Synthesis and physicochemical properties of metallobacteriochlorins.
Access to metallobacteriochlorins is essential for investigation of a wide variety of fundamental photochemical processes, yet relatively few synthetic metallobacteriochlorins have been prepared. Members of a set of synthetic bacteriochlorins bearing 0-4 carbonyl groups (1, 2, or 4 carboethoxy substituents, or an annulated imide moiety) were examined under two conditions: (i) standard conditions for zincation of porphyrins [Zn(OAc)(2)·2H(2)O in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 60-80 °C], and (ii) treatment in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with a strong base [e.g., NaH or lithium diisopropylamide (LDA)] followed by a metal reagent MX(n). Zincation of bacteriochlorins that bear 2-4 carbonyl groups proceeded under the former method whereas those with 0-2 carbonyl groups proceeded with NaH or LDA/THF followed by Zn(OTf)(2). The scope of metalation (via NaH or LDA in THF) is as follows: (a) for bacteriochlorins that bear two electron-releasing aryl groups, M = Cu, Zn, Pd, and InCl (but not Mg, Al, Ni, Sn, or Au); (b) for bacteriochlorins that bear two carboethoxy groups, M = Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd, Cd, InCl, and Sn (but not Mg, Al, or Au); and (c) a bacteriochlorin with four carboethoxy groups was metalated with Mg (other metals were not examined). Altogether, 15 metallobacteriochlorins were isolated and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray analysis of 8,8,18,18-tetramethylbacteriochlorin reveals the core geometry provided by the four nitrogen atoms is rectangular; the difference in length of the two sides is ?0.08 Å. Electronic characteristics of (metal-free) bacteriochlorins were probed through electrochemical measurements along with density functional theory calculation of the energies of the frontier molecular orbitals. The photophysical properties (fluorescence yields, triplet yields, singlet and triplet excited-state lifetimes) of the zinc bacteriochlorins are generally similar to those of the metal-free analogues, and to those of the native chromophores bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a. The availability of diverse metallobacteriochlorins should prove useful in a variety of fundamental photochemical studies and applications.