Chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) is a powerful technique for acute perturbation of biomolecules in a spatio-temporally defined manner in living specimen with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whereas a chemical photosensitizer including fluorescein must be added to specimens exogenously and cannot be restricted to particular cells or sub-cellular compartments, a genetically-encoded photosensitizer, KillerRed, can be controlled in its expression by tissue specific promoters or subcellular localization tags. Despite of this superiority, KillerRed hasnt yet become a versatile tool because its dimerization tendency prevents fusion with proteins of interest. Here, we report the development of monomeric variant of KillerRed (SuperNova) by direct evolution using random mutagenesis. In contrast to KillerRed, SuperNova in fusion with target proteins shows proper localization. Furthermore, unlike KillerRed, SuperNova expression alone doesnt perturb mitotic cell division. Supernova retains the ability to generate ROS, and hence promote CALI-based functional analysis of target proteins overcoming the major drawbacks of KillerRed.
Assembly of the eukaryotic 20S proteasome is an ordered process involving several proteins operating as proteasome assembly factors including PAC1-PAC2 but archaeal 20S proteasome subunits can spontaneously assemble into an active cylindrical architecture. Recent bioinformatic analysis identified archaeal PAC1-PAC2 homologs PbaA and PbaB. However, it remains unclear whether such assembly factor-like proteins play an indispensable role in orchestration of proteasome subunits in archaea. We revealed that PbaB forms a homotetramer and exerts a dual function as an ATP-independent proteasome activator and a molecular chaperone through its tentacle-like C-terminal segments. Our findings provide insights into molecular evolution relationships between proteasome activators and assembly factors.
There is an alarming rate of human African trypanosomiasis recrudescence in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, the disease has no successful chemotherapy. Trypanosoma lacks the enzymatic machinery for the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides, and is critically dependent on salvage mechanisms. Inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is responsible for the rate-limiting step in guanine nucleotide metabolism. Here, we characterize recombinant Trypanosoma brucei IMPDH (TbIMPDH) to investigate the enzymatic differences between TbIMPDH and host IMPDH. Size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments reveal that TbIMPDH forms a heptamer, different from type 1 and 2 mammalian tetrameric IMPDHs. Kinetic analysis reveals calculated K m values of 30 and 1300 ? m for IMP and NAD, respectively. The obtained K m value of TbIMPDH for NAD is approximately 20-200-fold higher than that of mammalian enzymes and indicative of a different NAD binding mode between trypanosomal and mammalian IMPDHs. Inhibition studies show K i values of 3·2 ? m, 21 nM and 3·3 nM for ribavirin 5-monophosphate, mycophenolic acid and mizoribine 5-monophosphate, respectively. Our results show that TbIMPDH is different from its mammalian counterpart and thus may be a good target for further studies on anti-trypanosomal drugs.
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily and a secretory lipid-transporter protein, which binds a wide variety of hydrophobic small molecules. Here we show the feasibility of a novel drug delivery system (DDS), utilizing L-PGDS, for poorly water-soluble compounds such as diazepam (DZP), a major benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug, and 6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX), an ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist and anticonvulsant. Calorimetric experiments revealed for both compounds that each L-PGDS held three molecules with high binding affinities. By mass spectrometry, the 1:3 complex of L-PGDS and NBQX was observed. L-PGDS of 500?M increased the solubility of DZP and NBQX 7- and 2-fold, respectively, compared to PBS alone. To validate the potential of L-PGDS as a drug delivery vehicle in vivo, we have proved the prospective effects of these compounds via two separate delivery strategies. First, the oral administration of a DZP/L-PGDS complex in mice revealed an increased duration of pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex. Second, the intravenous treatment of ischemic gerbils with NBQX/L-PGDS complex showed a protective effect on delayed neuronal cell death at the hippocampal CA1 region. We propose that our novel DDS could facilitate pharmaceutical development and clinical usage of various water-insoluble compounds.
Proteins often exist as ensembles of interconverting states in solution which are often difficult to quantify. In the present manuscript we show that the combination of MS under nondenaturing conditions and AUC-SV (analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity) unambiguously clarifies a distribution of states and hydrodynamic shapes of assembled oligomers for the NAP-1 (nucleosome assembly protein 1). MS established the number of associated units, which was utilized as input for the numerical analysis of AUC-SV profiles. The AUC-SV analysis revealed that less than 1% of NAP-1 monomer exists at the micromolar concentration range and that the basic assembly unit consists of dimers of yeast or human NAP-1. These dimers interact non-covalently to form even-numbered higher-assembly states, such as tetramers, hexamers, octamers and decamers. MS and AUC-SV consistently showed that the formation of the higher oligomers was suppressed with increasing ionic strength, implicating electrostatic interactions in the formation of higher oligomers. The hydrodynamic shapes of the NAP-1 tetramer estimated from AUC-SV agreed with the previously proposed assembly models built using the known three-dimensional structure of yeast NAP-1. Those of the hexamer and octamer could be represented by new models shown in the present study. Additionally, MS was used to measure the stoichiometry of the interaction between the human NAP-1 dimer and the histone H2A-H2B dimer or H3-H4 tetramer. The present study illustrates a rigorous procedure for the analysis of protein assembly and protein-protein interactions in solution.
Type 1 blue copper proteins uniquely coordinate Cu(2+) in a trigonal planar geometry, formed by three strong equatorial ligands, His, His, and Cys, in the protein. We designed a stable Cu(2+) coordination scaffold composed of a four-stranded ?-helical coiled-coil structure. Two His residues and one Cys residue were situated to form the trigonal planar geometry and to coordinate the Cu(2+) in the hydrophobic core of the scaffold. The protein bound Cu(2+), displayed a blue color, and exhibited UV-vis spectra with a maximum of 602-616 nm, arising from the thiolate-Cu(2+) ligand to metal charge transfer, depending on the exogenous axial ligand, Cl(-) or HPO(4)(2-). The protein-Cu(2+) complex also showed unresolved small A(?) values in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral analysis and a 328 mV (vs normal hydrogen electrode, NHE) redox potential with a fast electron reaction rate. The X-ray absorption spectrum revealed that the Cu(2+) coordination environment was identical to that found in natural type 1 blue copper proteins. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the protein showed two typical Cu-N(His) at around 1.9-2.0 Å, Cu-S(Cys) at 2.3 Å, and a long Cu-Cl at a 2.66 Å, which are also characteristic of the natural type 1 blue copper proteins.
Heterobimetallic supramolecular polymers were prepared by treatment of the supramolecular polymers composed of tris(spiroborate) type molecular connecting modules with a potassium cation. On the other hand, the addition of a barium cation led to dissociation of the supramolecular polymer chain. Modulation of polymer formation was realized by the use of small metal cations as a control factor.
Semaphorins and their receptor plexins constitute a pleiotropic cell-signalling system that is used in a wide variety of biological processes, and both protein families have been implicated in numerous human diseases. The binding of soluble or membrane-anchored semaphorins to the membrane-distal region of the plexin ectodomain activates plexins intrinsic GTPase-activating protein (GAP) at the cytoplasmic region, ultimately modulating cellular adhesion behaviour. However, the structural mechanism underlying the receptor activation remains largely unknown. Here we report the crystal structures of the semaphorin 6A (Sema6A) receptor-binding fragment and the plexin A2 (PlxnA2) ligand-binding fragment in both their pre-signalling (that is, before binding) and signalling (after complex formation) states. Before binding, the Sema6A ectodomain was in the expected face-to-face homodimer arrangement, similar to that adopted by Sema3A and Sema4D, whereas PlxnA2 was in an unexpected head-on homodimer arrangement. In contrast, the structure of the Sema6A-PlxnA2 signalling complex revealed a 2:2 heterotetramer in which the two PlxnA2 monomers dissociated from one another and docked onto the top face of the Sema6A homodimer using the same interface as the head-on homodimer, indicating that plexins undergo partner exchange. Cell-based activity measurements using mutant ligands/receptors confirmed that the Sema6A face-to-face dimer arrangement is physiologically relevant and is maintained throughout signalling events. Thus, homodimer-to-heterodimer transitions of cell-surface plexin that result in a specific orientation of its molecular axis relative to the membrane may constitute the structural mechanism by which the ligand-binding signal is transmitted to the cytoplasmic region, inducing GAP domain rearrangements and activation.
Combined deficiency of coagulation factors V and VIII (F5F8D), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by coordinate reduction in the plasma levels of factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII), is genetically linked to mutations in the transmembrane lectin ERGIC-53 and the soluble calcium-binding protein MCFD2. Growing evidence indicates that these two proteins form a complex recycling between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and thereby function as a cargo receptor in the early secretory pathway of FV and FVIII. For better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the functional coordination of ERGIC-53 and MCFD2, we herein characterize their interaction by x-ray crystallographic analysis in conjunction with NMR and ultracentrifugation analyses. Inspection of the combined data reveals that ERGIC-53-CRD binds MCFD2 through its molecular surface remote from the sugar-binding site, giving rise to a 11 complex in solution. The interaction is independent of sugar-binding of ERGIC-53 and involves most of the missense mutation sites of MCFD2 so far reported in F5F8D. Comparison with the previously reported uncomplexed structure of each protein indicates that MCFD2 but not ERGIC-53-CRD undergoes significant conformational alterations upon complex formation. Our findings provide a structural basis for the cooperative interplay between ERGIC-53 and MCFD2 in capturing FV and FVIII.
In higher eukaryotic cells, DNA molecules are present as chromatin fibers, complexes of DNA with various types of proteins; chromatin fibers are highly condensed in metaphase chromosomes during mitosis. Although the formation of the metaphase chromosome structure is essential for the equal segregation of replicated chromosomal DNA into the daughter cells, the mechanism involved in the organization of metaphase chromosomes is poorly understood. To identify proteins involved in the formation and/or maintenance of metaphase chromosomes, we examined proteins that dissociated from isolated human metaphase chromosomes by 0.4 m NaCl treatment; this treatment led to significant chromosome decondensation, but the structure retained the core histones. One of the proteins identified, HP1-BP74 (heterochromatin protein 1-binding protein 74), composed of 553 amino acid residues, was further characterized. HP1-BP74 middle region (BP74Md), composed of 178 amino acid residues (Lys(97)-Lys(274)), formed a chromatosome-like structure with reconstituted mononucleosomes and protected the linker DNA from micrococcal nuclease digestion by approximately 25 bp. The solution structure determined by NMR revealed that the globular domain (Met(153)-Thr(237)) located within BP74Md possesses a structure similar to that of the globular domain of linker histones, which underlies its nucleosome binding properties. Moreover, we confirmed that BP74Md and full-length HP1-BP74 directly binds to HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) and identified the exact sites responsible for this interaction. Thus, we discovered that HP1-BP74 directly binds to HP1, and its middle region associates with linker DNA at the entry/exit site of nucleosomal DNA in vitro.
Metal ions in proteins are important not only for the formation of the proper structures but also for various biological activities. For biological functions such as hydrolysis and oxidation, metal ions often adopt unusual coordination structures. We constructed a stable scaffold for metal binding to create distorted metal coordination structures. A stable four stranded alpha-helical coiled-coil structure was used as the scaffold, and the metal binding site was in the cavity created at the center of the structure. Two His residues and one Asp or Glu residue were used to coordinate the metal ions, AM2D and AM2E, respectively. Cu(2+) bound to AM2D with an equatorial planar coordination structure with two His, one Asp, and H(2)O as detected by electron spin resonance and UV spectral analyzes. On the other hand, Cu(2+) had a slightly distorted square planar structure when it bound two His and Glu in AM2E, due to the longer side-chain of the Glu residue as compared to the Asp residue. Computational analysis also supported the distorted coordination structure of Cu(2+) in AM2E. This construct should be useful to create various coordinations of metal ions for catalytic functions.
The effect of antibody affinity on molecular forms of immune complexes was investigated by measuring antigen-antibody interactions using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry under non-denaturing conditions (MS), analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (4-Hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetic acid (NP) of different valences was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and these conjugates were used as antigens. In the interaction between N1G9, a low affinity antibody, and NP(7)-BSA, a 1:1 immune complex was detected as the major product and higher molecular weight complexes were not obtained by any of the methods employed. These results suggested that N1G9 predominantly formed an intramolecular divalent complex with NP(7)-BSA using the two Fab arms of an antibody. Although complexes of various sizes were detected by MS, AUC, and TEM in the interaction between C6, a high affinity antibody, and NP(7)-BSA, only 1:1 immune complexes were observed by SPR. These results showed that two NP(7)-BSA molecules cannot simultaneously bind to an antibody, irrespective of antibody affinity strength, when the Fc region is immobilized to a flexible dextran matrix on sensor chip but are able to do so with high affinity antibodies free in solution. The results also showed that the stoichiometry of the antigen-antibody interaction is altered by restricting the movement of the Fc region. Since immunoglobulins exist as antibodies in solution or as B cell receptors on the cell surface, it is suggested that interactions of B cell receptors with polyvalent antigens such as NP-BSA might be different from those of antibodies free in solution.
Protein encapsulation has long attracted many chemists and biologists because of its potential to control the structure and functions of proteins, but has been a daunting challenge because of their incommensurably larger size compared with common synthetic hosts. Here we report the encapsulation of a small protein, ubiquitin, within giant coordination cages. The protein was attached to one bidentate ligand and, upon addition of Pd(II) ions (M) and additional ligands (L), M(12)L(24) coordination nanocages self-assembled around the protein. Because of the well-defined host framework, the protein-encapsulated structure could be analysed by NMR spectroscopy, ultracentrifugation and X-ray crystallography.
Although various kinds of metal binding proteins have been constructed by de novo design, the creation of a binuclear metal binding site remains especially challenging. The purple copper site in subunit II of COX, referred to as the Cu(A) site, has two copper ions bridged by two Cys residues. We constructed the Cu(A) site consisting of two Cys and two His residues in a de novo designed four-helical coiled-coil protein. The protein bound two copper ions and exhibited a purple color, with relatively intense absorption bands at 488 and 530 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The EPR spectrum displayed unresolved hyperfine splittings in the g(?) region, which was similar to the native or engineered Cu(A) site with an A(?480)/A(?530) > 1. The extended X-ray absorption structure analyses of the protein revealed the presence of the Cu(2)S(2) core structure, with two typical N(His)-Cu bonds per core at 1.90 Å, two S (Cys)-Cu bonds at 2.21 Å, and the Cu-Cu bond at 2.51 Å, which are also characteristic structures of a purple copper site.
HOIL-1L and its binding partner HOIP are essential components of the E3-ligase complex that generates linear ubiquitin (Ub) chains, which are critical regulators of NF-?B activation. Using crystallographic and mutational approaches, we characterize the unexpected structural basis for the specific interaction between the Ub-like domain (UBL) of HOIL-1L and the Ub-associated domain (UBA) of HOIP. Our data indicate the functional significance of this non-canonical mode of UBA-UBL interaction in E3 complex formation and subsequent NF-?B activation. This study highlights the versatility and specificity of protein-protein interactions involving Ub/UBLs and their cognate proteins.
Protein synthesis on the ribosome requires translational GTPase factors to bind to the ribosome in the GTP-bound form, take individual actions that are coupled with GTP hydrolysis, and dissociate, usually in the GDP-bound form. The multiple copies of the flexible ribosomal stalk protein play an important role in these processes. Using biochemical approaches and the stalk protein from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus horikoshii, we here provide evidence that the conserved C terminus of the stalk protein aP1 binds directly to domain I of the elongation factor aEF-2, irrespective of whether aEF-2 is bound to GTP or GDP. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that four hydrophobic amino acids at the C terminus of aP1, Leu-100, 103, 106, and Phe-107, are crucial for the direct binding. P1 was also found to bind to the initiation factor aIF5B, as well as aEF-1?, but not aIF2?, via its C terminus. Moreover, analytical ultracentrifugation and gel mobility shift analyses showed that a heptameric complex of aP1 and aP0, aP0(aP1)(2)(aP1)(2)(aP1)(2), can bind multiple aEF-2 molecules simultaneously, which suggests that individual copies of the stalk protein are accessible to the factor. The functional significance of the C terminus of the stalk protein was also shown using the eukaryotic proteins P1/P2 and P0. It is likely that the conserved C terminus of the stalk proteins of archaea and eukaryotes can bind to translation factors both before and after GTP hydrolysis. This consistent binding ability of the stalk protein may contribute to maintaining high concentrations of translation factors around the ribosome, thus promoting translational efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.