5, -DQ, and -DP loci is warranted to reduce posttransplant risks in donor-recipient pairs matched for 7/8 HEL.
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Quantitative and qualitative differences in use and trends of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a Global Observational Study.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Fifty-five years after publication of the first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation this technique has become an accepted treatment option for defined hematologic and non-hematologic disorders. There is considerable interest in understanding differences in its use and trends on a global level and the macro-economic factors associated with these differences. Data on the numbers of hematopoietic stem cell transplants performed in the 3-year period 2006-2008 were obtained from Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation member registries and from transplant centers in countries without registries. Population and macro-economic data were collected from the World Bank and from the International Monetary Fund. Transplant rates were analyzed by indication, donor type, country, and World Health Organization regional offices areas and related to selected health care indicators using single and multiple linear regression analyses. Data from a total of 146,808 patients were reported by 1,411 teams from 72 countries over five continents. The annual number of transplants increased worldwide with the highest relative increase in the Asia Pacific region. Transplant rates increased preferentially in high income countries (P=0.02), not in low or medium income countries. Allogeneic transplants increased for myelodysplasia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute leukemias, and non-malignant diseases but decreased for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Autologous transplants increased for autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases but decreased for leukemias and solid tumors. Transplant rates (P<0.01), donor type (P<0.01) aand disease indications (P<0.01) differed significantly between countries and regions. Transplant rates were associated with Gross National Income/capita (P<0.01) but showed a wide variation of explanatory content by donor type, disease indication and World Health Organization region. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity is increasing worldwide. The preferential increase in high income countries, the widening gap between low and high income countries and the significant regional differences suggest that different strategies are required in individual countries to foster hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as an efficient and cost-effective treatment modality.
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Phase III randomized study of rituximab/carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) compared with iodine-131 tositumomab/BEAM with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results from the BMT C
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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This clinical trial evaluated standard-dose radioimmunotherapy with a chemotherapy-based transplantation regimen followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation versus rituximab with the same regimen in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
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Mapping MHC haplotype effects in unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Life-threatening risks associated with HLA-mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation limit its general application for the treatment of blood diseases. The increased risks might be explained by undetected genetic variation within the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We retrospectively assessed each of 1108 MHC region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2628 patients and their HLA-mismatched unrelated donors to determine whether SNPs are associated with the risk of mortality, disease-free survival, transplant-related mortality, relapse, and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Multivariate analysis adjusted for HLA mismatching and nongenetic variables associated with each clinical end point. Twelve SNPs were identified as transplantation determinants. SNP-associated risks were conferred by either patient or donor SNP genotype or by patient-donor SNP mismatching. Risks after transplantation increased with increasing numbers of unfavorable SNPs. SNPs that influenced acute GVHD were independent of those that affected risk of chronic GVHD and relapse. HLA haplotypes differed with respect to haplotype content of (un)favorable SNPs. Outcome after HLA-mismatched unrelated donor transplantation is influenced by MHC region variation that is undetected with conventional HLA typing. Knowledge of the SNP content of HLA haplotypes provides a means to estimate risks prior to transplantation and to lower complications through judicious selection of donors with favorable MHC genetics.
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Risk factors for acute GVHD and survival after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Risk factors for acute GVHD (AGVHD), overall survival, and transplant-related mortality were evaluated in adults receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (1999-2005) from HLA-identical sibling donors (SDs; n = 3191) or unrelated donors (URDs; n = 2370) and reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Minneapolis, MN. To understand the impact of transplant regimen on AGVHD risk, 6 treatment categories were evaluated: (1) myeloablative conditioning (MA) with total body irradiation (TBI) + PBSCs, (2) MA + TBI + BM, (3) MA + nonTBI + PBSCs, (4) MA + nonTBI + BM, (5) reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) + PBSCs, and (6) RIC + BM. The cumulative incidences of grades B-D AGVHD were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-41%) in the SD cohort and 59% (95% CI, 57%-61%) in the URD cohort. Patients receiving SD transplants with MA + nonTBI + BM and RIC + PBSCs had significantly lower risks of grades B-D AGVHD than patients in other treatment categories. Those receiving URD transplants with MA + TBI + BM, MA + nonTBI + BM, RIC + BM, or RIC + PBSCs had lower risks of grades B-D AGVHD than those in other treatment categories. The 5-year probabilities of survival were 46% (95% CI, 44%-49%) with SD transplants and 33% (95% CI, 31%-35%) with URD transplants. Conditioning intensity, TBI and graft source have a combined effect on risk of AGVHD that must be considered in deciding on a treatment strategy for individual patients.
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Effect of donor-recipient HLA matching at HLA A, B, C, and DRB1 on outcomes after umbilical-cord blood transplantation for leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome: a retrospective analysis.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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The importance of matching at the HLA C locus has not been well defined for unrelated umbilical-cord blood transplantation. The selection algorithm for umbilical-cord blood units generally considers intermediate resolution HLA typing at A and B and allele-level typing at DRB1. We aimed to establish the relative importance of additional matching at HLA C.
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Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation followed by allogeneic or autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma (BMT CTN 0102): a phase 3 biological assignment trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma, but disease progression remains an issue. Allogeneic HSCT might reduce disease progression, but can be associated with high treatment-related mortality. Thus, we aimed to assess effectiveness of allogeneic HSCT with non-myeloablative conditioning after autologous HSCT compared with tandem autologous HSCT.
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Outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adolescent and young adults compared with children and older adults with acute myeloid leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced improvements in survival to the same extent as children and older adults. We compared outcomes among children (<15 years), AYAs (15-40 years) and older adults (>40 years) receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our cohort consisted of 900 children, 2,708 AYA, and 2,728 older adult recipients of HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor (URD) transplantation using myeloablative or reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning. Outcomes were assessed over three time periods (1980-1988, 1989-1997, 1998-2005) for siblings and two time periods (1989-1997, 1998-2005) for URD HCT. Analyses were stratified by donor type. Results showed overall survival for AYAs using either siblings or URD improved over time. Although children had better and older adults had worse survival compared with AYAs, improvements in survival for AYAs did not lag behind those for children and older adults. After sibling donor HCT, 5-year adjusted survival for the three time periods was 40%, 48%, and 53% for children, 35%, 41%, and 42% for AYAs, and 22%, 30%, and 34% for older adults. Among URD HCT recipients, 5-year adjusted survival for the two time periods was 38% and 37% for children, 24% and 28% for AYAs, and 19% and 23% for older adults. Improvements in survival occurred because of a reduction in risk of treatment-related mortality. The risk of relapse did not change over time. Improvements in survival among AYAs undergoing allogeneic HCT for AML have paralleled those among children and older adults.
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Risk factors associated with increased nonrelapse mortality and with poor overall survival in children with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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There is a paucity of information regarding the factors that affect nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival among children that develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed multivariate analyses using data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to identify risk factors for NRM and survival in 1117 pediatric subjects with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, transplanted from related donors, unrelated donors (URD), or unrelated cord blood between 1995 and 2004. We identified 4 variables associated with higher NRM: HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, peripheral blood cell graft, Karnofsky/Lansky score < 80 at cGVHD diagnosis, and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L at cGVHD diagnosis. Factors associated with significantly worse survival were: age > 10 years, transplantation from HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, advanced disease at transplantation, Karnofsky/Lansky < 80; and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L. Cumulative incidence of discontinuation of systemic immune suppression at 1, 3, and 5 years after diagnosis of cGVHD were 22% (20%-25%), 34% (31%-37%), and 37% (34%-40%), respectively. This is the largest study elucidating variables affecting outcome after diagnosis of cGVHD in pediatric allograft recipients. These variables may be useful for risk stratification, development of future clinical trials, and family counseling in children with cGVHD.
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Effect of stem cell source on outcomes after unrelated donor transplantation in severe aplastic anemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Outcome after unrelated donor bone marrow (BM) transplantation for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) has improved, with survival rates now approximately 75%. Increasing use of peripheral blood stem and progenitor cells (PBPCs) instead of BM as a graft source prompted us to compare outcomes of PBPC and BM transplantation for SAA. We studied 296 patients receiving either BM (n = 225) or PBPC (n = 71) from unrelated donors matched at human leukocyte antigen-A, -B, -C, -DRB1. Hematopoietic recovery was similar after PBPC and BM transplantation. Grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease risks were higher after transplantation of PBPC compared with BM (hazard ratio = 1.68, P = .02; 48% vs 31%). Chronic graft-versus-host disease risks were not significantly different after adjusting for age at transplantation (hazard ratio = 1.39, P = .14). Mortality risks, independent of age, were higher after PBPC compared with BM transplantation (hazard ratio = 1.62, P = .04; 76% vs 61%). These data indicate that BM is the preferred graft source for unrelated donor transplantation in SAA.
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Easy-to-read informed consent forms for hematopoietic cell transplantation clinical trials.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Informed consent is essential to ethical research and is requisite to participation in clinical research. Yet most hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) informed consent forms (ICFs) are written at reading levels that are above the ability of the average person in the United States (U.S.). The recent development of ICF templates by the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and the National Heart Blood and Lung Institute have not resulted in increased patient comprehension of information. Barriers to creating Easy-to-Read ICFs that meet U.S. federal requirements and pass institutional review board (IRB) review are the result of multiple interconnected factors. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) formed an ad hoc review team to address concerns regarding the overall readability and length of ICFs used for BMT CTN trials. This paper summarizes recommendations of the review team for the development and formatting of Easy-to-Read ICFs for HCT multicenter clinical trials, the most novel of which is the use of a 2-column format. These recommendations intend to guide the ICF writing process, simplify local IRB review of the ICF, enhance patient comprehension, and improve patient satisfaction. The BMT CTN plans to evaluate the impact of the Easy-to-Read format compared with the traditional format on the informed consent process.
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Chronic GVHD risk score: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Several risk factors are associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), but there is considerable variability in the reported factors. Therefore, we evaluated patient, transplantation, and cGVHD characteristics to develop a risk score in 5343 patients with cGVHD. Ten variables were identified as being significant in multivariate analysis of overall survival and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): age, prior acute GVHD, time from transplantation to cGVHD, donor type, disease status at transplantation, GVHD prophylaxis, gender mismatch, serum bilirubin, Karnofsky score, and platelet count. These 10 variables were used to build a cGVHD risk score, and 6 risk groups (RGs) were identified. The 5-year NRM was 5% (1%-9%) in RG1, 20% (19%-23%) in RG2, 33% (29%-37%) in RG3, 43% (40%-46%) in RG4, 63% (53%-74%) in RG5, and 72% (59%-85%) in RG6. The 5-year overall survival was highest at 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]:85%-97%) in RG1, followed by 67% (65%-69%) in RG2, 51% (46%-55%) in RG3, 40% (37%-43%) in RG4, 21% (12%-30%) in RG5, and 4% (0%-9%) in RG6 (all P < .01). This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of data from a large registry to develop risk-score categories for major transplantation outcomes. Validation of this cGVHD risk score is needed in a different population to ensure its broad applicability.
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Long-term survival and late deaths after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative but is associated with life-threatening complications. Most deaths occur within the first 2 years after transplantation. In this report, we examine long-term survival in 2-year survivors in the largest cohort ever studied.
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Impact of immune modulation with anti-T-cell antibodies on the outcome of reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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The success of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantation is largely dependent on alloimmune effects. It is critical to determine whether immune modulation with anti-T-cell antibody infusion abrogates the therapeutic benefits of transplantation. We examined 1676 adults undergoing RIC transplantation for hematologic malignancies. All patients received alkylating agent plus fludarabine; 792 received allografts from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling, 884 from a 7 or 8 of 8 HLA-matched unrelated donor. Using Cox regression, outcomes after in vivo T-cell depletion (n = 584 antithymocyte globulin [ATG]; n = 213 alemtuzumab) were compared with T cell- replete (n = 879) transplantation. Grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD was lower with alemtuzumab compared with ATG or T cell- replete regimens (19% vs 38% vs 40%, P < .0001) and chronic GVHD, lower with alemtuzumab, and ATG regimens compared with T-replete approaches (24% vs 40% vs 52%, P < .0001). However, relapse was more frequent with alemtuzumab and ATG compared with T cell-replete regimens (49%, 51%, and 38%, respectively, P < .001). Disease-free survival was lower with alemtuzumab and ATG compared with T cell-replete regimens (30%, 25%, and 39%, respectively, P < .001). Corresponding probabilities of overall survival were 50%, 38%, and 46% (P = .008). These data suggest adopting a cautious approach to routine use of in vivo T-cell depletion with RIC regimens.
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Trends of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the Eastern Mediterranean region, 1984-2007.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) activity was surveyed in the 9 countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean region that reported transplantation activity. Between the years of 1984 and 2007, 7933 transplantations were performed. The number of HSCTs per year has continued to increase, with a plateau in allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) between 2005 and 2007. Overall, a greater proportion of transplantations were allo-HSCT (n = 5761, 77%) compared with autologous HSCT (ASCT) (n = 2172, 23%). Of 5761 allo-HSCT, acute leukemia constituted the main indication (n = 2124, 37%). There was a significant proportion of allo-HSCT for bone marrow failures (n = 1001, 17%) and hemoglobinopathies (n = 885, 15%). The rate of unrelated donor transplantations remained low, with only 2 matched unrelated donor allo-HSCTs reported. One hundred umbilical cord blood transplantations were reported (0.017% of allo-HSCT). Peripheral blood stem cells were the main source of graft in allo-HSCT, and peripheral blood stem cells increasingly constitute the main source of hematopoietic stem cells overall. Reduced-intensity conditioning was utilized in 5.7% of allografts over the surveyed period. ASCT numbers continue to increase. There has been a shift in the indication for ASCT from acute leukemia to lymphoproliferative disorders (45%), followed by myeloma (26%). The survey reflects transplantation activity according to the unique health settings of this region. Notable differences in transplantation practices as reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation over recent years are highlighted.
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Review of stem-cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes in older patients in the context of the Decision Memo for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome emanating from the Centers for Medicare and Medicai
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem-cell disorders that result in varying degrees of cytopenia and risk of transformation into acute leukemia. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) is the only known cure for this disease. The treatment is routinely used for younger patients, but only a minority of patients older than the age of 60 undergo this procedure. The overall MDS incidence is 3.3 per 100,000, but the incidence in patients older than age 70 is between 15 and 50 per 100,000. The median age at presentation is 76 years. Medicare-age patients 65 or older represent 80% of the total population receiving an MDS diagnosis. In the United States, one of the obstacles to SCT for older patients with MDS has been lack of third party reimbursement. On August 4, 2010, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services released their Decision Memo for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Myelodysplastic Syndrome. This memo states: "Allogeneic HSCT for MDS is covered by Medicare only for beneficiaries with MDS participating in an approved clinical study that meets the criteria below…. " In this review, we will summarize what is known regarding the role of allogeneic SCT in older patients as well as other elements that should be included within clinical trials that can provide the evidence necessary to demonstrate that allogeneic SCT should be a covered benefit for Medicare beneficiaries.
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Secondary solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation using busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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Risks of secondary solid cancers among allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients who receive conditioning without total body irradiation are not well known. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for solid cancers after HCT using high-dose busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning in 4318 recipients of first allogeneic HCT for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (N = 1742) and chronic myeloid leukemia in first chronic phase (N = 2576). Our cohort represented 22 041 person-years at risk. Sixty-six solid cancers were reported at a median of 6 years after HCT. The cumulative-incidence of solid cancers at 5 and 10 years after HCT was 0.6% and 1.2% among acute myeloid leukemia and 0.9% and 2.4% among chronic myeloid leukemia patients. In comparison to general population incidence rates, HCT recipients had 1.4× higher than expected rate of invasive solid cancers (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.79, P = .01). Significantly elevated risks were observed for tumors of the oral cavity, esophagus, lung, soft tissue, and brain. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was an independent risk factor for all solid cancers, and especially cancers of the oral cavity. Recipients of allogeneic HCT using busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning are at risk for developing solid cancers. Their incidence continues to increase with time, and lifelong cancer surveillance is warranted in this population.
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Autologous versus reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with chemosensitive follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma beyond first complete response or first partial response.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) typically experience an indolent course; however, the disease is rarely curable with conventional chemotherapy. Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can extend progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), but relapse is the primary cause of failure. Allogeneic HCT confers lower relapse rates due to a graft-versus-lymphoma effect. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allows the performance of allogeneic HCT with lower toxicity. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducted a prospective multicenter trial comparing these two strategies in patients with relapsed, chemotherapy-sensitive FL. Patients were assigned to a treatment arm based on the availability of an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD). Those with an MSD underwent allogeneic HCT (n = 8) with the FCR preparative regimen (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide [Cy], rituximab [RTX]) and received tacrolimus and methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Those without an MSD (n = 22) underwent mobilization with Cy, RTX, and filgrastim and received a conditioning regimen of either CBV (Cy, carmustine, Etoposide [VP16]) or total body irradiation with Cy and VP16. Patients undergoing autologous HCT received 4 doses of weekly maintenance RTX (375 mg/m²) starting on day +42 post-HCT. Sixteen patients were in complete remission, 10 patients were in partial remission, and 1 patient had stable disease after salvage therapy and before HCT. Median follow-up was 36 months (range, 1-51 months). OS was 73% in autologous HCT versus 100% in allogeneic HCT, and PFS was 63% in autologous HCT versus 86% in allogeneic HCT. No patient had grade II-IV acute GVHD; two patients developed extensive chronic GVHD. Three autologous recipients died from nonrelapse causes. This trial closed early because of slow accrual. We show that the FCR regimen is well tolerated, and that both allogeneic and autologous HCT result in promising 3-year OS and PFS in patients with relapsed FL.
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Optimization of therapy for severe aplastic anemia based on clinical, biologic, and treatment response parameters: conclusions of an international working group on severe aplastic anemia convened by the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network,
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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Although recent advances in therapy offer the promise for improving survival in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA), the small size of the patient population, lack of a mechanism in North America for longitudinal follow-up of patients, and inadequate cooperation among hematologists, scientists, and transplant physicians remain obstacles to conducting large studies that would advance the field. To address this issue, the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) convened a group of international experts in March 2010 to define the most important questions in the basic science, immunosuppressive therapy (IST), and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) of SAA and propose initiatives to facilitate clinical and biologic research. Key conclusions of the working group were: (1) new patients should obtain accurate, expert diagnosis and early identification of biologic risk; (2) a population-based SAA outcomes registry should be established in North America to collect data on patients longitudinally from diagnosis through and after treatment; (3) a repository of biologic samples linked to the clinical data in the outcomes registry should be developed; (4) innovative approaches to unrelated donor BMT that decrease graft-versus-host disease are needed; and (5) alternative donor transplantation approaches for patients lacking HLA-matched unrelated donors must be improved. A partnership of BMT, IST, and basic science researchers will develop initiatives and partner with advocacy and funding organizations to address these challenges. Collaboration with similar study groups in Europe and Asia will be pursued.
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Alternative donor transplantation for aplastic anemia.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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Patients with severe aplastic anemia who do not have a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling generally receive immunosuppressive therapy as a first-line therapy, with allogeneic transplantation being reserved for those who do not have an adequate sustained response. Barriers to the use of unrelated-donor transplantation for aplastic anemia include identifying a suitable alternative donor, and risks of graft failure, regimen-related toxicity, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Despite the more than 14 million adults registered with donor registries worldwide, only approximately 50% of patients of Caucasian descent will have an available and fully HLA-matched unrelated adult donor; the rate is substantially lower for non-Caucasians. While umbilical cord blood allows transplantation with greater donor-recipient HLA disparity (without excessive risk of GVHD), risks of graft failure and transplant-related mortality are higher than after transplantation of adult donor grafts. Among patients with a suitable donor, recent changes in pre-transplant conditioning regimens have lowered the risks of organ toxicity and graft failure. Although advances in donor HLA typing and selection practices and improved GVHD prophylaxis have lowered the risk, GVHD remains an important obstacle to long-term symptom-free survival. Despite these limitations, unrelated-donor transplantation offers the best chance of long-term survival for many patients in whom current immunosuppression strategies are not effective. Wider applicability of alternative-donor transplantation for aplastic anemia will require better approaches to prevent graft failure and GVHD and to expand the pool of unrelated-donor grafts. This includes exploring strategies to effectively use alternative grafts such as umbilical cord blood.
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Access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: effect of race and sex.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) to treat leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma (MM) differs by race and sex.
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Effect of graft source on unrelated donor haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in adults with acute leukaemia: a retrospective analysis.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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Umbilical-cord blood (UCB) is increasingly considered as an alternative to peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) or bone marrow, especially when an HLA-matched adult unrelated donor is not available. We aimed to determine the optimal role of UCB grafts in transplantation for adults with acute leukaemia, and to establish whether current graft-selection practices are appropriate.
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a global perspective.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) requires significant infrastructure. Little is known about HSCT use and the factors associated with it on a global level.
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Factors associated with self-reported physical and mental health after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an intensive treatment for hematologic malignancies that has the potential to cure disease or prolong life, but also to impair quality of life for survivors. Earlier studies have suggested that various factors are associated with physical and mental health after HCT. In this study, we evaluated demographic and clinical factors before and after HCT and selected psychosocial factors after HCT, exploring their association with self-reported physical and mental health. We studied a cohort of 662 survivors at a median of 6.6 years after HCT. Pre-HCT demographic and clinical factors accounted for only a small amount of the variance in physical and mental health post-HCT (3% and 1%, respectively). Adding post-HCT clinical variables to the pre-HCT factors accounted for 32% and 7% of physical and mental outcomes, respectively. When both clinical and psychosocial factors were considered, better physical health post-HCT was associated with younger age, race other than white, higher current family income, currently working or being a student, less severe transplantation experience (ie, not experiencing graft-versus-host disease), fewer current comorbidities, higher Karnofsky status, less social constraint, less social support, and less trait anxiety. This multivariate model accounted for 36% of the variance in physical health, with the psychosocial variables contributing very little. When both clinical and psychosocial factors were considered, better mental health after HCT was associated with more severe transplantation experience, less social constraint, greater spiritual well being, and less trait anxiety. This multivariate model accounted for 56% of the variance in mental health, with the psychosocial factors accounting for most of the variance. These data suggest that clinical factors are explanatory for much of the post-HCT physical health reported by HCT survivors, but very little of self-perceived mental health. These observations provide insight into the identification of factors that can allow recognition of at-risk patients, as well as factors amenable to intervention.
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Relapse and late mortality in 5-year survivors of myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia in first chronic phase.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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PURPOSE Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but its long-term outcomes are not well described. We studied the long-term outcomes of CML patients in first chronic phase who receive an allogeneic HCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS Our study included 2,444 patients who received myeloablative HCT for CML in first chronic phase between 1978 and 1998 and survived in continuous complete remission for at least 5 years (median follow-up, 11 years; range, 5 to 25 years). Donor sources were human leukocyte antigen-matched siblings in 1,692 patients, unrelated donors in 639 patients, and other related donors in 113 patients. RESULTS Overall survival rates at 15 years were 88% (95% CI, 86% to 90%) for sibling HCT and 87% (95% CI, 83% to 90%) for unrelated donor HCT. Corresponding cumulative incidences of relapse were 8% (95% CI, 7% to 10%) and 2% (95% CI, 1% to 4%), respectively. The latest relapse was reported 18 years post-HCT. In multivariable analyses, history of chronic graft-versus-host disease increased risks of late overall mortality and nonrelapse mortality but reduced risks of relapse. In comparison with age-, race-, and sex-adjusted normal populations, the mortality of HCT recipients was significantly higher until 14 years post-HCT; thereafter, mortality rates were similar to those of the general population (relative mortality ratio at 15 years, 2.3; 95% CI, 0 to 4.9). CONCLUSION Recipients of allogeneic HCT for CML in first chronic phase who remain in remission for at least 5 years have favorable subsequent long-term survival, and their mortality rates eventually approach those of the general population.
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High-resolution typing for unrelated donor transplantation: how far do we go?
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
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For best results with unrelated donor transplantation of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients, high-resolution typing should be completed for human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) A, B, C and DR. In the absence of an HLA-identical sibling, an unrelated adult donor, fully matched or with a single mismatch at these loci, should be used. If such a donor is not available in a timely manner, cord blood mismatched at one or two loci may be used. Data also suggest that peripheral blood transplantation may be more permissive of HLA mismatching than bone marrow transplants. Transplant decisions should be based on several factors, including availability of matched donors, as well as patient age, performance status and disease stage.
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Chronic myeloid leukemia: an update of concepts and management recommendations of European LeukemiaNet.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2009
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To review and update the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations for the management of chronic myeloid leukemia with imatinib and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including monitoring, response definition, and first- and second-line therapy.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for prolymphocytic leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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The poor prognosis of patients with prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) has led some clinicians to recommend allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). However, the data to support this approach is limited to case-reports and small case series. We reviewed the database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to determine outcomes after allotransplant for patients with PLL. We identified 47 patients with a median age of 54 years (range: 30-75 years). With a median follow-up of 13 months, progression-free survival (PFS) was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20%-47%) at 1 year. The most common cause of death was relapse or progression in 49%. The cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 1-year posttransplant was 28%. The small patient population prohibited prognostic factor analysis, but these data support consideration of allotransplant for PLL. Further study of a larger population of patients is needed to determine which patients are more likely to benefit.
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Impending challenges in the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation physician workforce.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2009
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With increasing use of high dose chemotherapy with autologous and allogeneic transplants the need for the transplant physician workforce requires reassessment. The types of transplants and patients are also shifting toward transplants being done in patients with more comorbidities and more commonly these types of patients require more work effort per patient from the transplant physician. Additionally, HSCT survivors often require ongoing care at the transplant center due to the inability of the primary care workforce or the hematology/oncology workforce to absorb caring for post complex post transplant patients. The adult transplant workforce has had very few physicians join under age 40. Nearly 50% of adult transplant physicians are over age 50 whereas only 28% of pediatric transplant physicians are over age 50. By 2020, it is projected that we will need 1,264 new adult transplant physicians and 94 pediatric transplant physicians. Training time for a physician is approximately 15 years. The capping of both medical school slots and residency slots since the early 80s is now having a very big impact on supply, but other factors are also affecting supplies such as generational differences, lifestyle expectations, and the change of the medical workforce from being mostly men. Workforce shortages are being reported for many specialities. Workforce problems are also present for nurses, pharmacists and medical technologists. So increasing use of general internists and mid-level providers may not exist as a solution. Transplant physicians must be actively engaged in the medical education process to show young medical students and residents who are not committed to another sub specialty career the excitement and challenges of a career in bone marrow transplantation, so that our field will have providers for the future.
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Stem cell donation--what advice can be given to the donor?
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is widely used to treat patients with a range of haematological and non-haematological disorders. Both bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell collection are associated with morbidity and, very rarely, mortality. We investigated the information that exists to adequately inform donors about the relative merits of each procedure. We carried out a systematic review analysing data from six prospective randomised controlled trials of related donors and discuss here the merits and drawbacks of this approach. Registry data mostly describes patient outcome but stem cell donor registries collect and report information on unrelated donors which could easily be extended to related donors. Further well-designed, randomised studies are required.
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Donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics as risk factors after unrelated donor PBSC transplantation: beneficial effects of higher CD34+ cell dose.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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We report outcomes of 932 recipients of unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell hematopoietic cell transplantation (URD-PBSC HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome enrolled on a prospective National Marrow Donor Program trial from 1999 through 2003. Preparative regimens included myeloablative (MA; N = 611), reduced-intensity (RI; N = 160), and nonmyeloablative (NMA; N = 161). For MA recipients, CD34(+) counts greater than 3.8 x 10(6)/kg improved neutrophil and platelet engraftment, whereas improved overall survival (OS) and reduced transplant-related mortality (TRM) were seen for all preparative regimens when CD34(+) cell doses exceeded 4.5 x 10(6)/kg. Higher infused doses of CD34(+) cell dose did not result in increased rates of either acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Three-year OS and disease-free survival (DFS) of recipients of MA, RI, and NMA approaches were similar (33%, 35%, and 32% OS; 33%, 30%, and 29% DFS, respectively). In summary, recipients of URD-PBSC HCT receiving preparative regimens differing in intensity experienced similar survival. Higher CD34(+) cell doses resulted in more rapid engraftment, less TRM, and better 3-year OS (39% versus 25%, MA, P = .004; 38% versus 21% RI/NMA, P = .004) but did not increase the risk of GVHD. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00785525.
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Outcome of transplantation for myelofibrosis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative disorder incurable with conventional strategies. Several small series have reported long-term disease-free survival (DSF) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we analyze the outcomes of 289 patients receiving allogeneic transplantation for primary myelofibrosis between 1989 and 2002, from the database of the Center for International Bone Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The median age was 47 years (range: 18-73 years). Donors were HLA identical siblings in 162 patients, unrelated individuals in 101 patients, and HLA nonidentical family members in 26 patients. Patients were treated with a variety of conditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimens. Splenectomy was performed in 65 patients prior to transplantation. The 100-day treatment-related mortality was 18% for HLA identical sibling transplants, 35% for unrelated transplants, and 19% for transplants from alternative related donors. Corresponding 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 37%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. DFS rates were 33%, 27%, and 22%, respectively. DFS for patients receiving reduced-intensity transplants was comparable: 39% for HLA identical sibling donors and 17% for unrelated donors at 3 years. In this large retrospective series, allogeneic transplantation for myelofibrosis resulted in long-term relapse-free survival (RFS) in about one-third of patients.
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Defining the intensity of conditioning regimens: working definitions.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Defining conditioning regimen intensity has become a critical issue for the hemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) community. In the present report we propose to define conditioning regimens in 3 categories: (1) myeloablative (MA) conditioning, (2) reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), and (3) nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning. Assignment to these categories is based on the duration of cytopenia and on the requirement for stem cell (SC) support: MA regimens cause irreversible cytopenia and SC support is mandatory. NMA regimens cause minimal cytopenia, and can be given also without SC support. RIC regimens do not fit criteria for MA or NMA regimens: they cause cytopenia of variable duration, and should be given with stem cell support, although cytopenia may not be irreversible. This report also assigns commonly used regimens to one of these categories, based upon the agents, dose, or combinations. Standardized classification of conditioning regimen intensities will allow comparison across studies and interpretation of study results.
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Etanercept, mycophenolate, denileukin, or pentostatin plus corticosteroids for acute graft-versus-host disease: a randomized phase 2 trial from the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the primary limitation of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Corticosteroids remain the standard initial therapy, yet only 25% to 41% of patients completely respond. This randomized, 4-arm, phase 2 trial was designed to identify the most promising agent(s) for initial therapy for aGVHD. Patients were randomized to receive methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg per day plus etanercept, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), denileukin diftitox (denileukin), or pentostatin. Patients (n = 180) were randomized; their median age was 50 years (range, 7.5-70 years). Myeloablative conditioning represented 66% of transplants. Grafts were peripheral blood (61%), bone marrow (25%), or umbilical cord blood (14%); 53% were from unrelated donors. Patients who received MMF for prophylaxis (24%) were randomized to a non-MMF arm. At randomization, aGVHD was grade I to II (68%), III to IV (32%), and (53%) had visceral organ involvement. Day 28 complete response rates were etanercept 26%, MMF 60%, denileukin 53%, and pentostatin 38%. Corresponding 9-month overall survival was 47%, 64%, 49%, and 47%, respectively. Cumulative incidences of severe infections were as follows: etanercept 48%, MMF 44%, denileukin 62%, and pentostatin 57%. Efficacy and toxicity data suggest the use of MMF plus corticosteroids is the most promising regimen to compare against corticosteroids alone in a definitive phase 3 trial. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00224874.
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The graft-versus-leukemia effect using matched unrelated donors is not superior to HLA-identical siblings for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Do some patients benefit from an unrelated donor (URD) transplant because of a stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect? We analyzed 4099 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) undergoing a myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from an URD (8/8 human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-matched, n=941) or HLA-identical sibling donor (n=3158) between 1995 and 2004 reported to the CIBMTR. In the Cox regression model, acute and chronic GVHD were added as time-dependent variables. In multivariate analysis, URD transplant recipients had a higher risk for transplantation-related mortality (TRM; relative risk [RR], 2.76; P< .001) and relapse (RR, 1.50; P< .002) in patients with AML, but not ALL or CML. Chronic GVHD was associated with a lower relapse risk in all diagnoses. Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was decreased in patients with AML without acute GVHD receiving a URD transplant (RR, 2.02; P< .001) but was comparable to those receiving HLA-identical sibling transplants in patients with ALL and CML. In patients without GVHD, multivariate analysis showed similar risk of relapse but decreased LFS for URD transplants for all 3 diagnoses. In conclusion, risk of relapse was the same (ALL, CML) or worse (AML) in URD transplant recipients compared with HLA-identical sibling transplant recipients, suggesting a similar GVL effect.
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Sibling versus unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia: refined HLA matching reveals more graft-versus-host disease but not less relapse.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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Unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can eradicate chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It has been postulated that greater donor-recipient histoincompatibility can augment the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. We previously reported similar, but not equivalent, outcomes of URD versus sibling donor HCT for CML using an older, less precise classification of HLA matching. Here, we used our recently refined HLA-matching classification, which is suitable for interpretation when complete allele-level typing is unavailable, to reanalyze outcomes of previous HCT for CML. We found that using our new matching criteria identifies substantially more frequent mismatching than older, less precise "6 of 6 antigen-matched" URD-HCT. Under the new criteria, only 37% of those previously deemed "HLA- matched" were HLA well matched, and 44% were partially matched. Using our refined matching criteria confirms the greater risk of graft failure in partially matched or mismatched URD-recipient pairs compared with either sibling or well-matched URD-recipient pairs. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) are significantly more frequent with all levels of recategorized URD HLA matching. Importantly, overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) remain significantly worse after URD-HCT at any matching level. No augmented GVL effect accompanied URD HLA mismatch. Compared with sibling donor transplants, we observed only marginally increased (not statistically significant) risks of relapse in well-matched, partially matched, and mismatched URD-HCT. These data confirm the applicability of revised HLA-matching scheme in analyzing retrospective data sets when fully informative, allele-level typing is unavailable. In this analysis, greater histoincompatibility can augment GVHD, but does not improve protection against relapse; thus the best donor remains the most closely matched donor.
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Prior rituximab correlates with less acute graft-versus-host disease and better survival in B-cell lymphoma patients who received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Prior therapy with rituximab might attenuate disparate histocompatibility antigen presentation by B cells, thus decreased the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and improved survival. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the outcomes of 435 B-cell lymphoma patients who received allogeneic transplantation from 1999 to 2004 in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database: 179 subjects who received rituximab within 6 months prior to transplantation (RTX cohort) and 256 subjects who did not receive RTX within 6 months prior to transplantation (No-RTX cohort). The RTX cohort had a significantly lower incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM) [relative risk (RR) = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-1.0; P = 0.05], lower acute grade II-IV (RR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.97; P = 0.03) and III-IV GVHD (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.91; P = 0.02). There was no difference in the risk of chronic GVHD, disease progression or relapse. Progression-free survival (PFS) (RR = 0.68; 95% CI 0.50-0.92; P = 0.01) and overall survival (OS) (RR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46-0.86; P = 0.004) were significantly better in the RTX cohort. Prior RTX therapy correlated with less acute GVHD, similar chronic GVHD, less TRM, better PFS and OS.
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Risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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We evaluated 26 901 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) at 271 centers worldwide to define patterns of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). PTLDs developed in 127 recipients, with 105 (83%) cases occurring within 1 year after transplantation. In multivariate analyses, we confirmed that PTLD risks were strongly associated (P < .001) with T-cell depletion of the donor marrow, antithymocyte globulin (ATG) use, and unrelated or HLA-mismatched grafts (URD/HLA mismatch). Significant associations were also confirmed for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The increased risk associated with URD/HLA-mismatched donors (RR = 3.8) was limited to patients with T-cell depletion or ATG use (P = .004). New findings were elevated risks for age 50 years or older at transplantation (RR = 5.1; P < .001) and second transplantation (RR = 3.5; P < .001). Lower risks were found for T-cell depletion methods that remove both T and B cells (alemtuzumab and elutriation, RR = 3.1; P = .025) compared with other methods (RR = 9.4; P = .005 for difference). The cumulative incidence of PTLDs was low (0.2%) among 21 686 patients with no major risk factors, but increased to 1.1%, 3.6%, and 8.1% with 1, 2, and more than 3 major risk factors, respectively. Our findings identify subgroups of patients who underwent allogeneic HCT at elevated risk of PTLDs for whom prospective monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus activation and early treatment intervention may be particularly beneficial.
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Solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Transplant recipients have been reported to have an increased risk of solid cancers but most studies are small and have limited ability to evaluate the interaction of host, disease, and treatment-related factors. In the largest study to date to evaluate risk factors for solid cancers, we studied a multi-institutional cohort of 28 874 allogeneic transplant recipients with 189 solid malignancies. Overall, patients developed new solid cancers at twice the rate expected based on general population rates (observed-to-expected ratio 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.8-2.5), with the risk increasing over time (P trend < .001); the risk reached 3-fold among patients followed for 15 years or more after transplantation. New findings showed that the risk of developing a non-squamous cell carcinoma (non-SCC) following conditioning radiation was highly dependent on age at exposure. Among patients irradiated at ages under 30 years, the relative risk of non-SCC was 9 times that of nonirradiated patients, while the comparable risk for older patients was 1.1 (P interaction < .01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease and male sex were the main determinants for risk of SCC. These data indicate that allogeneic transplant survivors, particularly those irradiated at young ages, face increased risks of solid cancers, supporting strategies to promote lifelong surveillance among these patients.
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HLA-identical sibling compared with 8/8 matched and mismatched unrelated donor bone marrow transplant for chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells from an unrelated donor (URD) is an option for many patients who do not have an HLA-identical sibling donor (MSD). Current criteria for the selection of URDs include consideration for HLA alleles determined by high resolution typing methods, with preference for allele-matched donors. However, the utility and outcome associated with transplants from URDs compared with those from MSDs remains undefined.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning regimen workshop: defining the dose spectrum. Report of a workshop convened by the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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During the 2006 BMT Tandem Meetings, a workshop was convened by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to discuss conditioning regimen intensity and define boundaries of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The goal of the workshop was to determine the acceptance of available RIC definitions in the transplant community. Participants were surveyed regarding their opinions on specific statements on conditioning regimen intensity. Questions covered the "Champlin criteria," as well as operational definitions used in registry studies, exemplified in clinical vignettes. A total of 56 participants, including transplantation physicians, transplant center directors, and transplantation nurses, with a median of 12 years of experience in HCT, answered the survey. Of these, 67% agreed that a RIC regimen should cause reversible myelosuppression when administered without stem cell support, result in low nonhematologic toxicity, and, after transplantation, result in mixed donor-recipient chimerism at the time of first assessment in most patients. Likewise, the majority (71%) agreed or strongly agreed that regimens including < 500 cGy of total body irradiation as a single fraction or 800 cGy in fractionated doses, busulfan dose < 9 mg/kg, melphalan dose <140 mg/m(2), or thiotepa dose < 10 mg/kg should be considered RIC regimens. However, only 32% agreed or strongly agreed that the combination of carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) should be considered a RIC regimen. These results demonstrate that although HCT professionals have not reached a consensus on what constitutes a RIC regimen, most accept currently used criteria and operational definitions. These results support the continued use of current criteria for RIC regimens until a consensus statement can be developed.
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Adverse events among 2408 unrelated donors of peripheral blood stem cells: results of a prospective trial from the National Marrow Donor Program.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Limited data are available describing donor adverse events (AEs) associated with filgrastim mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections in unrelated volunteers. We report results in 2408 unrelated PBSC donors prospectively evaluated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) between 1999 and 2004. Female donors had higher rates of AEs, requiring central line placement more often (17% vs 4%, P< .001), experiencing more apheresis-related AEs (20% vs 7%, P< .001), more bone pain (odds ratio [OR]=1.49), and higher rates of grades II-IV and III-IV CALGB AEs (OR=2.22 and 2.32). Obese donors experienced more bone pain (obese vs normal, OR=1.73) and heavy donors had higher rates of CALGB toxicities (>95 kg vs <70 kg, OR=1.49). Six percent of donors experienced grade III-IV CALGB toxicities and 0.6% experienced toxicities that were considered serious and unexpected. Complete recovery is universal, however, and no late AEs attributable to donation have been identified. In conclusion, PBSC collection in unrelated donors is generally safe, but nearly all donors will experience bone pain, 1 in 4 will have significant headache, nausea, or citrate toxicity, and a small percentage will experience serious short-term adverse events. In addition, women and larger donors are at higher risk for donation-related AEs.
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HLA-A disparities illustrate challenges for ranking the impact of HLA mismatches on bone marrow transplant outcomes in the United States.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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HLA disparity between hematopoietic stem cell donors and recipients is one of the most important factors influencing transplant outcomes, but there are no well-accepted guidelines to aid in selecting the optimal donor among several HLA mismatched donors. In this report, HLA-A is used as a model to illustrate factors that are barriers to delineating the relationship between specific HLA mismatches and transplant outcomes in the United States. Patients in this investigation received transplants for hematologic malignancies that were facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) between 1990 and 2002 (n = 4226). High-resolution HLA typing was performed for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DPA1, and -DPB1. HLA-A mismatches were observed in 745 donor-recipient pairs and 62% of these pairs also had disparities at HLA-B, -C, and/or -DRB1. The HLA-A mismatches involved 190 different combinations of HLA-A alleles and 51% of these were observed in only 1 pair. Addition of a single HLA-A disparity when HLA-B, -C, and -DRB1 were matched (n = 282) was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32, confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.63). When HLA-B, -C, and -DRB1 were matched, the most frequent HLA-A mismatches were HLA-A*0201:0205 (n = 28), HLA-A *0301:0302 (n = 15), HLA-A *0201:0206 (n = 15), HLA-A *0201:6801 (n = 12), HLA-A*0101:1101 (n = 11), and HLA-A*0101:0201 (n = 10). There were no statistically significant relationships between any of these disparities and transplant outcomes (engraftment, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease [aGVHD, cGVHD] relapse, treatment-related mortality [TRM], or overall survival [OS]) when adjustments for multiple comparisons were considered. Achieving 80% power to detect an effect of any 1 of these 6 HLA-A disparities on survival is estimated to require a total transplant population of 11,000 to more than 1 million U.S. donor-recipient pairs depending upon the HLA disparity. Thus, alternative approaches are required to develop a clinically relevant ranking system for specific HLA disparities in the United States.
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Rapid transport and infusion of hematopoietic cells is associated with improved outcome after myeloablative therapy and unrelated donor transplant.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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We evaluated effects of graft transport time on outcomes after transplantation of 938 unrelated donor bone marrow (BM) or 507 peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) in patients with acute or chronic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). BM grafts were collected at 107 centers and PBPC, 89 centers. Median time from end of collection to infusion was 14 hours for BM and 15 hours for PBPC. Platelet recovery was less likely in BM recipients when the interval from end of collection to receipt at transplant center was >or=20 hours (odds ratio 0.47, P = .010) and when the interval from receipt to infusion was >or=6 hours (odds ratio 0.57, P = .001). Mortality rates were higher in recipients of HLA-matched BM when the interval from end of collection to receipt at transplant center was >or=20 hours (relative risk 2.67, P < .001) after adjustment for other significant prognostic factors. Mortality after HLA-mismatched BM transplants was not associated with transport time. Transport times had no demonstrable effect on outcomes after PBPC transplants. These data support a general review of current transport procedures, especially for BM grafts requiring longer transport time and every effort made to minimize time from collection to infusion.
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Cord-blood engraftment with ex vivo mesenchymal-cell coculture.
N. Engl. J. Med.
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Poor engraftment due to low cell doses restricts the usefulness of umbilical-cord-blood transplantation. We hypothesized that engraftment would be improved by transplanting cord blood that was expanded ex vivo with mesenchymal stromal cells.
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Does matched unrelated donor transplantation have the same outcome as matched sibling transplantation in unselected patients?
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
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Outcome differences by donor type for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation vary based on disease and recipient age. The following paper summarizes analyses of transplant outcome among adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who received transplants from HLA-identical siblings, fully (8/8) matched unrelated donors (MUD), or mismatched (7/8) unrelated donors. The paper also reviews transplantation outcomes for children with leukemia who had genotypically matched sibling donors, mismatched (7/8) or phenotypically matched related donors or matched (8/8) unrelated donors. Morbidity is higher after unrelated donor vs HLA-matched sibling transplants due to higher rates of acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). However, survival is similar or within 10%-15% with all studies donor type, with disease-specific differences probably reflecting differences in underlying population risk for treatment-related mortality.
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Peripheral-blood stem cells versus bone marrow from unrelated donors.
N. Engl. J. Med.
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Randomized trials have shown that the transplantation of filgrastim-mobilized peripheral-blood stem cells from HLA-identical siblings accelerates engraftment but increases the risks of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), as compared with the transplantation of bone marrow. Some studies have also shown that peripheral-blood stem cells are associated with a decreased rate of relapse and improved survival among recipients with high-risk leukemia.
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Comparative outcomes of donor graft CD34+ selection and immune suppressive therapy as graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission undergoing HLA-matched sibling allogeneic hematopoietic cell transpl
J. Clin. Oncol.
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T-cell depletion (TCD) reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, concerns about relapse, graft rejection, and variability in technique have limited the widespread application of this approach.
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MHC-resident variation affects risks after unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Sci Transl Med
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Blood malignancies can be cured with hematopoietic cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated donors; however, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) affects up to 80% of patients and contributes to increased mortality. To test the hypothesis that undetected patient-donor differences for non-HLA genetic variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) could confer risks after HLA-matched transplantation, we conducted a discovery-validation study of 4205 transplants for 1120 MHC region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two SNPs were identified as markers for disease-free survival and acute GVHD. Among patients with two or more HLA-matched unrelated donors identified on their search, SNP genotyping of patients and their potential donors demonstrated that most patients have a choice of SNP-matched donors. In conclusion, the success of HLA-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation depends on non-HLA MHC region genetic variation. Prospective SNP screening and matching provides an approach for lowering risks to patients.
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Effect of HLA-matching recipients to donor noninherited maternal antigens on outcomes after mismatched umbilical cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancy.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Transplantation-related mortality (TRM) is high after HLA-mismatched umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation (UCBT). In utero, exposure to noninherited maternal antigen (NIMA) is recognized by the fetus, which induces T regulator cells to that haplotype. It is plausible that UCBTs in which recipients are matched to donor NIMAs may alleviate some of the excess mortality associated with this treatment. To explore this concept, we used marginal matched-pair Cox regression analysis to compare outcomes in 48 NIMA-matched UCBTs (ie, the NIMA of the donor UCB unit matched to the patient) and in 116 non-NIMA-matched UCBTs. All patients had a hematologic malignancy and received a single UCB unit. Cases and controls were matched on age, disease, disease status, transplantation-conditioning regimen, HLA match, and infused cell dose. TRM was lower after NIMA-matched UCBTs compared with NIMA-mismatched UCBTs (relative risk, 0.48; P = .05; 18% versus 32% at 5 years posttransplantation). Consequently, overall survival was higher after NIMA-matched UCBT. The 5-year probability of overall survival was 55% after NIMA-matched UCBTs versus 38% after NIMA-mismatched UCBTs (P = .04). When faced with the choice of multiple HLA-mismatched UCB units containing adequate cell doses, selecting an NIMA-matched UCB unit may improve survival after mismatched UCBT.
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