JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rapid clearance of HCV-related Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma under an Interferon-free, NS3/NS4A inhibitor-based treatment. A case report.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) may lead to B-cells activation and transformation into non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Molecular mechanisms of B-cells transformation by HCV are poorly understood. One of the most common lymphoproliferative disorders in HCV-infected patients is splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL). A case of a 42-years old man affected by HCV-related SMZL effectively treated with an IFN-free, NS3-NS4A inhibitor-based regimen is hereby described. The patient was treated for 16 weeks with faldaprevir, deleobuvir and ribavirin achieving a very rapid viral eradication without relevant toxicities. A rapid hematologic response was noted as well, with a statistically significant correlation between viral decay and lymphocyte improvement (coefficient r=0.55, p=0.042). The viral clearance led to SMZL cure even without the use of IFN. Thus, the causative role played by HCV in SMZL development is once again reinforced, whereas antiviral rather than anti-proliferative activity of IFN is indirectly proven. A regimen including DAAs should be considered when treating a HCV-related extra-hepatic disease.
Related JoVE Video
OPERA: responses to peginterferon and ribavirin therapy in a subgroup of interferon-naïve patients with HIV/HCV genotype 2/3 co-infection in Italy.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 (G3) is common among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals and associated with moderate sustained virological response (SVR) rates with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy, while G2 is less frequent and associated with higher SVR. To determine SVR and other response rates, identify SVR predictors and analyse differences between G2 and G3 with PEG-IFN/RBV in a large HIV/HCV G2/3 patient population.
Related JoVE Video
Cytopenias during treatment of HIV-HCV-coinfection with pegylated interferon and ribavirin: safety analysis of the OPERA study.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Until recently, recommendations for HCV treatment in HIV coinfected patients has been combination therapy with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV). However, this treatment is often accompanied with cytopenias which lead to drug-dose reduction/discontinuation, therefore influencing sustained virologic response (SVR). This study aimed at evaluating incidence and predictors of cytopenias and define their impact on SVR, in Italian HIV/HCV coinfected patients undergoing PEG-IFN/RBV treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for untreated HCV genotype 1 infection.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In phase 2 studies, treatment with the all-oral combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among previously untreated patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection.
Related JoVE Video
Recommendations for the use of Hepatitis C virus protease inhibitors for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C in HIV-infected persons. A position paper of the Italian Association for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Disease.
New Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The efficacy data obtained with boceprevir and telaprevir for persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection raise the question of whether HCV protease inhibitors should be used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV co-infected persons. The Italian Association for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases has made these recommendations to provide the rationale and practical indications for the use of triple anti-HCV therapy in persons living with HIV (PLWHIV). A Writing Committee of experts indicated by the President of the Association and a Consulting Committee con- tributed to the document. The final draft was submitted to the evaluation of external experts and the text modified according to their suggestions and comments. Treatment of HCV co-infection should be considered for all HCV RNA positive PLWHIV. Response-guided therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin is the standard treatment of PLWHIV with infection by HCV genotype 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Boceprevir and telaprevir should be used to treat HCV genotype 1 infection in HIV/HCV co-infected patients for 48 weeks on an individual basis, with close monitoring of their efficacy and tolerability with concur- rent antiretroviral therapy, taking into account potential drug-drug interactions. The decision to treat a patient or to wait for better treatment options, or to discontinue treatment should be made on an individual basis taking into account pre-treatment variables and the on-treatment HCV RNA kinetics.
Related JoVE Video
Immune activation and microbial translocation in liver disease progression in HIV/hepatitis co-infected patients: results from the Icona Foundation study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated whether immune activation (IA) and microbial translocation (MT) might play a role in accelerating liver disease progression in HIV-HBV/HCV co-infected patients.
Related JoVE Video
OPERA: use of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for treating hepatitis C/HIV co-infection in interferon-naive patients.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Optimized Pegylated interferons Efficacy and anti-Retroviral Approach (OPERA) study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety profile of treatment with pegylated interferons (PEG-IFNs) in interferon-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infection in routine clinical practice.
Related JoVE Video
Strategies for assignment of HIV/HCV genotype 1-coinfected patients to either dual-therapy or direct-acting antiviral agent based triple therapy.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate strategies for assignment of HIV/hepatitis C virus genotype 1-coinfected patients (HIV/HCV-GT1) to either dual-therapy or direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA)-based triple-therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Optimizing treatment in HIV/HCV coinfection.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sustained virological response (SVR) to anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is an outcome that can improve life expectancy in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Results of anti-HCV treatment are poor, and less than 50% of treated patients show SVR to peginterferon plus ribavirin combination therapy; in infections from HCV genotype 1 this proportion is less than 40%. Pilot studies have demonstrated that Boceprevir or Telaprevir in combination with peginterferon plus ribavirin are able to increase the SVR rate from 45% to 74% with Telaprevir, and from 26% to 61% with Boceprevir in persons never treated for hepatitis C. Interim data seem to indicate a high rate of HCV RNA undetectability on treatment also in patients without sustained response to peginterferon plus ribavirin. Both Telaprevir and Boceprevir have drug-drug interactions with antiretrovirals, and options for concurrent antiretroviral therapy are restricted. There are also several new anti-HCV drugs under study with the potential for more tolerable effective future regimens. The indication for treatment in a patient with HCV/HIV coinfection should take into account the priority of treatment, the probability of sustained response, the potential toxicities, the concurrent antiretroviral therapy options, the patients motivation, and the sustainability of current and future therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Management of infections pre- and post-liver transplantation: Report of a AISF Consensus Conference.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The burden of infectious diseases both before and after liver transplantation is clearly attributable to the dysfunction of defensive mechanisms of the host, both as a result of cirrhosis, as well as the use of immunosuppressive agents. The present document represents the recommendations of an expert panel commended by the Italian Association of the Study of the Liver, on the prevention and management of infectious complications excluding hepatitis B, D, C and HIV in the setting of liver transplantation. Due to a decreased response to vaccinations in cirrhosis as well as within the first six months after transplantation, the best timing for immunization is likely before transplant and early in the course of disease. Before transplantation, a vaccination panel including inactivated as well as live attenuated vaccines is recommended, while oral polio vaccine, Calmette-Guerins bacillus, and Smallpox are contraindicated, whereas after transplantation, live attenuated vaccines are contraindicated. Before transplant, screening protocols should be divided into different levels according to the likelihood of infection, in order to reduce costs for the National Health Service. Recommended preoperative and postoperative prophylaxis varies according to the pathologic agent to which it is directed (bacterial vs viral vs fungal). Timing after transplantation greatly determines the most likely agent involved in post-transplant infections, and specific high-risk categories of patients have been identified that warrant closer surveillance. Clearly, specifically targeted treatment protocols are needed upon diagnosis of infections in both the pre- as well as the post-transplant scenarios, not without considering local microbiology and resistance patterns.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of interleukin 28B rs12979860 single nucleotide polymorphism and liver fibrosis stage on response-guided therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
According to the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for response-guided therapy (RGT) of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-positive patients, HCV-genotype (GT) and rapid virologic response (RVR) exclusively determine the duration of antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEGIFN+RBV). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of interleukin 28B rs12979860 single nucleotide polymorphism (IL28B) and liver fibrosis stage on RGT in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
Related JoVE Video
Management of infections in cirrhotic patients: Report of a Consensus Conference.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The statements produced by the consensus conference on infection in end-stage liver disease promoted by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, are here reported. The topics of epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of infections in patient with compensated and decompensated liver cirrhosis were reviewed by a scientific board of experts who proposed 26 statements that were graded according to level of evidence and strength of recommendation, and approved by an independent jury. Each topic was explored focusing on the more relevant clinical questions. By systematic literature search of available evidence, comparison and discussion of expert opinions, pertinent statements answering specific questions were presented and approved. Short comments were added to explain the basis for grading evidence particularly on case of controversial areas.
Related JoVE Video
Access to treatment for HBV infection and its consistency with 2008 European guidelines in a multicentre cross-sectional study of HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Italy.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A survey was performed in 2008 to evaluate the profiles of patients with chronic hepatitis B cared for by Italian Infectious Diseases Centers (IDCs). This analysis describes: i) factors associated with access to the anti-HBV treatment in a cohort of HIV/HBV co-infected patients cared for in tertiary centers of a developed country with comprehensive coverage under the National Health System (NHS); ii) consistency of current anti-HBV regimens with specific European guidelines in force at the time of the study and factors associated with the receipt of sub-optimal regimens.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV hepatitis C virus.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent data showed that in some settings with adequate resources liver diseases rank first among the causes of death in persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Although liver decompensation is the first cause of hepatic death in PLHIV, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is also emerging as one of the causes of hepatic death in PLHIV. This review analyzes the main data published on HCC in PLHIV in the last 3 years.
Related JoVE Video
Hyaluronic acid levels predict increased risk of non-AIDS death in hepatitis-coinfected persons interrupting antiretroviral therapy in the SMART Study.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the SMART study, HIV-viral-hepatitis-coinfected persons were, compared with HIV-monoinfected persons, at higher risk of non-AIDS death if randomized to the antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption strategy. We hypothesized that a marker of liver fibrosis, hyaluronic acid (HA), would be predictive of development of non-AIDS-related outcomes in coinfected participants in the SMART study.
Related JoVE Video
A systematic review of hepatitis C virus epidemiology in Europe, Canada and Israel.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Decisions on public health issues are dependent on reliable epidemiological data. A comprehensive review of the literature was used to gather country-specific data on risk factors, prevalence, number of diagnosed individuals and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in selected European countries, Canada and Israel.
Related JoVE Video
The epidemiological pattern of chronic liver diseases in a community undergoing voluntary screening for hepatitis B and C.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vallecamonica-Sebino is a community in Northern Italy (99,776 inhabitants) with one of the highest mortality rates for primary liver cancer and cirrhosis in Italy, and voluntary screening for HCV and HBV is widespread. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic liver diseases and their aetiology in the area.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of chronic hepatitis B: update of the recommendations from the 2007 Italian Workshop.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Italian recommendations for the therapy of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related disease were issued in 2008. Subsequently in 2008 the nucleotide analogue (NA) Tenofovir was approved for antiviral treatment. The introduction of this important new drug has called for the current guidelines update, which includes some additional revisions: (a) the indication for therapy is extended to mild liver fibrosis and the indication for treatment is graded as "possible", "optional" or "mandatory" according to the fibrosis stage; (b) two different treatment strategies are described: first line definite duration treatment with interferon, long-term treatment of indefinite duration with NA; (c) the indication to follow either strategy is also based on the stage of liver fibrosis; (d) virological monitoring is modified to include the definitions of failure and of sustained virological response to interferon therapy; (e) the recommendation to use HBV DNA assays with high sensitivity and wide linear ranges is underlined (f) guidelines on post-treatment follow-up after finite treatment with NA, potential side effects of therapy and non-virological monitoring are defined; (g) definitions and treatment of patients without optimal response to NA are reported; (f) treatment and monitoring of compensated or decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are updated.
Related JoVE Video
[Update on the diagnosis and therapy of blood-transmitted occupational infections].
G Ital Med Lav Ergon
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection are the most important blood borne occupational viral infection. Estimates of the prevalence of HIV infection in Italy is between 0.24 and 0.26%. The implementation of HIV screening strategies in the general population will decrease the proportion of patients with unknown HIV serostatus and the improvement of anti HIV therapie will decrease the proportion of HIV infected patients with detectable viraemia. The increate sensitivity of HBVDNA assays will prompt the definition of cut off levels for the definition of the infectivity of HBsAg positive health workers. The availability of highly effective and well tollerate oral antivirals could increase the proportion of treatable HBsAg positive health workers. The highly elevated success rates in the treatment of acute HCV infection will support strategies aimed at an early identification of occupational HCV infections. The tailoring of anti HCV schedules allows to optimize anti HCV treatment of health workers with chronic hepatitis C and the availability of new anti HCV will open an horizon of success in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in health workers.
Related JoVE Video
The homeostasis model assessment of the insulin resistance score is not predictive of a sustained virological response in chronic hepatitis C patients.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the independent association between the homeostasis model assessment of the insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score and rapid virological response (RVR) and sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
Related JoVE Video
Hepatitis A in men having sex with men (MSMs) in northern Italy.
Infez Med
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During 2009 there was an increased incidence of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection among homosexual males which, in our institute, outnumbered the number of cases in travellers, thus becoming the prime HAV risk factor. Some of our HAV cases occurred in HIV-infected subjects. This observation underlines the action of HAV as a sexually transmitted infection and urges preventive measures, such as routine HAV vaccination in the HIV-infected population.
Related JoVE Video
Frequent hepatitis B virus rebound among HIV-hepatitis B virus-coinfected patients following antiretroviral therapy interruption.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption in HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected patients was examined in the Strategic Management of AntiRetroviral Therapy (SMART) study.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of developing specific AIDS-defining illnesses in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus with or without liver cirrhosis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are few data concerning the risk of specific opportunistic diseases in patients with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We evaluated the correlation between the occurrence of different AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and chronic HCV infection or HCV-related liver cirrhosis in a large Italian cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects.
Related JoVE Video
Viral interference between hepatitis B, C, and D viruses in dual and triple infections in HIV-positive patients.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the reciprocal inhibitory effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)/hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections in naive and previously antiretroviral-experienced HIV-positive patients.
Related JoVE Video
Use of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-blocking agents in hepatitis B virus-positive patients: reports of 3 cases and review of the literature.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the development of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha-blocking agents (TNFBA), and to evaluate whether lamivudine (LAM) prophylaxis can reduce the risk of viral reactivation in inactive HBsAg carriers.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-related liver disease: ARV drugs, coinfection, and other risk factors.
J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proven remarkably effective for prolonging the life of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, while most HAART agents are safe, many have the potential to cause liver toxicity. Physicians must therefore consider the possibility of drug-induced liver injury in the management of HIV-infected patients, especially those with certain risk factors such as coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), female gender, alcohol abuse, older age, or obesity. Understanding how, when, and why drug-related liver damage occurs is key to managing these patients safely and effectively. Knowledge of HAART-related liver effects will help ensure that patients receive the most benefit with the least toxicity from any given drug regimen. As more information about the mechanisms of drug related liver injury is known, clinicians will be better able to tailor therapies to suit individual situations, resulting in greater patient safety and outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Unboosted fosamprenavir is associated with low drug exposure in HIV-infected patients with mild-moderate liver impairment resulting from HCV-related cirrhosis.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare amprenavir pharmacokinetics in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-co-infected cirrhotic patients receiving non-boosted fosamprenavir 700 mg twice daily with HCV/HIV-co-infected non-cirrhotic subjects and HIV-mono-infected subjects receiving fosamprenavir/ritonavir 700/100 mg twice daily. Liver stiffness at baseline and alanine aminotransferase levels at baseline and during follow-up were measured in order to find a correlation between drug levels and liver fibrosis or hepatotoxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Rhinoscleroma in an immigrant from Egypt: a case report.
J Travel Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rhinoscleroma is a chronic indolent granulomatous infection of the nose and the upper respiratory tract caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis; this condition is endemic to many regions of the world including North Africa. We present a case of rhinoscleroma in a 51-year-old Egyptian immigrant with 1-month history of epistaxis. We would postulate that with increased travel from areas where rhinoscleroma is endemic to other non-endemic areas, diagnosis of this condition will become more common.
Related JoVE Video
Top topics in HCV research arena.
BMC Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A significant improvement in the rate of eradication of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 has been achieved with the addition of Boceprevir and Telaprevir to pegylated interferon and ribavirin. These two drugs are the heralds of a new wave of antivirals that will improve the efficacy of pegylated interferon or even will substitute this drug in interferon free combinations. The results of phase II studies in patients naïve to treatment seem to be very promising strongly supporting the possibility of a large success for a first line all oral antiviral combination in interferon naïve. However, data observed in interferon experienced patients are less exciting and probably more complex treatment regimens will be needed to treat this patients population.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical management of drug-drug interactions in HCV therapy: challenges and solutions.
J. Hepatol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients often take multiple co-medications to treat adverse events related to HCV therapy, or to manage other co-morbidities. Drug-drug interactions associated with this polypharmacy are relatively new to the field of HCV pharmacotherapy. With the advent of the direct-acting antivirals telaprevir and boceprevir, which are both substrates and inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A iso-enzyme, knowledge and awareness of drug-drug interactions have become a cornerstone in the evaluation of patients starting and continuing HCV combination therapy. In our opinion, an overview of conducted drug-drug interaction studies and a list of contraindicated medications is not enough for the clinical management of these drug-drug interactions. Knowledge of pharmacokinetic profiles and concentration-effect relationships is key for the interpretation of these data, and insight into how to manage these interactions (e.g., dose adjustments, safe alternatives and therapeutic drug monitoring) is of equal importance. This review provides a practical overview of the safe and effective management of these clinical challenges.
Related JoVE Video
FDG-PET imaging in the diagnosis of HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease: something is still missing.
Top Antivir Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Now that [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has become an established imaging tool in oncology, it is attracting interest in the field of infectious diseases. Several studies have used FDG-PET to examine the pathophysiology of HIV infection as well as other conditions such as lipodystrophic syndrome and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders. In clinical practice, FDG-PET has been proposed to assess fever of unknown origin or with lymphoproliferative disorders such as Castleman disease in individuals with HIV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Lamivudine or emtricitabine (XTC)/protease inhibitor dual therapy as a harm-reduction strategy in patients with tenofovir-related renal toxicity: a case-control study.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is widely used in HIV-infected patients. It is associated with tubular toxicity, but its management is controversial. A possible strategy is to switch to a dual therapy based on lamivudine or emtricitabine (XTC) and protease inhibitors (PIs). A case-control study was designed to evaluate the switch to XTC + PI therapy in patients with TDF-related renal toxicity. A case was defined as a patient who was on TDF/XTC + PI and who switched to XTC + PI. A control was defined as a patient with the same clinical features who remained on TDF/XTC + PI. Twenty-one cases and 21 controls were included. After 48 weeks, no differences in efficacy were observed. No improvement in the glomerular filtration rate as estimated with the Cockroft-Gault formula (eGFR) was seen, but the number of times that patients had values below 60 ml/min was higher with standard TDF/XTC 1 PI treatment than with dual XTC + PI treatment. A switch to dual therapy could be an option for patients at risk of TDF-related renal damage with no relevant risk of virological or immunological failure.
Related JoVE Video
The burden of liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.
Semin. Liver Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Introduction of effective combined antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a chronic illness. Substantial reductions in the number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome- (AIDS-) related deaths have been accompanied by an increase in liver-related morbidity and mortality. Liver diseases rank in the first three most-common causes of death in HIV-infected persons. Mortality is mainly due to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma induced by hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus coinfection. However, antiretroviral drugs toxicity also plays a role. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common cause of liver injury as well. Nevertheless, alcohol consumption probably plays a pivotal role. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension, an uncommon condition observed in less than 1% of patients, is increasingly described. Finally, acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) and acute and even chronic hepatitis E virus infection have also been reported as causes of liver damage in HIV. Anti-HAV vaccination is thus recommended in persons at risk living with HIV.
Related JoVE Video
High sustained virologic response rates in rapid virologic response patients in the large real-world PROPHESYS cohort confirm results from randomized clinical trials.
Hepatology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability to predict which patients are most likely to achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR) with peginterferon/ribavirin would be useful in optimizing treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV). The objective of this large international noninterventional cohort study was to investigate the predictive value (PV) of a virologic response (VR) by weeks 2, 4, and 12 of treatment on SVR. Treatment-naive HCV monoinfected patients (N = 7,163) age ? 18 years were prescribed peginterferon/ribavirin at the discretion of the treating physician according to country-specific requirements in accordance with the local label. The main outcome measure was the PV of a VR (HCV RNA <50 IU/mL) by weeks 2, 4, and 12 of treatment for SVR24 (HCV RNA <50 IU/mL after 24 weeks of untreated follow-up) by HCV genotype. The overall SVR24 rate was 49.4% (3,541/7,163; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 48.3-50.6%). SVR24 rates in patients with an HCV RNA titer <50 IU/mL by weeks 2, 4, and 12, respectively, were 66.2% (95% CI: 60.4-71.7%), 68.4% (95% CI: 65.7-71.0%), and 60.3% (95% CI: 58.5-62.1%) among genotype 1 patients; 82.0% (95% CI: 76.8-86.5%), 76.3% (95% CI: 73.3-79.1%), and 74.2% (95% CI: 71.3-76.9%) among genotype 2 patients; 67.3% (95% CI: 61.1-73.1%), 67.3% (95% CI: 64.2-70.3%), and 63.8% (95% CI: 61.0-66.6%) among genotype 3 patients; and 59.4% (95% CI: 40.6-76.3%), 63.3% (95% CI: 54.3-71.6%), and 54.3% (95% CI: 47.5-60.9%) among genotype 4 patients. The absence of a VR by week 12 had the highest negative PV across all genotypes.
Related JoVE Video
Circulating sCD14 is associated with virological response to pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin treatment in HIV/HCV co-infected patients.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microbial translocation (MT) through the gut accounts for immune activation and CD4+ loss in HIV and may influence HCV disease progression in HIV/HCV co-infection. We asked whether increased MT and immune activation may hamper anti-HCV response in HIV/HCV patients.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.