EDC system has been used in the field of clinical research. The current EDC system does not connect with electronic medical record system (EMR), thus a medical staff has to transcribe the data in EMR to EDC system manually. This redundant process causes not only inefficiency but also human error. We developed an EDC system cooperating with EMR, in which the data required for a clinical research form (CRF) is transcribed automatically from EMR to electronic CRF (eCRF) and is sent via network. We call this system as "eCRF reporter". The interface module of eCRF reporter can retrieves the data in EMR database including patient biography data, laboratory test data, prescription data and data entered by template in progress notes. The eCRF reporter also enables users to enter data directly to eCRF. The eCRF reporter generates CDISC ODM file and PDF which is a translated form of Clinical data in ODM. After storing eCRF in EMR, it is transferred via VPN to a clinical data management system (CDMS) which can receive the eCRF files and parse ODM. We started some clinical research by using this system. This system is expected to promote clinical research efficiency and strictness.
To secure business continuity is indispensable for hospitals to fulfill its social responsibility under disasters. Although to back up the data of the hospital information system (HIS) at multiple remote sites is a key strategy of business continuity plan (BCP), the requirements to treat privacy sensitive data jack up the cost for the backup. The secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message up so that each individual piece is meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together to reveal the original message. The secret sharing method eases us to exchange HIS backups between multiple hospitals. This paper evaluated the feasibility of the commercial secret sharing solution for HIS backup through several simulations. The result shows that the commercial solution is feasible to realize reasonable HIS backup exchange platform when template of contract between participating hospitals is ready.
We started a multi-year project to collect discharge summaries from multiple hospitals and create a big text database to build a common document vector space, and develop various applications such as the autoselection of the disease. As the first step, we extracted discharge summary from two hospitals. Using a text mining method, we carried out a DPC selection. There was a difference in term structure and number of terms between the discharge summaries from both hospitals. Nevertheless, the selection rate of the disease is resembled closely.
Standard Japanese electronic medical record (EMR) systems are associated with major shortcomings. For example, they do not assure lifelong readability of records because each document requires its own viewing software program, a system that is difficult to maintain over long periods of time. It can also be difficult for users to comprehend a patients clinical history because different classes of documents can only be accessed from their own window. To address these problems, we developed a document-based electronic medical record that aggregates all documents for a patient in a PDF or DocuWorks format. We call this system the Document Archiving and Communication System (DACS). There are two types of viewers in the DACS: the Matrix View, which provides a time line of a patients history, and the Tree View, which stores the documents in hierarchical document classes. We placed 2,734 document classes into 11 categories. A total of 22,3972 documents were entered per month. The frequency of use of the DACS viewer was 268,644 instances per month. The DACS viewer was used to assess a patients clinical history.
We developed a system that transfers images via network and started using them in our hospitals PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) in 2006. We are pleased to report that the system has been re-developed and has been running so that there will be a regional liaison in the future. It has become possible to automatically transfer images simply by selecting the destination hospital that is registered in advance at the relay server. The gateway of this system can send images to a multi-center, relay management server, which receives the images and resends them. This system has the potential to be useful for image exchange, and to serve as a regional medical liaison.
In the face of a disaster hospitals are expected to be able to continue providing efficient and high-quality care to patients. It is therefore crucial for hospitals to develop business continuity plans (BCPs) that identify their vulnerabilities, and prepare procedures to overcome them. A key aspect of most hospitals BCPs is creating the backup of the hospital information system (HIS) data at multiple remote sites. However, the need to keep the data confidential dramatically increases the costs of making such backups. Secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message so that individual pieces are meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together reveals the original message. It allows creation of pseudo-redundant arrays of independent disks for privacy-sensitive data over the Internet. We developed a secret sharing environment for StarBED, a large-scale network experiment environment, and evaluated its potential and performance during disaster recovery. Simulation results showed that the entire main HIS database of Kyoto University Hospital could be retrieved within three days even if one of the distributed storage systems crashed during a disaster.
We previously reported the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lymphotoxin alpha (LT?) gene with susceptibility to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and increased mortality after discharge. In the present study, we investigated whether the adverse effect of LT? C804A polymorphism on mortality could be pharmacologically modified by statin treatment after AMI.
An alert system in a hospital information system (HIS) would be helpful for physicians to prescribe medication appropriately. In this study we developed an alert system that extracts target problems from the raw data and verifies whether contraindicated medication is prescribed.
Medical records must be kept over an extended period of time, meanwhile computer based medical records are renewed every 5-6 years. Readability of medical records must be assured even though the systems are renewed by different vendors. To achieve this, we proposed a method called DACS, in which a medical record is considered as an aggregation of documents. A Document generated by a system is transformed to a format read by free software such as PDF, which is transferred with the document meta-information and important data written on the XML to the Document Deliverer. It stores these data into the Document Archiver, the Document Sharing Server and the Data Warehouse (DWH). We developed the Matrix View which shows documents in chronological order, and the Tree View showing documents in class tree structure. By this method all the documents can be integrated and be viewed by a single viewer. This helps users figure out patient history and find a document being sought. In addition, documents data can be shared among systems and analyzed by DWH. Most importantly DACS can assure the lifelong readability of medical records.
MTK1 (MEKK4) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that regulates the activity of its downstream mitogen-activated kinases, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, the physiological function of MTK1 in the heart remains to be determined. Here, we attempted to elucidate the function of MTK1 in the heart using in vitro and in vivo models. MTK1 was activated in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure overload-induced heart failure. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of MTK1 (MTK1DeltaN) induced apoptosis in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, whereas a kinase domain-deleted form of MTK1 attenuated H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. Specific inhibitors of p38 or JNK effectively protected cardiomyocytes from MTK1DeltaN-induced cell death. In mice, cardiac-specific overexpression of MTK1DeltaN resulted in early mortality compared with the lifespan of littermate controls. Echocardiographic analysis revealed increases in end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular internal dimensions and a decrease in fractional shortening in MTK1DeltaN transgenic mice. In addition, the mice showed characteristic phenotypes of heart failure such as an increase in lung weight. The number of TUNEL-positive myocytes and the level of cleaved caspase 3 protein were both increased in MTK1DeltaN transgenic mice. Thus, MTK1 plays an important role in the regulation of cell death and is also involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure.
Cardiomyocyte death plays an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway regulates cell death, however, the effect of NF-kappaB pathway on cell death can vary in different cells or stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the in vivo role of the NF-kappaB pathway in response to pressure overload. First, we subjected C57Bl6/J mice to pressure overload by means of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and examined the activity of the NF-kappaB pathway in response to pressure overload. IkappaB kinase (IKK) and NF-kappaB were activated after TAC. Then, we investigated the role of the activation using cardiac-specific IKKbeta-deficient mice (CKO). CKO displayed normal global cardiac structure and function compared with control littermates. We subjected CKO and control mice to pressure overload. One week after TAC, CKO showed cardiac dilation, dysfunction, and lung congestion, which are characteristics of heart failure. The number of apoptotic cells in the hearts of CKO mice increased significantly after TAC. The levels of manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA and protein expression in CKO after TAC were significantly attenuated compared with control mice. The levels of oxidative stress and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in CKO after TAC were significantly greater than those in control mice. Isoproterenol-induced cell death of isolated adult CKO cardiomyocytes was inhibited by treatment with either a manganese superoxide dismutase mimetic or a JNK inhibitor. Thus, the IKKbeta/NF-kappaB signaling pathway plays a protective role in cardiomyocytes because of the attenuation of oxidative stress and JNK activation in a setting of acute pressure overload.
Server-Based Computing (SBC) is a technology for terminal administration that achieves higher security at lower expense. Use of SBC in large hospitals, however, is not widespread because methods to effectively implement the technology have not been fully established. We present a system design that uses SBC in a large-scale hospital and then discuss the implementation problems and their solutions. With the exception of network traffic estimates, the server size estimates were validated. Three results from an evaluation of an SBC implementation were: 1) security was re-enforced by applying multiple-policy adaptation to a single client terminal, 2) cost reduction was realized by having fewer PC failures and a lower power consumption, and 3) user-roaming was found to be effective in reducing the number of iterative operations performed by users.
Ferritin heavy chain (FHC) protein was significantly reduced in murine failing hearts following left coronary ligation or thoracic transverse aortic constriction. The mRNA expression of FHC was not significantly altered in failing hearts, compared to that in control sham-operated hearts. Prussian blue staining revealed spotty iron depositions in myocardial infarct failing hearts. Oxidative stress was enhanced in the myocardial infarct failing hearts, as evidenced by increases in 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine immunoreactivity. To clarify the functional significance of FHC downregulation in hearts, we infected rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with adenoviral vector expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to FHC (Ad-FHC-RNAi). The downregulation of FHC induced a reduction in the viability of cardiomyocytes. The relative number of iron deposition-, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- or 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cardiomyocytes was significantly higher in Ad-FHC-RNAi-infected cardiomyocytes than in control vector-infected cardiomyocytes. Treatment of Ad-FHC-RNAi-infected cardiomyocytes with desferrioxamine, an iron chelator, significantly reduced the number of iron, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal or 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cells, and increased viability. In addition, treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, significantly reduced the number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- or 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cells. Reduced viability in Ad-FHC-RNAi-infected cardiomyocytes was significantly improved with N-acetyl cysteine treatment. These findings indicate that excessive free iron and the resultant enhanced oxidative stress caused by downregulation of FHC lead to cardiomyocyte death. The decrease in FHC expression in failing hearts may play an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure.
We aim at making a diagnosis support system that can be put to practical use. We proposed a diagnostic process model based on simple knowledge which can be gleaned from textbooks. We defined clinical finding (CF) as a general concept for patients symptom or findings etc., whose value is expressed by Boolean. We call the combination of several CFs a "CF pattern", and a set of CF patterns with concomitant diseases "case base". We consider diagnosis as a process of searching an instance from the case base whose CF pattern is concomitant with that of a patient. The diseases which have the same CF pattern are candidates for diagnosis. Then we select a CF which is present in part of the candidates and check whether it is present or absent in the patient in order to narrow down the candidates. Because the case base does not exist in reality, the probability of CF pattern is calculated by the product of CF occurrence rate assuming that occurrence of CF is independent. Therefore the knowledge required for diagnosis is frequency of disease under sex and age group and CF-disease relation (CF and its occurrence rate in the disease). By processing these two types of knowledge, diagnosis can be made.
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