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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
IL-9 is a key component of memory TH cell peanut-specific responses from children with peanut allergy.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Differentiation between patients with peanut allergy (PA) and those with peanut sensitization (PS) who tolerate peanut but have peanut-specific IgE, positive skin prick test responses, or both represents a significant diagnostic difficulty. Previously, gene expression microarrays were successfully used to identify biomarkers and explore immune responses during PA immunotherapy.
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3D In Vitro Model of a Functional Epidermal Permeability Barrier from Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Stem Cell Reports
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Cornification and epidermal barrier defects are associated with a number of clinically diverse skin disorders. However, a suitable in vitro model for studying normal barrier function and barrier defects is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate the generation of human epidermal equivalents (HEEs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). HEEs are structurally similar to native epidermis, with a functional permeability barrier. We exposed a pure population of hESC/iPSC-derived keratinocytes, whose transcriptome corresponds to the gene signature of normal primary human keratinocytes (NHKs), to a sequential high-to-low humidity environment in an air/liquid interface culture. The resulting HEEs had all of the cellular strata of the human epidermis, with skin barrier properties similar to those of normal skin. Such HEEs generated from disease-specific iPSCs will be an invaluable tool not only for dissecting molecular mechanisms that lead to epidermal barrier defects but also for drug development and screening.
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Protection against epithelial damage during Candida albicans infection is mediated by PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Background.?The ability of epithelial cells (ECs) to discriminate between commensal and pathogenic microbes is essential for healthy living. Key to these interactions are mucosal epithelial responses to pathogen-induced damage.Methods.?Using reconstituted oral epithelium we assessed epithelial gene transcriptional responses to C. albicans infection by microarray. Signal pathway activation was monitored by Western blot and Transcription factor ELISA, and their role in C. albicans-induced damage protection determined using chemical inhibitors.Results.?Transcript profiling demonstrated early up-regulation of epithelial genes involved in immune responses. Many of these genes constituted components of signaling pathways, but only NF-?B, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were functionally activated. We demonstrate that PI3K/Akt signaling is independent of NF-?B and MAPK signaling and plays a key role in epithelial immune activation and damage protection via mTOR activation.Conclusion.?PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling may play a critical role in protecting epithelial cells from damage during mucosal fungal infections independently of NF-?B or MAPK signaling.
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Copy number variation at chromosome 5q21.2 is associated with intraocular pressure.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness in the world. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants for glaucoma, but still a significant heritability gap remains. We hypothesized that copy number variants (CNVs) might influence part of the susceptibility to glaucoma or its related quantitative endophenotypes.
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Distinct microRNA profiles are associated with the severity of hepatitis C virus recurrence and acute cellular rejection after liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with accelerated fibrosis rates after liver transplantation (LT) and is the leading cause of graft failure. Furthermore, distinguishing recurrent HCV from acute cellular rejection (ACR) can be problematic, and this can lead to inappropriate treatments and adverse outcomes. We hypothesized that intragraft microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles could distinguish the severity of recurrent HCV and differentiate recurrent HCV from ACR. We established meticulously matched post-LT patient cohorts in order to derive robust global miRNA expression profiles and minimize the impact of variables known to influence HCV recurrence. These cohorts consisted of patients with slow HCV fibrosis progression (Ishak stage?
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The influence of folate supplementation on global gene expression in normal colonic mucosa of subjects with colorectal adenoma.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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We determined whether short-term supplementation with a physiological dose of folate alters global gene expression in the normal colonic mucosa of subjects with colorectal adenoma.
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BMPER protein is a negative regulator of hepcidin and is up-regulated in hypotransferrinemic mice.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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The BMP/SMAD4 pathway has major effects on liver hepcidin levels. Bone morphogenetic protein-binding endothelial cell precursor-derived regulator (Bmper), a known regulator of BMP signaling, was found to be overexpressed at the mRNA and protein levels in liver of genetically hypotransferrinemic mice (Trf(hpx/hpx)). Soluble BMPER peptide inhibited BMP2- and BMP6-dependent hepcidin promoter activity in both HepG2 and HuH7 cells. These effects correlated with reduced cellular levels of pSMAD1/5/8. Addition of BMPER peptide to primary human hepatocytes abolished the BMP2-dependent increase in hepcidin mRNA, whereas injection of Bmper peptide into mice resulted in reduced liver hepcidin and increased serum iron levels. Thus Bmper may play an important role in suppressing hepcidin production in hypotransferrinemic mice.
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Nox4 regulates Nrf2 and glutathione redox in cardiomyocytes in vivo.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) is an important modulator of redox signaling that is inducible at the level of transcriptional expression in multiple cell types. By contrast to other Nox enzymes, Nox4 is continuously active without requiring stimulation. We reported recently that expression of Nox4 is induced in the adult heart as an adaptive stress response to pathophysiological insult. To elucidate the potential downstream target(s) regulated by Nox4, we performed a microarray screen to assess the transcriptomes of transgenic (tg) mouse hearts in which Nox4 was overexpressed. The screen revealed a significant increase in the expression of many antioxidant and detoxifying genes regulated by Nrf2 in tg compared to wild-type (wt) mouse hearts, and this finding was subsequently confirmed by Q-PCR. Expression of glutathione biosynthetic and recycling enzymes was increased in tg hearts and associated with higher levels of both GSH and the ratio of reduced:oxidised GSH, compared to wt hearts. The increases in expression of the antioxidant genes and the changes in glutathione redox effected by Nox4 were ablated in an Nrf2-null genetic background. These data therefore demonstrate that Nox4 can activate the Nrf2-regulated pathway, and suggest a potential role for Nox4 in the regulation of GSH redox in cardiomyocytes.
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Effect of ischemic preconditioning on the genomic response to reperfusion injury in deceased donor liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is an effective method for protecting organs from ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury; however, the molecular basis of this protective effect is poorly understood. This study assessed the gene expression profile in liver allografts during transplantation and evaluated the impact of IP. Prereperfusion and postreperfusion biopsy specimens from livers subjected to IP (n = 19) or no preconditioning (the IR group; n = 16) were obtained. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to GeneChip microarrays, and the findings were validated with real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). IP livers showed less of an increase in aspartate aminotransferase after transplantation. A microarray analysis of the IR group showed increased expression of 57 genes mainly involved in cell death, inflammation and immune response, stress, and modulation of the cell cycle. The IP group showed attenuation of the expression of these genes after reperfusion. Additionally, IP led to increased expression of 43 genes involved in growth and maintenance, cell-cycle regulation, proliferation, and development. The expression of the 12 most significant genes was validated in all patients with real-time qRT-PCR, and the fold changes of a number of genes correlated with clinical parameters and graft outcomes. IP protection of liver allografts was associated with a reduction in the expression of immune response genes and promotion of those involved in protection and repair.
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Fibronectin is a TH1-specific molecule in human subjects.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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T(H)1 cell-mediated immunity is essential for host defense against a variety of intracellular pathogens, such as mycobacteria, salmonella, and Leishmania species. A major T(H)1-mediated effector mechanism involves the IFN-gamma-induced killing of the pathogen by infected macrophages.
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Effect of high-fat feeding on expression of genes controlling availability of dopamine in mouse hypothalamus.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2009
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Hypothalamic centers integrate external signals of nutrient availability and energy status and initiate responses to maintain homeostasis. Quantifying changes in hypothalamic gene expression in the presence of nutrient excess may identify novel responsive elements.
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Retinoic acid receptor-dependent, cell-autonomous, endogenous retinoic acid signaling and its target genes in mouse collecting duct cells.
PLoS ONE
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Vitamin A is necessary for kidney development and has also been linked to regulation of solute and water homeostasis and to protection against kidney stone disease, infection, inflammation, and scarring. Most functions of vitamin A are mediated by its main active form, all-trans retinoic acid (tRA), which binds retinoic acid receptors (RARs) to modulate gene expression. We and others have recently reported that renal tRA/RAR activity is confined to the ureteric bud (UB) and collecting duct (CD) cell lineage, suggesting that endogenous tRA/RARs primarily act through regulating gene expression in these cells in embryonic and adult kidney, respectively.
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Duodenal reductase activity and spleen iron stores are reduced and erythropoiesis is abnormal in Dcytb knockout mice exposed to hypoxic conditions.
J. Nutr.
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Duodenal cytochrome b (Dcytb, Cybrd1) is a ferric reductase localized in the duodenum that is highly upregulated in circumstances of increased iron absorption. To address the contribution of Dcytb to total duodenal ferric reductase activity as well as its wider role in iron metabolism, we first measured duodenal ferric reductase activity in wild-type (WT) and Dcytb knockout (Dcytb(-/-)) mice under 3 conditions known to induce gut ferric reductase: dietary iron deficiency, hypoxia, and pregnancy. Dcytb(-/-) and WT mice were randomly assigned to control (iron deficiency experiment, 48 mg/kg dietary iron; hypoxia experiment, normal atmospheric pressure; pregnancy experiment, nonpregnant animals) or treatment (iron deficiency experiment, 2-3 mg/kg dietary iron; hypoxia experiment, 53.3 kPa pressure; pregnancy experiment, d 20 of pregnancy) groups and duodenal reductase activity measured. We found no induction of ferric reductase activity in Dcytb(-/-) mice under any of these conditions, indicating there are no other inducible ferric reductases present in the duodenum. To test whether Dcytb was required for iron absorption in conditions with increased erythropoietic demand, we also measured tissue nonheme iron levels and hematological indices in WT and Dcytb(-/-) mice exposed to hypoxia. There was no evidence of gross alterations in iron absorption, hemoglobin, or total liver nonheme iron in Dcytb(-/-) mice exposed to hypoxia compared with WT mice. However, spleen nonheme iron was significantly less (6.7 ± 1.0 vs. 12.7 ± 0.9 nmol?·?mg tissue(-1); P < 0.01, n = 7-8) in hypoxic Dcytb(-/-) compared with hypoxic WT mice and there was evidence of impaired reticulocyte hemoglobinization with a lower reticulocyte mean corpuscular hemoglobin (276 ± 1 vs. 283 ± 2 g?·?L(-1); P < 0.05, n = 7-8) in normoxic Dcytb(-/-) compared with normoxic WT mice. We therefore conclude that DCYTB is the primary iron-regulated duodenal ferric reductase in the gut and that Dcytb is necessary for optimal iron metabolism.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.