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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Size-selective collection of circulating tumor cells using Vortex technology.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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A blood-based, low cost alternative to radiation intensive CT and PET imaging is critically needed for cancer prognosis and management of its treatment. "Liquid biopsies" of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from a relatively non-invasive blood draw are particularly ideal, as they can be repeated regularly to provide up to date molecular information about the cancer, which would also open up key opportunities for personalized therapies. Beyond solely diagnostic applications, CTCs are also a subject of interest for drug development and cancer research. In this paper, we adapt a technology previously introduced, combining the use of micro-scale vortices and inertial focusing, specifically for the high-purity extraction of CTCs from blood samples. First, we systematically varied parameters including channel dimensions and flow rates to arrive at an optimal device for maximum trapping efficiency and purity. Second, we validated the final device for capture of cancer cell lines in blood, considering several factors, including the effect of blood dilution, red blood cell lysis and cell deformability, while demonstrating cell viability and independence on EpCAM expression. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, CTCs were successfully extracted and enumerated from the blood of patients with breast (N = 4, 25-51 CTCs per 7.5 mL) and lung cancer (N = 8, 23-317 CTCs per 7.5 mL). Importantly, samples were highly pure with limited leukocyte contamination (purity 57-94%). This Vortex approach offers significant advantages over existing technologies, especially in terms of processing time (20 min for 7.5 mL of whole blood), sample concentration (collecting cells in a small volume down to 300 ?L), applicability to various cancer types, cell integrity and purity. We anticipate that its simplicity will aid widespread adoption by clinicians and biologists who desire to not only enumerate CTCs, but also uncover new CTC biology, such as unique gene mutations, vesicle secretion and roles in metastatic processes.
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CRK SH3N Domain Diminishes Cell Invasiveness of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Genes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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CRK (c-Crk) as an adaptor protein is involved in several oncogenic signal transduction pathways, conveying oncogenic signals to its downstream effectors and thereby affecting multiple cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. For example, we have observed that CRK expression and phosphorylation influence the invasiveness of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. To intervene in CRK signaling pathway, we examined whether CRK protein domains can be used as therapeutic tools to interrupt CRK signaling, thus influencing the biological behavior of NSCLC cells. For this purpose, Src Homology domains of CRK-I (i.e., SH2 and SH3N domains) were overexpressed in H157, Rh2, and A549 cells. CRK-SH3N domain expression induced epithelial morphology in H157 cells and enhanced epithelial morphology of A549 and Rh2 cells as compared to cells transfected with CRK-SH2 domain or empty vector. In addition, CRK-SH3N domain expression significantly decreased the motility and invasiveness of A549 and H157 cells. Furthermore, CRK-SH3N domain expression disrupted the interaction of CRK-II with DOCK180. In summary, these data provide evidence that the CRK-SH3N domain can be used to influence the malignant phenotype of NSCLC cells and also reduce the metastatic potential of these cells.
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NanoVelcro Chip for CTC enumeration in prostate cancer patients.
Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are one of the most crucial topics in rare cell biology and have become the focus of a significant and emerging area of cancer research. While CTC enumeration is a valid biomarker in prostate cancer, the current FDA-approved CTC technology is unable to detect CTCs in a large portion of late stage prostate cancer patients. Here we introduce the NanoVelcro CTC Chip, a device composed of a patterned silicon nanowire substrate (SiNW) and an overlaid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chaotic mixer. Validated by two institutions participating in the study, the NanoVelcro Chip assay exhibits very consistent efficiency in CTC-capture from patient samples. The utilized protocol can be easily replicated at different facilities. We demonstrate the clinical utility of the NanoVelcro Chip by performing serial enumerations of CTCs in prostate cancer patients after undergoing systemic therapy. Changes in CTC numbers after 4-10 weeks of therapy were compared with their clinical responses. We observed a statistically significant reduction in CTCs counts in the clinical responders. We performed long-term follow up with serial CTC collection and enumeration in one patient observing variations in counts correlating with treatment response. This study demonstrates the consistency of the NanoVelcro Chip assay over time for CTC enumeration and also shows that continuous monitoring of CTC numbers can be employed to follow responses to different treatments and monitor disease progression.
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Hyperactivated JNK is a therapeutic target in pVHL-deficient renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC), the major histologic subtype of RCC accounting for more than 80% of cases, are typified by biallelic inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. Although accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-?) is the most well-studied effect of VHL inactivation, direct inhibition of HIF? or restoration of wild-type pVHL protein expression has not proved readily feasible, given the limitations associated with pharmacologic targeting of transcription factors (i.e., HIF-?) and gene replacement therapy of tumor suppressor genes (i.e., VHL). Here, we have established that phosphorylated c-Jun, a substrate of the c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK), is selectively activated in clear cell RCC patient specimens. Using multiple isogenic cell lines, we show that HIF-?-independent JNK hyperactivation is unique to the pVHL-deficient state. Importantly, pVHL-deficient RCCs are dependent upon JNK activity for in vitro and in vivo growth. A multistep signaling pathway that links pVHL loss to JNK activation involves the formation of a CARD9/BCL10/TRAF6 complex as a proximal signal to sequentially stimulate TAK1 (MAPKKK), MKK4 (MAPKK), and JNK (MAPK). JNK stimulates c-Jun phosphorylation, activation, and dimerization with c-Fos to form a transcriptionally competent AP1 complex that drives transcription of the Twist gene and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, JNK represents a novel molecular target that is selectively activated in and drives the growth of pVHL-deficient clear cell RCCs. These findings can serve as the preclinical foundation for directed efforts to characterize potent pharmacologic inhibitors of the JNK pathway for clinical translation.
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High-Purity Prostate Circulating Tumor Cell Isolation by a Polymer Nanofiber-Embedded Microchip for Whole Exome Sequencing.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Handpick single cancer cells: A modified NanoVelcro Chip is coupled with ArcturusXT laser capture microdissection (LCM) technology to enable the detection and isolation of single circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from patients with prostate cancer (PC). This new approach paves the way for conducting next-generation sequencing (NGS) on single CTCs.
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Association between tumor-associated macrophage infiltration, high grade prostate cancer, and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
Am J Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a key component of the inflammatory microenvironment. Their role in prostate cancer development and progression remains unclear. We examined whether the amount of TAMs in prostate cancer is: 1) higher than prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and benign tissue 2) associated with poorly differentiated disease, and 3) predictive of biochemical recurrence among surgically treated men.
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c-Crk proto-oncogene contributes to transcriptional repression of p120-catenin in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2011
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As a member of adherens junction, p120-catenin (p120ctn) plays a major role in cell adhesions through stabilization of E-cadherin. p120ctn is transcriptionally down-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although the molecular mechanisms underlying p120ctn repression are incompletely defined. Here we further investigated transcriptional regulation of p120ctn in NSCLC. We prepared a promoter reporter plasmid construct that contained p120ctn promoter region from position -1082 to +320 relative to transcription start site. Through serial deletion mutation analysis of the p120ctn promoter, we pinpointed cis-acting elements involved in regulation of p120ctn. We identified transcription factor SP1 as a transcriptional repressor of p120ctn that directly binds to segment (-9 to +36) of the p120ctn promoter. SP1 can receive multiple signals from several intracellular signaling pathways. Through examination of SP1 binding partners, we identified proto-oncogene c-Crk to be involved in transcriptional down-regulation of p120ctn. RNAi mediated silencing of CRK in A549, H157 and H358 cells increased p120ctn protein levels. On the other hand, over-expression of CRK-I and CRK-II in NSCLC cells down-regulated p120ctn, an effect that was abrogated by simultaneous silencing of SP1. In summary, our data provide evidence for the role of c-Crk proto-oncogene in transcriptional repression of p120ctn that further clarifies the mechanism by which this biochemical signal promotes metastasis in NSCLC.
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p120-catenin is transcriptionally downregulated by FOXC2 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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p120-catenin (p120ctn) plays a major role in cell adhesion and motility through the regulation of E-cadherin and interaction with RhoGTPase and Rac1. p120ctn is downregulated in several malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we investigated transcriptional regulation of p120ctn in NSCLC. We cloned a 1,400-bp amplicon of chromosome 11 from position -1,082 to +320 relative to the transcription start site into a firefly luciferase reporter vector and prepared serial deletion constructs to pinpoint cis-acting elements involved in the regulation of p120ctn. We transfected NSCLC cell lines and immortalized normal human respiratory epithelial cells with the abovementioned constructs. We found reduced p120ctn promoter activity, protein level, and mRNA message in lung cancer cells compared with noncancerous immortalized lung epithelial cells. Serial deletion analysis of p120ctn promoter identified a region between positions +267 and +282, which mediated the transcriptional repression of p120ctn. This region harbored putative binding sites for FOXC2 and FOXL1 transcription factors. Direct binding of FOXC2 to the p120ctn promoter between positions +267 and +282 was confirmed by electromobility shift assay. RNAi-mediated silencing of FOXC2 in A549, H157, and H358 cells resulted in increasing p120ctn promoter activity as well as mRNA and protein levels. Finally, silencing FOXC2 in these NSCLC cells enhanced E-cadherin level, which was reversed by simultaneous silencing of p120ctn. In summary, our data support the notion that FOXC2 mediates the transcriptional repression of p120ctn in NSCLC.
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Monoclonal antibody targeting of N-cadherin inhibits prostate cancer growth, metastasis and castration resistance.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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The transition from androgen-dependent to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a lethal event of uncertain molecular etiology. Comparing gene expression in isogenic androgen-dependent and CRPC xenografts, we found a reproducible increase in N-cadherin expression, which was also elevated in primary and metastatic tumors of individuals with CRPC. Ectopic expression of N-cadherin in nonmetastatic, androgen-dependent prostate cancer models caused castration resistance, invasion and metastasis. Monoclonal antibodies against the ectodomain of N-cadherin reduced proliferation, adhesion and invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, these antibodies slowed the growth of multiple established CRPC xenografts, blocked local invasion and metastasis and, at higher doses, led to complete regression. N-cadherin-specific antibodies markedly delayed the time to emergence of castration resistance, markedly affected tumor histology and angiogenesis, and reduced both AKT serine-threonine kinase activity and serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion. These data indicate that N-cadherin is a major cause of both prostate cancer metastasis and castration resistance. Therapeutic targeting of this factor with monoclonal antibodies may have considerable clinical benefit.
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NF-kappaB-dependent plasticity of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by Von Hippel-Lindau inactivation in renal cell carcinomas.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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The critical downstream signaling consequences contributing to renal cancer as a result of loss of the tumor suppressor gene von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we report that VHL loss results in an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In studies of paired isogenic cell lines, VHL silencing increased the levels of N-cadherin and vimentin and reduced the levels of E-cadherin relative to the parental VHL(+) cell line, which displayed the opposite profile. VHL(+) cells grew as clusters of cuboidal and rhomboid cells, whereas VHL-silenced cells took on an elongated, fibroblastoid morphology associated with a more highly invasive character in Matrigel chamber assays. Based on earlier evidence that VHL loss can activate NF-kappaB, a known mediator of EMT, we tested whether NF-kappaB contributed to VHL-mediated effects on EMT. On pharmacologic or molecular inhibition of NF-kappaB, VHL-silenced cells regained expression of E-cadherin, lost expression of N-cadherin, and reversed their highly invasive phenotype. Introducing a pVHL-resistant hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha) mutant (HIFalpha(M)) into VHL(+) cells heightened NF-kappaB activity, phenocopying EMT effects produced by VHL silencing. Conversely, inhibiting the heightened NF-kappaB activity in this setting reversed the EMT phenotype. Taken together, these results suggest that VHL loss induces an EMT that is largely dependent on HIFalpha-induced NF-kappaB. Our findings rationalize targeting the NF-kappaB pathway as a therapeutic strategy to treat renal tumors characterized by biallelic VHL inactivation.
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PAK1 kinase promotes cell motility and invasiveness through CRK-II serine phosphorylation in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
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The role of c-Crk (CRK) in promoting metastasis is well described however the role of CRK phosphorylation and the corresponding signaling events are not well explained. We have observed CRK-II serine 41 phosphorylation is inversely correlated with p120-catenin and E-cadherin expressions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of CRK-II serine 41 phosphorylation in the down-regulation of p120-catenin, cell motility and cell invasiveness in NSCLC cells. For this purpose, we expressed phosphomimetic and phosphodeficient CRK-II serine 41 mutants in NSCLC cells. NSCLC cells expressing phosphomimetic CRK-II seine 41 mutant showed lower p120-catenin level while CRK-II seine 41 phosphodeficient mutant expression resulted in higher p120-catenin. In addition, A549 cells expressing CRK-II serine 41 phosphomimetic mutant demonstrated more aggressive behavior in wound healing and invasion assays and, on the contrary, expression of phosphodeficient CRK-II serine 41 mutant in A549 cells resulted in reduced cell motility and invasiveness. We also provide evidence that PAK1 mediates CRK-II serine 41 phosphorylation. RNAi mediated silencing of PAK1 increased p120-catenin level in A549 and H157 cells. Furthermore, PAK1 silencing decreased cell motility and invasiveness in A549 cells. These effects were abrogated in A549 cells expressing phosphomimetic CRK-II serine 41. In summary, these data provide evidence for the role of PAK1 in the promotion of cell motility, cell invasiveness and the down regulation of p120-catenin through CRK serine 41 phosphorylation in NSCLC cells.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.