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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Untangling dopamine-adenosine receptor assembly in experimental parkinsonism.
Dis Model Mech
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a dopaminergic-related pathology in which basal ganglia functioning are altered. It has been postulated that a direct receptor-receptor - i.e. dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) - interaction may be finely regulating this brain area. Accordingly, elucidating whether the pathology prompts changes on these structures could grant valuable information for the design of new PD therapies. Here, we first resolved a long-standing question concerning D2R-A2AR assembly in native tissue. Thus, by means of different complementary experimental approaches (i.e. immunoelectron microscopy, proximity ligation assay and TR-FRET), we unambiguously identified native D2R/A2AR oligomers in rat striatum. Subsequently, we determined that under pathological conditions (i.e. in a rat PD model) D2R-A2AR interaction was impaired. Collectively, these results provide definitive evidence for a native D2R/A2AR oligomer alteration in experimental parkinsonism, thus conferring the rationale for appropriate oligomer-based PD treatments.
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SCFA transport in rat duodenum.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Bacterial or ingested food-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are present in the duodenal lumen. Acetate, the most abundant SCFA in the foregut lumen, is absorbed immediately after ingestion, although the mechanism by which this absorption occurs is not fully understood. We investigated the distribution and function of candidate SCFA transporters in rat duodenum. The Na(+)-coupled monocarboxylate transporter-1 (SMCT1) was localized to the brush border, whereas the pH-dependent monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and MCT4 were localized to the duodenocyte basolateral membrane. In Ussing chambered duodenal mucosa, luminal acetate dose-dependently increased short-circuit current (Isc) in the presence of serosal bumetanide and indomethacin by a luminal Na(+)-dependent, ouabain-sensitive mechanism. The Isc response was inhibited dose-dependently by the SMCT1 non-substrate inhibitor ibuprofen, consistent with net electrogenic absorption of acetate via SMCT1. Other SCFAs and lactate also increased Isc. Furthermore, duodenal loop perfusion of acetate increased portal venous acetate concentration, inhibited by co-perfusion of ibuprofen or a MCT inhibitor. Luminal acetate perfusion increased duodenal HCO3- secretion via capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerve activation and cyclooxygenase activity, consistent with absorption-mediated HCO3- secretion. These results suggest that absorption of luminal SCFA via SMCT1 and MCTs increases duodenal HCO3- secretion. In addition to SCFA sensing via free fatty acid receptors, the presence of rapid duodenal SCFA absorption may be important for the suppression of luminal bacterial colonization and implicated in the generation of functional dyspepsia due to bacterial overgrowth.
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Usefulness of MRI of microcalcification lesions to determine the indication for stereotactic mammotome biopsy.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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With the recent rise in mammography (MMG) screenings there has been an increase in the identification of microcalcifications without lump. Therefore, a vacuum-assisted needle biopsy under stereotactic guidance (ST-MTB) is frequently performed for diagnosis. However, ST-MTB is a highly invasive examination. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of utilizing contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate between benign and malignant category 3 (C3) calcifications.
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Coassembly and Coupling of SK2 Channels and mGlu5 Receptors.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors regulate hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron excitability via Ca(2+) wave-dependent activation of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels. Here, we show that mGlu5 receptors and SK2 channels coassemble in heterologous coexpression systems and in rat brain. Further, in cotransfected cells or rat primary hippocampal neurons, mGlu5 receptor stimulation activated apamin-sensitive SK2-mediated K(+) currents. In addition, coexpression of mGlu5 receptors and SK2 channels promoted plasma membrane targeting of both proteins and correlated with increased mGlu5 receptor function that was unexpectedly blocked by apamin. These results demonstrate a reciprocal functional interaction between mGlu5 receptors and SK2 channels that reflects their molecular coassembly.
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Retrograde Signaling for Climbing Fiber Synapse Elimination.
Cerebellum
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Neurons form exuberant synapses with target cells early in development. Then, necessary synapses are selectively strengthened whereas unnecessary connections are weakened and eventually eliminated during postnatal development. This process is known as synapse elimination and is a crucial step for shaping immature neural circuits into functionally mature versions. Accumulating evidence suggests that retrograde signaling from postsynaptic cells regulates synapse elimination, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that semaphorin3A (Sema3A) and semaphorin7A (Sema7A) mediate retrograde signals for elimination of redundant climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the developing cerebellum, a representative model of synapse elimination in the central nervous system. We picked up candidate retrograde signaling molecules that are expressed in PCs during the period of CF synapse elimination and the receptors of these candidate molecules that are present in CFs. We then assessed the effects of lentivirus-mediated RNAi-knockdown of these molecules on CF synapse elimination. By this systematic screening, we found that knockdown of Sema3A in PCs or its co-receptor, plexinA4 (PlxnA4), in CFs accelerated CF synapse elimination and decreased CF-mediated synaptic inputs. Conversely, knockdown of Sema7A in PCs or either of the two receptors for Sema7A, plexinC1 (PlxnC1) and integrinB1 (ItgB1), in CFs impaired CF synapse elimination. Importantly, the effect of Sema7A involves signaling by type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1), a canonical pathway in PCs for the final stage of CF synapse elimination. These results demonstrate that specific semaphorins act as retrograde signaling molecules and regulate distinct processes of CF synapse elimination during postnatal cerebellar development.
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Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer in Elderly Patients: A Multicenter Matched Case-Control Study.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The safety of laparoscopic surgery (LAP) in elderly patients with colorectal cancer has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of LAP and open surgery (OP) and estimate the feasibility of LAP in colorectal cancer patients aged ?80 years.
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Regulatory Effect of Interleukin-4 in the Innate Inflammatory Response to Rhodococcus aurantiacus Infection in Mice.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Interleukin (IL)-4 promotes the regression of granulomas during the late phase of Rhodococcus aurantiacus infection. In this study, the contribution of IL-4 to the initial response against this bacterium was investigated using IL-4-deficient mice. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, IL-4-deficient mice displayed remarkably lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-6 secretion in the liver, spleen, and blood at the initial phase of infection, along with improved survival. IL-4-deficient mice also showed diminished IL-10 secretion in the spleen and blood; however, hepatic IL-10 levels were similar to those observed in WT animals, and were concomitant with augmented interferon (IFN)-? production and decreased bacterial burden in the liver at the early infection phase. Histological examination revealed reduced hepatic granuloma formation in infected IL-4-deficient mice. On challenge with heat-killed R. aurantiacus, IL-4-deficient mouse macrophages showed reduced expression of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 at both the gene and protein levels compared with WT mouse cells. These findings indicate that during the initiation of R. aurantiacus-induced inflammation, IL-4 deficiency attenuates cytokine responses in macrophages, which contributes to amelioration in mouse survival and reduction of granulomatous inflammation, and augments a hepatic IFN-? response which transiently accelerates bacterial elimination.
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Uncovering Caffeine's Adenosine A2A Receptor Inverse Agonism in Experimental Parkinsonism.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Caffeine, the most consumed psychoactive substance worldwide, may have beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. The mechanism by which caffeine contributes to its antiparkinsonian effects by acting as either an adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) neutral antagonist or an inverse agonist is unresolved. Here we show that caffeine is an A2AR inverse agonist in cell-based functional studies and in experimental parkinsonism. Thus, we observed that caffeine triggers a distinct mode, opposite to A2AR agonist, of the receptor's activation switch leading to suppression of its spontaneous activity. These inverse agonist-related effects were also determined in the striatum of a mouse model of PD, correlating well with increased caffeine-mediated motor effects. Overall, caffeine A2AR inverse agonism may be behind some of the well-known physiological effects of this substance both in health and disease. This information might have a critical mechanistic impact for PD pharmacotherapeutic design.
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The recurrent case for the Renshaw cell.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Although Renshaw cells (RCs) were discovered over half a century ago, their precise role in recurrent inhibition and ability to modulate motoneuron excitability have yet to be established. Indirect measurements of recurrent inhibition have suggested only a weak modulatory effect but are limited by the lack of observed motoneuron responses to inputs from single RCs. Here we present dual recordings between connected RC-motoneuron pairs, performed on mouse spinal cord. Motoneuron responses demonstrated that Renshaw synapses elicit large inhibitory conductances and show short-term potentiation. Anatomical reconstruction, combined with a novel method of quantal analysis, showed that the strong inhibitory input from RCs results from the large number of synaptic contacts that they make onto individual motoneurons. We used the NEURON simulation environment to construct realistic electrotonic models, which showed that inhibitory conductances from Renshaw inputs exert considerable shunting effects in motoneurons and reduce the frequency of spikes generated by excitatory inputs. This was confirmed experimentally by showing that excitation of a single RC or selective activation of the recurrent inhibitory pathway to generate equivalent inhibitory conductances both suppress motoneuron firing. We conclude that recurrent inhibition is remarkably effective, in that a single action potential from one RC is sufficient to silence a motoneuron. Although our results may differ from previous indirect observations, they underline a need for a reevaluation of the role that RCs perform in one of the first neuronal circuits to be discovered.
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Cellular and subcellular localization of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1 receptors in the pancreas, gallbladder, and stomach of mice.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Information concerning the cellular localization of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1 receptors has been discrepant and remained scanty at ultrastructural levels. The present immunohistochemical study at light and electron microscopic levels revealed the distinct localization of CCK1 receptors in visceral organs. Immunohistochemistry by use of a purified antibody against mouse CCK1 receptor was applied to fixed tissue sections of the pancreas, gallbladder, stomach, and intestine of mice. A silver-intensified immunogold method revealed the subcellular localization under electron microscope. The immunoreactivity for CCK1 receptors was selectively found in the basolateral membrane of pancreatic acinar cells and gastric chief cells but was absent in pancreatic islets and gastric D cells. Another intense expression in the gut was seen in the myenteric nerve plexus of the antro-duodenal region and some populations of c-Kit-expressing pacemaker cells in the duodenal musculature. The gallbladder contained smooth muscle fibers with an intense immunoreactivity of CCK1 receptors on cell surfaces. The restricted localization of CCK1 receptors on the basolateral membrane of pancreatic acinar cells and gastric chief cells, along with their absence in the islets of Langerhans and gastric D cells, provides definitive information concerning the regulatory mechanism by circulating CCK. Especially, the subcellular localization in the acinar cells completes the investigation for the detection of circulating CCK by the basolateral membrane.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in AREG and EREG are prognostic biomarkers in locally advanced gastric cancer patients after surgery with curative intent.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG) are important ligands to the epithelial growth factor receptor, which is involved in the regulation of progression and stemness in gastric cancer (GC). This study investigated whether frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of AREG and EREG are associated with recurrence-free survival and overall survival in patients with locally advanced GC.
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Opposing role of NMDA receptor GluN2B and GluN2D in somatosensory development and maturation.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Development of correct topographical connections between peripheral receptors and central somatosensory stations requires activity-dependent synapse refinement, in which the NMDA type of glutamate receptors plays a key role. Here we compared functional roles of GluN2B (GluR?2 or NR2B) and GluN2D (GluR?4 or NR2D), two major regulatory subunits of neonatal NMDA receptors, in development of whisker-related patterning at trigeminal relay stations. Compared with control littermates, both the appearance of whisker-related patterning and the termination of the critical period, as assessed by unilateral infraorbital nerve transection, were delayed by nearly a day in the somatosensory cortex of GluN2B(+/-) mice but advanced by nearly a day in GluN2D(-/-) mice. Similar temporal shifts were found at subcortical relay stations in the thalamus and brainstem of GluN2B(+/-) and GluN2D(-/-) mice. In comparison, the magnitude of lesion-induced critical period plasticity in the somatosensory cortex, as assessed following row-C whisker removal, was normal in both mutants. Thus, GluN2B and GluN2D play counteractive roles in temporal development and maturation of somatosensory maps without affecting the magnitude of critical period plasticity. To understand the opposing action, we then examined neuronal and synaptic expressions of the two subunits along the trigeminal pathway. At each trigeminal station, GluN2B was predominant at asymmetrical synapses of non-GABAergic neurons, whereas GluN2D was selective to asymmetrical synapses of GABAergic neurons. Together, our findings suggest that GluN2B expressed at glutamatergic synapses on glutamatergic projection neurons facilitates refinement of ascending pathway synapses directly, whereas GluN2D expressed at glutamatergic synapses on GABAergic interneurons delays it indirectly.
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VEGFR1-positive macrophages facilitate liver repair and sinusoidal reconstruction after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Liver repair after acute liver injury is characterized by hepatocyte proliferation, removal of necrotic tissue, and restoration of hepatocellular and hepatic microvascular architecture. Macrophage recruitment is essential for liver tissue repair and recovery from injury; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Signaling through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) is suggested to play a role in macrophage migration and angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of VEGFR1 in liver repair and sinusoidal reconstruction after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). VEGFR1 tyrosine kinase knockout mice (VEGFR1 TK-/- mice) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to hepatic warm I/R, and the processes of liver repair and sinusoidal reconstruction were examined. Compared with WT mice, VEGFR1 TK-/- mice exhibited delayed liver repair after hepatic I/R. VEGFR1-expressing macrophages recruited to the injured liver showed reduced expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF). VEGFR1 TK-/- mice also showed evidence of sustained sinusoidal functional and structural damage, and reduced expression of pro-angiogenic factors. Treatment of VEGFR1 TK-/- mice with EGF attenuated hepatoceullar and sinusoidal injury during hepatic I/R. VEGFR1 TK-/- bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice showed impaired liver repair and sinusoidal reconstruction, and reduced recruitment of VEGFR1-expressing macrophages to the injured liver. VEGFR1-macrophages recruited to the liver during hepatic I/R contribute to liver repair and sinusoidal reconstruction. VEGFR1 activation is a potential therapeutic strategy for promoting liver repair and sinusoidal restoration after acute liver injury.
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Selective innervation of NK1 receptor-lacking lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons by presumed nonpeptidergic A? nociceptors in the rat.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Fine myelinated (A?) nociceptors are responsible for fast, well-localised pain, but relatively little is known about their postsynaptic targets in the spinal cord, and therefore about their roles in the neuronal circuits that process nociceptive information. Here we show that transganglionically transported cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) labels a distinct set of afferents in lamina I that are likely to correspond to A? nociceptors, and that most of these lack neuropeptides. The vast majority of lamina I projection neurons can be retrogradely labelled from the lateral parabrachial area, and these can be divided into 2 major groups based on expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). We show that CTb-labelled afferents form contacts on 43% of the spinoparabrachial lamina I neurons that lack the NK1r, but on a significantly smaller proportion (26%) of those that express the receptor. We also confirm with electron microscopy that these contacts are associated with synapses. Among the spinoparabrachial neurons that received contacts from CTb-labelled axons, contact density was considerably higher on NK1r-lacking cells than on those with the NK1r. By comparing the density of CTb contacts with those from other types of glutamatergic bouton, we estimate that nonpeptidergic A? nociceptors may provide over half of the excitatory synapses on some NK1r-lacking spinoparabrachial cells. These results provide further evidence that synaptic inputs to dorsal horn projection neurons are organised in a specific way. Taken together with previous studies, they suggest that both NK1r(+) and NK1r-lacking lamina I projection neurons are directly innervated by A? nociceptive afferents.
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Identification of EGFR expression status association with metastatic lymph node density (ND) by expression microarray analysis of advanced gastric cancer.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Metastatic lymph node density (ND) has been reproducibly proven to be a prognostic factor in gastric cancer. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this aggressiveness are underexplored. Here, we aimed to identify molecules associated with this unique phenotype. Tumor specimens from patients with stage III gastric cancer with high or low ND (n = 4 for both) were compared at the mRNA level using Affymetrix microarray (harboring 54,675 genes). The expression data were prioritized, and genes that correlated with ND were selected. Ultimately, the EGFR was validated as such a candidate molecule in patients with primary advanced gastric cancer who underwent standard treatment (n = 167). Expression data of the microarray were prioritized based on gene expression ratio and frequency of gene expression. The first priority genes to be selected were genes that are known to be amplified in cancer, which included NKX2.1, CHST9, CTNND2, SLC25A27, FGFR2, EGFR, and PTGER1. Of these genes, the EGFR gene was of particular interest. EGFR expression in primary gastric cancer was examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Student's t-test elucidated a significant difference in EGFR expression between IHC 2+/3+ and IHC 1+ according to ND (P = 0.0035). The Chi-square test also indicated a significant difference between high and low levels of EGFR immunohistochemical staining (IHC2+/3+ and IHC1+, respectively) and ND status (P = 0.0023). According to the least squares method, as ND increased, the risk that EGFR staining levels changed from IHC 1+ to IHC 2+ also increased. In this study, we determined that high EGFR expression may underlie the aggressive mechanism of advanced gastric cancer with high ND.
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A phase 3 non-inferiority study of 5-FU/l-leucovorin/irinotecan (FOLFIRI) versus irinotecan/S-1 (IRIS) as second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer: updated results of the FIRIS study.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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The FIRIS study previously demonstrated non-inferiority of IRIS (irinotecan plus S-1) to FOLFIRI (5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with irinotecan) for progression-free survival as the second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) as the primary endpoint. The overall survival (OS) data were immature at the time of the primary analysis.
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The glutamate receptor GluN2 subunit regulates synaptic trafficking of AMPA receptors in the neonatal mouse brain.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) plays various physiological and pathological roles in neural development, synaptic plasticity and neuronal cell death. It is composed of two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits and, in the neonatal hippocampus, most synaptic NMDARs are GluN2B-containing receptors, which are gradually replaced with GluN2A-containing receptors during development. Here, we examined whether GluN2A could be substituted for GluN2B in neural development and functions by analysing knock-in (KI) mice in which GluN2B is replaced with GluN2A. The KI mutation was neonatally lethal, although GluN2A-containing receptors were transported to the postsynaptic membrane even without GluN2B and functional at synapses of acute hippocampal slices of postnatal day 0, indicating that GluN2A-containing NMDARs could not be substituted for GluN2B-containing NMDARs. Importantly, the synaptic ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA1 was increased, and the transmembrane AMPAR regulatory protein, which is involved in AMPAR synaptic trafficking, was increased in KI mice. Although the regulation of AMPARs by GluN2B has been reported in cultured neurons, we showed here that AMPAR-mediated synaptic responses were increased in acute KI slices, suggesting differential roles of GluN2A and GluN2B in AMPAR expression and trafficking in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that GluN2B is essential for the survival of animals, and that the GluN2B-GluN2A switching plays a critical role in synaptic integration of AMPARs through regulation of GluA1 in the whole animal.
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Global scaling down of excitatory postsynaptic responses in cerebellar Purkinje cells impairs developmental synapse elimination.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Synapse elimination is crucial for precise neural circuit formation during postnatal development. We examined how relative differences in synaptic strengths among competing inputs and/or absolute synaptic strengths contribute to climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapse elimination in the cerebellum. We generated mice with PC-selective deletion of stargazin (TARP ?-2), the major AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit in PCs (?-2 PC-KO mice). Whereas relative differences between "strong" and "weak" CF-mediated postsynaptic response are preserved, absolute strengths of CF inputs are scaled down globally in PCs of ?-2 PC-KO mice. Although the early phase of CF elimination is normal, dendritic translocation of the strongest CF and the late phase of CF elimination that requires Ca(2+)-dependent activation of Arc/Arg3.1 in PCs are both impaired in ?-2 PC-KO mice. We conclude that, although relative differences in CF synaptic inputs are initially essential, proper synaptic scaling is crucial for accomplishing CF synapse elimination.
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Quality control by photo documentation for evaluation of laparoscopic and open colectomy with D3 resection for stage II/III colorectal cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG 0404.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The quality of surgery with D3 resection in randomized controlled clinical trial [Japan Clinical Oncology Group study (JCOG0404)] was assessed by evaluation of the photo documentation of both open and laparoscopic surgeries.
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Clinical usefulness of laparoscopic surgery for clinical stage 0/I cancer in the rectum: a single-center experience in 137 patients.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Laparoscopic surgery has yet to achieve widespread acceptance for the treatment of rectal cancer because of technical difficulty caused by anatomical features and the lack of sufficient evidence supporting effectiveness. Consequently, the safety and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remain to be established in Japan. We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery in patients with up to clinical stage 0/I rectal cancer.
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Is D-aspartate produced by glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase-1 like 1 (Got1l1): a putative aspartate racemase?
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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D-Aspartate is an endogenous free amino acid in the brain, endocrine tissues, and exocrine tissues in mammals, and it plays several physiological roles. In the testis, D-aspartate is detected in elongate spermatids, Leydig cells, and Sertoli cells, and implicated in the synthesis and release of testosterone. In the hippocampus, D-aspartate strongly enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and is involved in learning and memory. The existence of aspartate racemase, a candidate enzyme for D-aspartate production, has been suggested. Recently, mouse glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1-like 1 (Got1l1) has been reported to synthesize substantially D-aspartate from L-aspartate and to be involved in adult neurogenesis. In this study, we investigated the function of Got1l1 in vivo by generating and analyzing Got1l1 knockout (KO) mice. We also examined the enzymatic activity of recombinant Got1l1 in vitro. We found that Got1l1 mRNA is highly expressed in the testis, but it is not detected in the brain and submandibular gland, where D-aspartate is abundant. The D-aspartate contents of wild-type and Got1l1 KO mice were not significantly different in the testis and hippocampus. The recombinant Got1l1 expressed in mammalian cells showed L-aspartate aminotransferase activity, but lacked aspartate racemase activity. These findings suggest that Got1l1 is not the major aspartate racemase and there might be an as yet unknown D-aspartate-synthesizing enzyme.
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The relationship between emotional suppression and psychological distress in breast cancer patients after surgery.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional suppression and psychological distress in breast cancer patients after surgery. We examined this relationship using questionnaires at the first visit to the breast cancer outpatient clinic at our hospital and after surgery, as well as interviews after surgery.
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The Safety of Concentrated Trastuzumab in 100 ml of Saline Solution for Administration to Patients with HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: A Phase 1 Study.
Chemotherapy
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Background: It is recommended that administration of trastuzumab should be carried out in a volume of 250 ml of saline solution over 90 min. Since 2011, recommendations have allowed a shortening of the administration time to 30 min at the second administration. However, the volume to be administered is still 250 ml. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of trastuzumab administered in 100 ml of saline solution over 30 min. Methods: This study enrolled patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Three dose levels of trastuzumab, each in 100 ml of saline solution, were used (2, 6 and 8 mg/kg). The primary end point was the determination of safety. Results: Nine patients were enrolled. Since no adverse events were observed, the 8 mg/kg/100 ml saline solution dose level was the recommended dose. Conclusions: A 30-min administration of trastuzumab in 100 ml of saline solution is safe in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Dopamine midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra are particularly prone to degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Their selective loss causes the major motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but the causes for the high vulnerability of SN DA neurons, compared to neighbouring, more resistant ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, are still unclear. Consequently, there is still no cure available for Parkinson's disease. Current therapies compensate the progressive loss of dopamine by administering its precursor l-DOPA and/or dopamine D2-receptor agonists. D2-autoreceptors and Cav1.3-containing L-type Ca(2+) channels both contribute to Parkinson's disease pathology. L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers protect SN DA neurons from degeneration in Parkinson's disease and its mouse models, and they are in clinical trials for neuroprotective Parkinson's disease therapy. However, their physiological functions in SN DA neurons remain unclear. D2-autoreceptors tune firing rates and dopamine release of SN DA neurons in a negative feedback loop through activation of G-protein coupled potassium channels (GIRK2, or KCNJ6). Mature SN DA neurons display prominent, non-desensitizing somatodendritic D2-autoreceptor responses that show pronounced desensitization in PARK-gene Parkinson's disease mouse models. We analysed surviving human SN DA neurons from patients with Parkinson's disease and from controls, and detected elevated messenger RNA levels of D2-autoreceptors and GIRK2 in Parkinson's disease. By electrophysiological analysis of postnatal juvenile and adult mouse SN DA neurons in in vitro brain-slices, we observed that D2-autoreceptor desensitization is reduced with postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a transient high-dopamine state in vivo, caused by one injection of either l-DOPA or cocaine, induced adult-like, non-desensitizing D2-autoreceptor responses, selectively in juvenile SN DA neurons, but not ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. With pharmacological and genetic tools, we identified that the expression of this sensitized D2-autoreceptor phenotype required Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channel activity, internal Ca(2+), and the interaction of the neuronal calcium sensor NCS-1 with D2-autoreceptors. Thus, we identified a first physiological function of Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels in SN DA neurons for homeostatic modulation of their D2-autoreceptor responses. L-type Ca(2+) channel activity however, was not important for pacemaker activity of mouse SN DA neurons. Furthermore, we detected elevated substantia nigra dopamine messenger RNA levels of NCS-1 (but not Cav1.2 or Cav1.3) after cocaine in mice, as well as in remaining human SN DA neurons in Parkinson's disease. Thus, our findings provide a novel homeostatic functional link in SN DA neurons between Cav1.3- L-type-Ca(2+) channels and D2-autoreceptor activity, controlled by NCS-1, and indicate that this adaptive signalling network (Cav1.3/NCS-1/D2/GIRK2) is also active in human SN DA neurons, and contributes to Parkinson's disease pathology. As it is accessible to pharmacological modulation, it provides a novel promising target for tuning substantia nigra dopamine neuron activity, and their vulnerability to degeneration.
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Simple prognostic indicators using macroscopic features and age in advanced gastric cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Macroscopic features and age may be important prognostic factors that discriminate survival among clinical conditions requiring different therapeutic strategies of advanced gastric cancer (AGC), and this study aimed to identify their clinical relevance.
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The ascending median raphe projections are mainly glutamatergic in the mouse forebrain.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The median raphe region (MRR) is thought to be serotonergic and plays an important role in the regulation of many cognitive functions. In the hippocampus (HIPP), the MRR exerts a fast excitatory control, partially through glutamatergic transmission, on a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons that are key regulators of local network activity. However, not all receptors of this connection in the HIPP and in synapses established by MRR in other brain areas are known. Using combined anterograde tracing and immunogold methods, we show that the GluN2A subunit of the NMDA receptor is present in the synapses established by MRR not only in the HIPP, but also in the medial septum (MS) and in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the mouse. We estimated similar amounts of NMDA receptors in these synapses established by the MRR and in local adjacent excitatory synapses. Using retrograde tracing and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we found that the majority of the projecting cells of the mouse MRR contain the vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 (vGluT3). Furthermore, using double retrograde tracing, we found that single cells of the MRR can innervate the HIPP and mPFC or the MS and mPFC simultaneously, and these double-projecting cells are also predominantly vGluT3-positive. Our results indicate that the majority of the output of the MRR is glutamatergic and acts through NMDA receptor-containing synapses. This suggests that key forebrain areas receive precisely targeted excitatory input from the MRR, which is able to synchronously modify activity in those regions via individual MRR cells with dual projections.
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Enriched expression of GluD1 in higher brain regions and its involvement in parallel fiber-interneuron synapse formation in the cerebellum.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Of the two members of the ? subfamily of ionotropic glutamate receptors, GluD2 is exclusively expressed at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses in the cerebellum and regulates their structural and functional connectivity. However, little is known to date regarding cellular and synaptic expression of GluD1 and its role in synaptic circuit formation. In the present study, we investigated this issue by producing specific and sensitive histochemical probes for GluD1 and analyzing cerebellar synaptic circuits in GluD1-knock-out mice. GluD1 was widely expressed in the adult mouse brain, with high levels in higher brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, striatum, limbic regions (hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, bed nucleus stria terminalis, lateral habenula, and central nucleus of the amygdala), and cerebellar cortex. In the cerebellar cortex, GluD1 mRNA was expressed at the highest level in molecular layer interneurons and its immunoreactivity was concentrated at PF synapses on interneuron somata. In GluD1-knock-out mice, the density of PF synapses on interneuron somata was significantly reduced and the size and number of interneurons were significantly diminished. Therefore, GluD1 is common to GluD2 in expression at PF synapses, but distinct from GluD2 in neuronal expression in the cerebellar cortex; that is, GluD1 in interneurons and GluD2 in PCs. Furthermore, GluD1 regulates the connectivity of PF-interneuron synapses and promotes the differentiation and/or survival of molecular layer interneurons. These results suggest that GluD1 works in concert with GluD2 for the construction of cerebellar synaptic wiring through distinct neuronal and synaptic expressions and also their shared synapse-connecting function.
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Retrograde semaphorin signaling regulates synapse elimination in the developing mouse brain.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Neural circuits are shaped by elimination of early-formed redundant synapses during postnatal development. Retrograde signaling from postsynaptic cells regulates synapse elimination. In this work, we identified semaphorins, a family of versatile cell recognition molecules, as retrograde signals for elimination of redundant climbing fiber to Purkinje cell synapses in developing mouse cerebellum. Knockdown of Sema3A, a secreted semaphorin, in Purkinje cells or its receptor in climbing fibers accelerated synapse elimination during postnatal day 8 (P8) to P18. Conversely, knockdown of Sema7A, a membrane-anchored semaphorin, in Purkinje cells or either of its two receptors in climbing fibers impaired synapse elimination after P15. The effect of Sema7A involves signaling by metabotropic glutamate receptor 1, a canonical pathway for climbing fiber synapse elimination. These findings define how semaphorins retrogradely regulate multiple processes of synapse elimination.
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Specific regions display altered grey matter volume in ?-opioid receptor knockout mice: MRI voxel-based morphometry.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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? Opioid receptor knockout (MOP-KO) mice display several behavioural differences from wild-type (WT) littermates including differential responses to nociceptive stimuli. Brain structural changes have been tied to behavioural alterations noted in transgenic mice with targeting of different genes. Hence, we assess the brain structure of MOP-KO mice.
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Functional phylogenetic analysis of LGI proteins identifies an interaction motif crucial for myelination.
Development
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The cellular interactions that drive the formation and maintenance of the insulating myelin sheath around axons are only partially understood. Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated (LGI) proteins play important roles in nervous system development and mutations in their genes have been associated with epilepsy and amyelination. Their function involves interactions with ADAM22 and ADAM23 cell surface receptors, possibly in apposing membranes, thus attenuating cellular interactions. LGI4-ADAM22 interactions are required for axonal sorting and myelination in the developing peripheral nervous system (PNS). Functional analysis revealed that, despite their high homology and affinity for ADAM22, LGI proteins are functionally distinct. To dissect the key residues in LGI proteins required for coordinating axonal sorting and myelination in the developing PNS, we adopted a phylogenetic and computational approach and demonstrate that the mechanism of action of LGI4 depends on a cluster of three amino acids on the outer surface of the LGI4 protein, thus providing a structural basis for the mechanistic differences in LGI protein function in nervous system development and evolution.
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Distinct subsynaptic localization of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors at glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in the rodent cerebellar cortex.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Type 1 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1) receptors play a pivotal role in different forms of synaptic plasticity in the cerebellar cortex, e.g. long-term depression at glutamatergic synapses and rebound potentiation at GABAergic synapses. These various forms of plasticity might depend on the subsynaptic arrangement of the receptor in Purkinje cells that can be regulated by protein-protein interactions. This study investigated, by means of the freeze-fracture replica immunogold labelling method, the subcellular localization of mGlu1 receptors in the rodent cerebellum and whether Homer proteins regulate their subsynaptic distribution. We observed a widespread extrasynaptic localization of mGlu1 receptors and confirmed their peri-synaptic enrichment at glutamatergic synapses. Conversely, we detected mGlu1 receptors within the main body of GABAergic synapses onto Purkinje cell dendrites. Although Homer proteins are known to interact with the mGlu1 receptor C-terminus, we could not detect Homer3, the most abundant Homer protein in the cerebellar cortex, at GABAergic synapses by pre-embedding and post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. We then hypothesized a critical role for Homer proteins in the peri-junctional localization of mGlu1 receptors at glutamatergic synapses. To disrupt Homer-associated protein complexes, mice were tail-vein injected with the membrane-permeable dominant-negative TAT-Homer1a. Freeze-fracture replica immunogold labelling analysis showed no significant alteration in the mGlu1 receptor distribution pattern at parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses, suggesting that other scaffolding proteins are involved in the peri-synaptic confinement. The identification of interactors that regulate the subsynaptic localization of the mGlu1 receptor at neurochemically distinct synapses may offer new insight into its trafficking and intracellular signalling.
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Laparoscopic mesh repair of a Morgagni hernia using the double-crown technique: A case study.
Asian J Endosc Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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We report a case of Morgagni hernia in which the patient underwent laparoscopic mesh repair. A 65-year-old woman presented with an abnormal shadow in the right lower lung field on a routine medical checkup. CT showed that the transverse colon passed between the liver and abdominal wall, and herniated into the thoracic cavity. Simple closure was precluded by the large hernial orifice. We therefore performed laparoscopic repair using a Parietex Optimized Composite Mesh. The double-crown technique was used to fix the margin of the mesh to the region around the hernial orifice. Our procedure for repair of a Morgagni hernia with a large hernial orifice is safe and minimally invasive, and it may effectively prevent recurrence.
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Preoperative tumor size is a critical prognostic factor for patients with Borrmann type III gastric cancer.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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This study was designed to clarify whether preoperative tumor size is an independent prognostic factor (IPF) for patients with Borrmann type III gastric cancer.
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Neuron type- and input pathway-dependent expression of Slc4a10 in adult mouse brains.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Slc4a10 was originally identified as a Na(+) -driven Cl(-) /HCO3 (-) exchanger NCBE that transports extracellular Na(+) and HCO3 (-) in exchange for intracellular Cl(-) , whereas other studies argue against a Cl(-) -dependence for Na(+) -HCO3 (-) transport, and thus named it the electroneutral Na(+) /HCO3 (-) cotransporter NBCn2. Here we investigated Slc4a10 expression in adult mouse brains by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Slc4a10 mRNA was widely expressed, with higher levels in pyramidal cells in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus, and Purkinje cells (PCs) in the cerebellum. Immunohistochemistry revealed an uneven distribution of Slc4a10 within the somatodendritic compartment of cerebellar neurons. In the cerebellar molecular layer, stellate cells and their innervation targets (i.e. PC dendrites in the superficial molecular layer) showed significantly higher labeling than basket cells and their targets (PC dendrites in the basal molecular layer and PC somata). Moreover, the distal dendritic trees of PCs (i.e. parallel fiber-targeted dendrites) had significantly greater labeling than the proximal dendrites (climbing fiber-targeted dendrites). These observations suggest that Slc4a10 expression is regulated in neuron type- and input pathway-dependent manners. Because such an elaborate regulation is also found for K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2, a major neuronal Cl(-) extruder, we compared their expression. Slc4a10 and KCC2 overlapped in most somatodendritic elements. However, relative abundance was largely complementary in the cerebellar cortex, with particular enrichments of Slc4a10 in PC dendrites and KCC2 in molecular layer interneurons, granule cells and PC somata. These properties might reflect functional redundancy and distinction of these transporters, and their differential requirements by individual neurons and respective input domains.
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Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy using concurrent S-1 and irinotecan in rectal cancer: impact on long-term clinical outcomes and prognostic factors.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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To assess the long-term outcomes of patients with rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NCRT) with concurrent S-1 and irinotecan (S-1/irinotecan) therapy.
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Effect of amiloride on endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the injured spinal cord of rats.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress exacerbates secondary injury, leading to expansion of demyelination and reduced remyelination due to oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) apoptosis. Although recent studies have revealed that amiloride controls ER stress and leads to improvement in several neurological disorders including SCI, its mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we used a rat SCI model to assess the effects of amiloride on functional recovery, secondary damage expansion, ER stress-induced cell death and OPC survival. Hindlimb function in rats with spinal cord contusion significantly improved after amiloride administration. Amiloride significantly decreased the expression of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP in the injured spinal cord and significantly increased the expression of the ER chaperone GRP78, which protects cells against ER stress. In addition, amiloride treatment led to a significant decrease in ER stress-induced apoptosis and a significant increase of NG2-positive OPCs in the injured spinal cord. Furthermore, in vitro experiments performed to investigate the direct effect of amiloride on OPCs revealed that amiloride reduced CHOP expression in OPCs cultured under ER stress. These results suggest that amiloride controls ER stress in SCI and inhibits cellular apoptosis, contributing to OPC survival. The present study suggests that amiloride may be an effective treatment to reduce ER stress-induced cell death in the acute phase of SCI.
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Dynorphin acts as a neuromodulator to inhibit itch in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Menthol and other counterstimuli relieve itch, resulting in an antipruritic state that persists for minutes to hours. However, the neural basis for this effect is unclear, and the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms are unknown. Previous studies revealed that Bhlhb5(-/-) mice, which lack a specific population of spinal inhibitory interneurons (B5-I neurons), develop pathological itch. Here we characterize B5-I neurons and show that they belong to a neurochemically distinct subset. We provide cause-and-effect evidence that B5-I neurons inhibit itch and show that dynorphin, which is released from B5-I neurons, is a key neuromodulator of pruritus. Finally, we show that B5-I neurons are innervated by menthol-, capsaicin-, and mustard oil-responsive sensory neurons and are required for the inhibition of itch by menthol. These findings provide a cellular basis for the inhibition of itch by chemical counterstimuli and suggest that kappa opioids may be a broadly effective therapy for pathological itch.
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Prognostic impact of venous invasion in stage IB node-negative gastric cancer.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Little is known about risk factors for recurrence in stage IB gastric cancer without lymph node metastasis. The aims of this study were to determine prognostic factors associated with long-term survival and to clarify patterns of recurrence.
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A new mouse allele of glutamate receptor delta 2 with cerebellar atrophy and progressive ataxia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Spinocerebellar degenerations (SCDs) are a large class of sporadic or hereditary neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive motion defects and degenerative changes in the cerebellum and other parts of the CNS. Here we report the identification and establishment from a C57BL/6J mouse colony of a novel mouse line developing spontaneous progressive ataxia, which we refer to as ts3. Frequency of the phenotypic expression was consistent with an autosomal recessive Mendelian trait of inheritance, suggesting that a single gene mutation is responsible for the ataxic phenotype of this line. The onset of ataxia was observed at about three weeks of age, which slowly progressed until the hind limbs became entirely paralyzed in many cases. Micro-MRI study revealed significant cerebellar atrophy in all the ataxic mice, although individual variations were observed. Detailed histological analyses demonstrated significant atrophy of the anterior folia with reduced granule cells (GC) and abnormal morphology of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC). Study by ultra-high voltage electron microscopy (UHVEM) further indicated aberrant morphology of PC dendrites and their spines, suggesting both morphological and functional abnormalities of the PC in the mutants. Immunohistochemical studies also revealed defects in parallel fiber (PF)-PC synapse formation and abnormal distal extension of climbing fibers (CF). Based on the phenotypic similarities of the ts3 mutant with other known ataxic mutants, we performed immunohistological analyses and found that expression levels of two genes and their products, glutamate receptor delta2 (grid2) and its ligand, cerebellin1 (Cbln1), are significantly reduced or undetectable. Finally, we sequenced the candidate genes and detected a large deletion in the coding region of the grid2 gene. Our present study suggests that ts3 is a new allele of the grid2 gene, which causes similar but different phenotypes as compared to other grid2 mutants.
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Autoantibodies to epilepsy-related LGI1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize LGI1-ADAM22 interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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More than 30 mutations in LGI1, a secreted neuronal protein, have been reported with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE). Although LGI1 haploinsufficiency is thought to cause ADLTE, the underlying molecular mechanism that results in abnormal brain excitability remains mysterious. Here, we focused on a mode of action of LGI1 autoantibodies associated with limbic encephalitis (LE), which is one of acquired epileptic disorders characterized by subacute onset of amnesia and seizures. We comprehensively screened human sera from patients with immune-mediated neurological disorders for LGI1 autoantibodies, which also uncovered novel autoantibodies against six cell surface antigens including DCC, DPP10, and ADAM23. Our developed ELISA arrays revealed a specific role for LGI1 antibodies in LE and concomitant involvement of multiple antibodies, including LGI1 antibodies in neuromyotonia, a peripheral nerve disorder. LGI1 antibodies associated with LE specifically inhibited the ligand-receptor interaction between LGI1 and ADAM22/23 by targeting the EPTP repeat domain of LGI1 and reversibly reduced synaptic AMPA receptor clusters in rat hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we found that disruption of LGI1-ADAM22 interaction by soluble extracellular domain of ADAM22 was sufficient to reduce synaptic AMPA receptors in rat hippocampal neurons and that levels of AMPA receptor were greatly reduced in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the epileptic LGI1 knock-out mouse. Therefore, either genetic or acquired loss of the LGI1-ADAM22 interaction reduces the AMPA receptor function, causing epileptic disorders. These results suggest that by finely regulating the synaptic AMPA receptors, the LGI1-ADAM22 interaction maintains physiological brain excitability throughout life.
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Leucovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin plus bevacizumab versus S-1 and oxaliplatin plus bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (SOFT): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Studies done in Asia have shown that a regimen of S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) has promising efficacy and safety in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We aimed to establish whether SOX plus bevacizumab is non-inferior to mFOLFOX6 (modified regimen of leucovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) plus bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.
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Point Mutation in Syntaxin-1A Causes Abnormal Vesicle Recycling, Behaviors, and Short Term Plasticity.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Syntaxin-1A is a t-SNARE that is involved in vesicle docking and vesicle fusion; it is important in presynaptic exocytosis in neurons because it interacts with many regulatory proteins. Previously, we found the following: 1) that autophosphorylated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an important modulator of neural plasticity, interacts with syntaxin-1A to regulate exocytosis, and 2) that a syntaxin missense mutation (R151G) attenuated this interaction. To determine more precisely the physiological importance of this interaction between CaMKII and syntaxin, we generated mice with a knock-in (KI) syntaxin-1A (R151G) mutation. Complexin is a molecular clamp involved in exocytosis, and in the KI mice, recruitment of complexin to the SNARE complex was reduced because of an abnormal CaMKII/syntaxin interaction. Nevertheless, SNARE complex formation was not inhibited, and consequently, basal neurotransmission was normal. However, the KI mice did exhibit more enhanced presynaptic plasticity than wild-type littermates; this enhanced plasticity could be associated with synaptic response than did wild-type littermates; this pronounced response included several behavioral abnormalities. Notably, the R151G phenotypes were generally similar to previously reported CaMKII mutant phenotypes. Additionally, synaptic recycling in these KI mice was delayed, and the density of synaptic vesicles was reduced. Taken together, our results indicated that this single point mutation in syntaxin-1A causes abnormal regulation of neuronal plasticity and vesicle recycling and that the affected syntaxin-1A/CaMKII interaction is essential for normal brain and synaptic functions in vivo.
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Effect of left colonic artery preservation on anastomotic leakage in laparoscopic anterior resection for middle and low rectal cancer.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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High morbidity rates related to anastomotic leakage and other factors restrict the application of laparoscopic rectal excision. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of left colonic artery (LCA) preservation on postoperative complications after laparoscopic rectal excision.
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DNA damage-inducible gene, reprimo functions as a tumor suppressor and is suppressed by promoter methylation in gastric cancer.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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In several types of human cancer, the gene expression of Reprimo, a highly glycosylated protein, is frequently silenced via methylation of its promoter. The aim of this study was to characterize the epigenetic inactivation of Reprimo and its biologic function and clinical relevance in gastric cancer. The correlation between Reprimo methylation and clinical relevance was assessed in 83 primary human gastric cancer tissues. The effects of Reprimo expression were also examined using in vitro and in vivo assays. Reprimo methylation was cancer specific and frequently observed. In two gastric cancer cell lines without Reprimo methylation, we observed faint or weak Reprimo expression under normal conditions and high expression under DNA-damaging conditions. In four gastric cancer cell lines with Reprimo methylation, however, Reprimo expression remained faint even under DNA-damaging conditions, with expression being restored in combination with agents that induce demethylation. Enforced Reprimo expression robustly inhibited cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation and enhanced DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Inverse effects were observed via siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Reprimo. Reprimo expression inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo. Reprimo methylation was also associated with a poor response in patients with gastric cancer treated with chemotherapy (P¼ 0.028), and a poor prognosis in patients with advanced gastric cancer (P¼ 0.03). In conclusion, Reprimo expression is normally induced in response to DNA damage, acting as a novel tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. However, Reprimo methylation abrogates its expression and effects. The clinical assessment of Reprimo promoter methylation may serve not only as a predictive marker for chemotherapy, but also as a marker for tumor aggressiveness.
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[Glutamate signaling and neural plasticity].
No To Hattatsu
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Proper functioning of the nervous system relies on the precise formation of neural circuits during development. At birth, neurons have redundant synaptic connections not only to their proper targets but also to other neighboring cells. Then, functional neural circuits are formed during early postnatal development by the selective strengthening of necessary synapses and weakening of surplus connections. Synaptic connections are also modified so that projection fields of active afferents expand at the expense of lesser ones. We have studied the molecular mechanisms underlying these activity-dependent prunings and the plasticity of synaptic circuitry using gene-engineered mice defective in the glutamatergic signaling system. NMDA-type glutamate receptors are critically involved in the establishment of the somatosensory pathway ascending from the brainstem trigeminal nucleus to the somatosensory cortex. Without NMDA receptors, whisker-related patterning fails to develop, whereas lesion-induced plasticity occurs normally during the critical period. In contrast, mice lacking the glutamate transporters GLAST or GLT1 are selectively impaired in the lesion-induced critical plasticity of cortical barrels, although whisker-related patterning itself develops normally. In the developing cerebellum, multiple climbing fibers initially innervating given Purkinje cells are eliminated one by one until mono-innervation is achieved. In this pruning process, P/Q-type Ca2+ channels expressed on Purkinje cells are critically involved by the selective strengthening of single main climbing fibers against other lesser afferents. Therefore, the activation of glutamate receptors that leads to an activity-dependent increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration plays a key role in the pruning of immature synaptic circuits into functional circuits. On the other hand, glutamate transporters appear to control activity-dependent plasticity among afferent fields, presumably through adjusting extracellular glutamate concentrations to optimally reflect their different neural activities in postsynaptic target neurons. Thus, armed with both molecular mechanisms, functional neural circuits develop and mature during the early postnatal period.
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Tissue concentrations of antibiotics given prophylactically during colorectal cancer surgery.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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This study was designed to clarify the pharmacokinetics of prophylactically administered cefmetazole in serum, intestinal tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue in patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer.
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The Homeobox Only Protein Homeobox (HOPX) and Colorectal Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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The HOP (homeobox only protein) homeobox (HOPX) is most closely related to the homeobox protein that contains a homeobox-like domain but lacks certain conserved residues required for DNA binding. Here, we review the current understanding of HOPX in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). HOPX was initially reported as a differentiation marker and is expressed in various normal tissues. In the colon, HOPX is expressed uniquely in the quiescent stem cell, +4, and in differentiated mucosal cells of the colon. HOPX expression is markedly suppressed in a subset of cancers, mainly in an epigenetic manner. CRC may include separate entities which are differentially characterized by HOPX expression from a prognostic point of view. HOPX itself can regulate epigenetics, and defective expression of HOPX can result in loss of tumor suppressive function and differentiation phenotype. These findings indicate that HOPX may be both a central regulator of epigenetic dynamics and a critical determinant for differentiation in human cells. HOPX downstream targets were identified in CRC cell lines and hold promise as candidates for therapeutic targets of CRC, such as EphA2 or AP-1. Further analysis will elucidate and confirm the precise role of such proteins in CRC progression.
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Prognostic role of lemur tyrosine kinase-3 germline polymorphisms in adjuvant gastric cancer in Japan and the United States.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) was recently identified as an estrogen receptor (ER)-? modulator related to endocrine therapy resistance, and its polymorphisms rs9989661 (T>C) T/T genotype and rs8108419 (G>A) G/G or A/G genotype predicted improved outcomes in breast cancer. Because different predominant ER distributions link to breast and gastric cancer and little is known of the prognostic role of LMTK3 in gastric cancer, this study was carried out to clarify the prognostic role of these polymorphisms in gastric cancer. One-hundred and sixty-nine Japanese and 137 U.S. patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood or tissue, and all samples were analyzed by PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. Overall, these polymorphisms were not associated with survival in both cohorts. When gender was considered, in multivariate analysis, harboring rs9989661 T/T genotype was associated with disease-free survival [HR, 4.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.08-9.18; P < 0.0001] and overall survival (OS; HR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.65-8.24; P = 0.0014) in the Japanese males and time to recurrence (HR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.07-49.80; P = 0.043) in the U.S. females. Meanwhile, harboring rs8108419 G/G genotype was associated with OS in the Japanese females (HR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.08-8.56; P = 0.035) and the U.S. males (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.31-8.80; P = 0.012). The prognostic role of these polymorphisms may be negative in gastric cancer. These findings suggest that the estrogen pathway may play a prognostic role in patients with gastric cancer but this may be dependent on the regional differences both in physiology and genetic alterations of gastric cancer.
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Septins promote dendrite and axon development by negatively regulating microtubule stability via HDAC6-mediated deacetylation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Neurite growth requires two guanine nucleotide-binding protein polymers of tubulins and septins. However, whether and how those cytoskeletal systems are coordinated was unknown. Here we show that the acute knockdown or knockout of the pivotal septin subunit SEPT7 from cerebrocortical neurons impairs their interhemispheric and cerebrospinal axon projections and dendritogenesis in perinatal mice, when the microtubules are severely hyperacetylated. The resulting hyperstabilization and growth retardation of microtubules are demonstrated in vitro. The phenotypic similarity between SEPT7 depletion and the pharmacological inhibition of ?-tubulin deacetylase HDAC6 reveals that HDAC6 requires SEPT7 not for its enzymatic activity, but to associate with acetylated ?-tubulin. These and other findings indicate that septins provide a physical scaffold for HDAC6 to achieve efficient microtubule deacetylation, thereby negatively regulating microtubule stability to an optimal level for neuritogenesis. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying the HDAC6-mediated coupling of the two ubiquitous cytoskeletal systems during neural development.
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Association of Rgs7/G?5 complexes with girk channels and GABAB receptors in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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In the hippocampus, signaling through G protein-coupled receptors is modulated by Regulators of G protein signaling (Rgs) proteins, which act to stimulate the rate of GTP hydrolysis, and consequently, G protein inactivation. The R7-Rgs subfamily selectively deactivates the Gi/o -class of G? subunits that mediate the action of several GPCRs. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation, electrophysiology and immunoelectron microscopy techniques to investigate the formation of macromolecular complexes and spatial relationship of Rgs7/G?5 complexes and its prototypical signaling partners, the GABAB receptor and Girk channel. Co-expression of recombinant GABAB receptors and Girk channels in combination with co-immunoprecipitation experiments established that the Rgs7/G?5 forms complexes with GABAB receptors or Girk channels. Using electrophysiological experiments, we found that GABAB -Girk current deactivation kinetics was markedly faster in cells coexpressing Rgs7/G?5. At the electron microscopic level, immunolabeling for Rgs7 and G?5 proteins was found primarily in the dendritic layers of the hippocampus and showed similar distribution patterns. Immunoreactivity was mostly localized along the extrasynaptic plasma membrane of dendritic shafts and spines of pyramidal cells and, to a lesser extent, to that of presynaptic terminals. Quantitative analysis of immunogold particles for Rgs7 and G?5 revealed an enrichment of the two proteins around excitatory synapses on dendritic spines, virtually identical to that of Girk2 and GABAB1 . These data support the existence of macromolecular complexes composed of GABAB receptor-G protein-Rgs7-Girk channels in which Rgs7 and G?5 proteins may preferentialy modulate GABAB receptor signaling through the deactivation of Girk channels on dendritic spines. In contrast, Rgs7 and Girk2 were associated but mainly segregated from GABAB1 in dendritic shafts, where Rgs7/G?5 signaling complexes might modulate Girk-dependent signaling via a different metabotropic receptor(s). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Clinicopathologic characteristics of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and relation of somatostatin receptor type 2A to outcomes.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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The impact of somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR-2a) expression levels on outcomes in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) has not been evaluated.
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Diacylglycerol lipase ? manipulation reveals developmental roles for intercellular endocannabinoid signaling.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Endocannabinoids are small signaling lipids, with 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) implicated in modulating axonal growth and synaptic plasticity. The concept of short-range extracellular signaling by endocannabinoids is supported by the lack of trans-synaptic 2-AG signaling in mice lacking sn-1-diacylglycerol lipases (DAGLs), synthesizing 2-AG. Nevertheless, how far endocannabinoids can spread extracellularly to evoke physiological responses at CB? cannabinoid receptors (CB?Rs) remains poorly understood. Here, we first show that cholinergic innervation of CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus is sensitive to the genetic disruption of 2-AG signaling in DAGL? null mice. Next, we exploit a hybrid COS-7-cholinergic neuron co-culture system to demonstrate that heterologous DAGL? overexpression spherically excludes cholinergic growth cones from 2-AG-rich extracellular environments, and minimizes cell-cell contact in vitro. CB?R-mediated exclusion responses lasted 3 days, indicating sustained spherical 2-AG availability. Overall, these data suggest that extracellular 2-AG concentrations can be sufficient to activate CB?Rs along discrete spherical boundaries to modulate neuronal responsiveness.
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Analysis of predisposing factors in elderly people with Type II odontoid fracture.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Type II odontoid fracture is the most frequent individual fracture in elderly people. An older person usually sustains a Type II odontoid fracture in a fall from standing or a seated height. A relationship between osteoarthritis in the upper cervical spine and Type II odontoid fracture has been reported. However, to our knowledge, few reports have investigated statistically whether disproportionate degeneration between joints influences the susceptibility to fracture.
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Dlx1 transcription factor regulates dendritic growth and postsynaptic differentiation through inhibition of neuropilin-2 and PAK3 expression.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Dlx1, a member of the homeobox domain transcriptional factors, is expressed in a subset of interneurons and is involved in their differentiation. To understand the roles of Dlx1 in dendritic and postsynaptic differentiation, we manipulated Dlx1 expression in both excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons in hippocampal culture. Exogenous expression of Dlx1 in pyramidal neurons, which lack endogenous Dlx1, resulted in reduced complexity of dendritic arborization. This effect was dependent on the DNA-binding motif of Dlx1. Dlx1 overexpression also induced prominent reduction of spine density, but with mild suppression in the formation of postsynaptic densities. To confirm the roles of endogenous Dlx1, we knocked down Dlx1 in interneurons and found enhanced dendritic growth. By manipulating the expression of possible downstream effectors of Dlx1, neuropilin-2 and p21-activated kinase 3, we provided evidence for the involvement of these two signaling molecules in Dlx1-dependent regulation of dendritic differentiation. Our experimental data support the idea that Dlx1 expression in developing interneurons specifically suppresses two important downstream regulators, leading to the characteristic morphology of Dlx1-expressing interneurons with less branched dendrites and few dendritic spines.
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Lymph node ratio is a critical prognostic predictor in gastric cancer treated with S-1 chemotherapy.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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S-1 is an oral anticancer drug widely used in postoperative adjuvant therapy for patients in Japan with stage II/III gastric cancer. Candidates for more intense adjuvant treatments need to be identified, particularly among patients with stage III cancer.
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Laparoscopic antireflux surgery improves esophageal body motility in patients with severe reflux esophagitis.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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This study was designed to clarify whether laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) improves the esophageal body motility (EBM) in patients with reflux esophagitis.
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Suppressing aberrant GluN3A expression rescues synaptic and behavioral impairments in Huntingtons disease models.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Huntingtons disease is caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in the huntingtin protein (HTT), but the pathophysiological sequence of events that trigger synaptic failure and neuronal loss are not fully understood. Alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated. Yet, it remains unclear how the HTT mutation affects NMDAR function, and direct evidence for a causative role is missing. Here we show that mutant HTT redirects an intracellular store of juvenile NMDARs containing GluN3A subunits to the surface of striatal neurons by sequestering and disrupting the subcellular localization of the endocytic adaptor PACSIN1, which is specific for GluN3A. Overexpressing GluN3A in wild-type mouse striatum mimicked the synapse loss observed in Huntingtons disease mouse models, whereas genetic deletion of GluN3A prevented synapse degeneration, ameliorated motor and cognitive decline and reduced striatal atrophy and neuronal loss in the YAC128 Huntingtons disease mouse model. Furthermore, GluN3A deletion corrected the abnormally enhanced NMDAR currents, which have been linked to cell death in Huntingtons disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Our findings reveal an early pathogenic role of GluN3A dysregulation in Huntingtons disease and suggest that therapies targeting GluN3A or pathogenic HTT-PACSIN1 interactions might prevent or delay disease progression.
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Disruption of cerebellar microzonal organization in GluD2 (GluR?2) knockout mouse.
Front Neural Circuits
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cerebellar cortex has an elaborate rostrocaudal organization comprised of numerous microzones. Purkinje cells (PCs) in the same microzone show synchronous activity of complex spikes (CSs) evoked by excitatory inputs from climbing fibers (CFs) that arise from neurons in the inferior olive (IO). The synchronous CS activity is considered to depend on electrical coupling among IO neurons and anatomical organization of the olivo-cerebellar projection. To determine how the CF-PC wiring contributes to the formation of microzone, we examined the synchronous CS activities between neighboring PCs in the glutamate receptor ?2 knockout (GluD2 KO) mouse in which exuberant surplus CFs make ectopic innervations onto distal dendrites of PCs. We performed in vivo two-photon calcium imaging for PC populations to detect CF inputs. Neighboring PCs in GluD2 KO mice showed higher synchrony of calcium transients than those in wild-type (control) mice. Moreover, the synchrony in GluD2 KO mice hardly declined with mediolateral separation between PCs up to ~200 ?m, which was in marked contrast to the falloff of the synchrony in control mice. The enhanced synchrony was only partially affected by the blockade of gap junctional coupling. On the other hand, transverse CF collaterals in GluD2 KO mice extended beyond the border of microzone and formed locally clustered ectopic synapses onto dendrites of neighboring PCs. Furthermore, PCs in GluD2 KO mice exhibited clustered firing (Cf), the characteristic CF response that was not found in PCs of wild-type mice. Importantly, Cf was often associated with localized calcium transients in distal dendrites of PCs, which are likely to contribute to the enhanced synchrony of calcium signals in GluD2 KO mice. Thus, our results indicate that CF signals in GluD2 KO mice propagate across multiple microzones, and that proper formation of longitudinal olivo-cerebellar projection is essential for the spatiotemporal organization of CS activity in the cerebellum.
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Chronic alterations in monoaminergic cells in the locus coeruleus in orexin neuron-ablated narcoleptic mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Narcolepsy patients often suffer from insomnia in addition to excessive daytime sleepiness. Narcoleptic animals also show behavioral instability characterized by frequent transitions between all vigilance states, exhibiting very short bouts of NREM sleep as well as wakefulness. The instability of wakefulness states in narcolepsy is thought to be due to deficiency of orexins, neuropeptides produced in the lateral hypothalamic neurons, which play a highly important role in maintaining wakefulness. However, the mechanism responsible for sleep instability in this disorder remains to be elucidated. Because firing of orexin neurons ceases during sleep in healthy animals, deficiency of orexins does not explain the abnormality of sleep. We hypothesized that chronic compensatory changes in the neurophysiologica activity of the locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus in response to the progressive loss of endogenous orexin tone underlie the pathological regulation of sleep/wake states. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined firing patterns of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons and noradrenergic (NA) neurons in the brain stem, two important neuronal populations in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states. We recorded single-unit activities of 5-HT neurons and NA neurons in the DR nucleus and LC of orexin neuron-ablated narcoleptic mice. We found that while the firing pattern of 5-HT neurons in narcoleptic mice was similar to that in wildtype mice, that of NA neurons was significantly different from that in wildtype mice. In narcoleptic mice, NA neurons showed a higher firing frequency during both wakefulness and NREM sleep as compared with wildtype mice. In vitro patch-clamp study of NA neurons of narcoleptic mice suggested a functional decrease of GABAergic input to these neurons. These alterations might play roles in the sleep abnormality in narcolepsy.
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[A rare case of huge triple-negative of accessory breast cancer enlarged during the course of chemotherapy].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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A 38-year-old premenopausal woman with a right axillary mass was told that she had an atheroma. The mass enlarged. An infectious atheroma was suspected, and incision and drainage were performed. A mass 4 cm in diameter was palpated in the right axillary region. Ultrasonography showed a mass 6 cm in diameter, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hypervascular mass at the same site. Stage IIIB triple-negative of accessory breast cancer (T4bN1M0) was diagnosed. The patient received four courses of FEC 100 (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide) as preoperative chemotherapy, but progressive disease was diagnosed, and the regimen was switched to weekly paclitaxel. The tumor became ulcerated and friable, and the hemoglobin level fell to 6 g/dL. Emergency surgery was thus performed. Postoperatively, the patient received six courses of chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus gemcitabine. Accessory breast cancer is extremely rare, but should be borne in mind when an axillary mass is encountered. In our patient, progressive disease had developed during the preoperative chemotherapy for accessory breast cancer. Although treatment was switched to a different regimen, bleeding was detected, and the patient underwent a semi-emergency surgery.
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Selective neural pathway targeting reveals key roles of thalamostriatal projection in the control of visual discrimination.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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The dorsal striatum receives converging excitatory inputs from diverse brain regions, including the cerebral cortex and the intralaminar/midline thalamic nuclei, and mediates learning processes contributing to instrumental motor actions. However, the roles of each striatal input pathway in these learning processes remain uncertain. We developed a novel strategy to target specific neural pathways and applied this strategy for studying behavioral roles of the pathway originating from the parafascicular nucleus (PF) and projecting to the dorsolateral striatum. A highly efficient retrograde gene transfer vector encoding the recombinant immunotoxin (IT) receptor was injected into the dorsolateral striatum in mice to express the receptor in neurons innervating the striatum. IT treatment into the PF of the vector-injected animals caused a selective elimination of neurons of the PF-derived thalamostriatal pathway. The elimination of this pathway impaired the response selection accuracy and delayed the motor response in the acquisition of a visual cue-dependent discrimination task. When the pathway elimination was induced after learning acquisition, it disturbed the response accuracy in the task performance with no apparent change in the response time. The elimination did not influence spontaneous locomotion, methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity, and motor skill learning that demand the function of the dorsal striatum. These results demonstrate that thalamostriatal projection derived from the PF plays essential roles in the acquisition and execution of discrimination learning in response to sensory stimulus. The temporal difference in the pathway requirement for visual discrimination suggests a stage-specific role of thalamostriatal pathway in the modulation of response time of learned motor actions.
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Developmental switching of perisomatic innervation from climbing fibers to basket cell fibers in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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In early postnatal development, perisomatic innervation of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) switches from glutamatergic climbing fibers (CFs) to GABAergic basket cell fibers (BFs). Here we examined the switching process in C57BL/6 mice. At postnatal day 7 (P7), most perisomatic synapses were formed by CFs on to somatic spines. The density of CF-spine synapses peaked at P9, when pericellular nest around PCs by CFs was most developed, and CF-spine synapses constituted 88% of the total perisomatic synapses. Thereafter, CF-spine synapses dropped to 63% at P12, 6% at P15, and <1% at P20, whereas BF synapses increased reciprocally. During the switching period, a substantial number of BF synapses existed as BF-spine synapses (37% of the total perisomatic synapses at P15), and free spines surrounded by BFs or Bergmann glia also emerged. By P20, BF-spine synapses and free spines virtually disappeared, and BF-soma synapses became predominant (88%), thus attaining the adult pattern of perisomatic innervation. Parallel with the presynaptic switching, postsynaptic receptor phenotype also switched from glutamatergic to GABAergic. In the active switching period, particularly at P12, fragmental clusters of AMPA-type glutamate receptor were juxtaposed with those of GABA(A) receptor. When examined with serial ultrathin sections, immunogold labeling for glutamate and GABA(A) receptors was often clustered beneath single BF terminals. These results suggest that a considerable fraction of somatic spines is succeeded from CFs to BFs and Bergmann glia in the early postnatal period, and that the switching of postsynaptic receptor phenotypes mainly proceeds under the coverage of BF terminals.
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Climbing fiber synapse elimination in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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Innervation of Purkinje cells (PCs) by multiple climbing fibers (CFs) is refined into mono-innervation during the first three postnatal weeks of rodents lives. In this review article, we will integrate the current knowledge on developmental process and mechanisms of CF synapse elimination. In the creeper stage of CF innervation (postnatal day 0 (P0)?), CFs creep among PC somata to form transient synapses on immature dendrites. In the pericellular nest stage (P5?), CFs densely surround and innervate PC somata. CF innervation is then displaced to the apical portion of PC somata in the capuchon stage (P9?), and translocate to dendrites in the dendritic (P12?) stage. Along with the developmental changes in CF wiring, functional and morphological distinctions become larger among CF inputs. PCs are initially innervated by more than five CFs with similar strengths (?P3). During P3-7 only a single CF is selectively strengthened (functional differentiation), and it undergoes dendritic translocation from P9 on (dendritic translocation). Following the functional differentiation, perisomatic CF synapses are eliminated nonselectively; this proceeds in two distinct phases. The early phase (P7-11) is conducted independently of parallel fiber (PF)-PC synapse formation, while the late phase (P12-17) critically depends on it. The P/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel in PCs triggers selective strengthening of single CF inputs, promotes dendritic translocation of the strengthened CFs, and drives the early phase of CF synapse elimination. In contrast, the late phase is mediated by the mGluR1-G?q-PLC?4-PKC? signaling cascade in PCs driven at PF-PC synapses, whose structural connectivity is stabilized and maintained by the GluR?2-Cbln1-neurexin system.
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Developmental regulation of G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK/Kir3) channel subunits in the brain.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K(+) (GIRK/family 3 of inwardly-rectifying K(+) ) channels are coupled to neurotransmitter action and can play important roles in modulating neuronal excitability. We investigated the temporal and spatial expression of GIRK1, GIRK2 and GIRK3 subunits in the developing and adult brain of mice and rats using biochemical, immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic techniques. At all ages analysed, the overall distribution patterns of GIRK1-3 were very similar, with high expression levels in the neocortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and thalamus. Focusing on the hippocampus, histoblotting and immunohistochemistry showed that GIRK1-3 protein levels increased with age, and this was accompanied by a shift in the subcellular localization of the subunits. Early in development (postnatal day 5), GIRK subunits were predominantly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in the pyramidal cells, but by postnatal day 60 they were mostly found along the plasma membrane. During development, GIRK1 and GIRK2 were found primarily at postsynaptic sites, whereas GIRK3 was predominantly detected at presynaptic sites. In addition, GIRK1 and GIRK2 expression on the spine plasma membrane showed identical proximal-to-distal gradients that differed from GIRK3 distribution. Furthermore, although GIRK1 was never found within the postsynaptic density (PSD), the level of GIRK2 in the PSD progressively increased and GIRK3 did not change in the PSD during development. Together, these findings shed new light on the developmental regulation and subcellular diversity of neuronal GIRK channels, and support the contention that distinct subpopulations of GIRK channels exert separable influences on neuronal excitability. The ability to selectively target specific subpopulations of GIRK channels may prove effective in the treatment of disorders of excitability.
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Short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery in patients with pathological stage II and III colon cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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In Japan, the safety and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for advanced colorectal cancer remains a matter of debate. We studied the safety and outcomes of laparoscopic surgery in patients with pathological stage II and III colon cancer.
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Oncological outcomes of laparoscopic surgery in elderly patients with colon cancer: a comparison of patients 64 years or younger with those 75 years or older.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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We compared the results of laparoscopic resection of colon cancer between patients 75 years or older and those 64 years or younger, to confirm whether this procedure is warranted in elderly patients.
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Quantitative Detection of µ Opioid Receptor: Western Blot Analyses Using µ Opioid Receptor Knockout Mice.
Curr Neuropharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Increasing evidence suggests that µ opioid receptor (MOP) expression is altered during the development of and withdrawal from substance dependence. Although anti-MOP antibodies have been hypothesized to be useful for estimating MOP expression levels, inconsistent MOP molecular weights (MWs) have been reported in studies using anti-MOP antibodies. In the present study, we generated a new anti-MOP antibody (N38) against the 1-38 amino acid sequence of the mouse MOP N-terminus and conducted Western blot analysis with wildtype and MOP knockout brain lysates to determine the MWs of intrinsic MOP. The N38 antibody detected migrating bands with relative MWs of 60-67 kDa in the plasma membrane fraction isolated from wildtype brain, but not from the MOP knockout brain. These migrating bands exhibited semi-linear density in the range of 3-30 µg membrane proteins/lane. The N38 antibody may be useful for quantitatively detecting MOP.
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Developmental profile of SK2 channel expression and function in CA1 neurons.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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We investigated the temporal and spatial expression of SK2 in the developing mouse hippocampus using molecular and biochemical techniques, quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, and electrophysiology. The mRNA encoding SK2 was expressed in the developing and adult hippocampus. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed that SK2 protein increased with age. This was accompanied by a shift in subcellular localization. Early in development (P5), SK2 was predominantly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in the pyramidal cell layer. But by P30 SK2 was almost exclusively expressed in the dendrites and spines. The level of SK2 at the postsynaptic density (PSD) also increased during development. In the adult, SK2 expression on the spine plasma membrane showed a proximal-to-distal gradient. Consistent with this redistribution and gradient of SK2, the selective SK channel blocker apamin increased evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) only in CA1 pyramidal neurons from mice older than P15. However, the effect of apamin on EPSPs was not different between synapses in proximal or distal stratum radiatum or stratum lacunosum-moleculare in adult. These results show a developmental increase and gradient in SK2-containing channel surface expression that underlie their influence on neurotransmission, and that may contribute to increased memory acquisition during early development.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.