JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Bayesian nowcasting during the STEC O104:H4 outbreak in Germany, 2011.
Biometrics
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A Bayesian approach to the prediction of occurred-but-not-yet-reported events is developed for application in real-time public health surveillance. The motivation was the prediction of the daily number of hospitalizations for the hemolytic-uremic syndrome during the large May-July 2011 outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 in Germany. Our novel Bayesian approach addresses the count data nature of the problem using negative binomial sampling and shows that right-truncation of the reporting delay distribution under an assumption of time-homogeneity can be handled in a conjugate prior-posterior framework using the generalized Dirichlet distribution. Since, in retrospect, the true number of hospitalizations is available, proper scoring rules for count data are used to evaluate and compare the predictive quality of the procedures during the outbreak. The results show that it is important to take the count nature of the time series into account and that changes in the delay distribution occurred due to intervention measures. As a consequence, we extend the Bayesian analysis to a hierarchical model, which combines a discrete time survival regression model for the delay distribution with a penalized spline for the dynamics of the epidemic curve. Altogether, we conclude that in emerging and time-critical outbreaks, nowcasting approaches are a valuable tool to gain information about current trends.
Related JoVE Video
Estimates of excess medically attended acute respiratory infections in periods of seasonal and pandemic influenza in Germany from 2001/02 to 2010/11.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The number of patients seeking health care is a central indicator that may serve several different purposes: (1) as a proxy for the impact on the burden of the primary care system; (2) as a starting point to estimate the number of persons ill with influenza; (3) as the denominator data for the calculation of case fatality rate and the proportion hospitalized (severity indicators); (4) for economic calculations. In addition, reliable estimates of burden of disease and on the health care system are essential to communicate the impact of influenza to health care professionals, public health professionals and to the public.
Related JoVE Video
German outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 associated with sprouts.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A large outbreak of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 occurred in Germany in May 2011. The source of infection was undetermined.
Related JoVE Video
Timeliness of surveillance during outbreak of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection, Germany, 2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the context of a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Germany, we quantified the timeliness of the German surveillance system for hemolytic uremic syndrome and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli notifiable diseases during 2003-2011. Although reporting occurred faster than required by law, potential for improvement exists at all levels of the information chain.
Related JoVE Video
A large outbreak of influenza B-associated benign acute childhood myositis in Germany, 2007/2008.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare syndrome associated with various viral infections. Bilateral calve pain may lead to inability to walk. During winter 2007/2008, we investigated a nationwide outbreak of influenza-associated BACM (IA-BACM) to identify etiologic (sub)type, describe the course of disease, and explore how well the syndrome is known among physicians.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemic profile of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe an outbreak of gastroenteritis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Germany in May, June, and July, 2011. The consumption of sprouts was identified as the most likely vehicle of infection.
Related JoVE Video
Effectiveness of the AS03-adjuvanted vaccine against pandemic influenza virus A/(H1N1) 2009--a comparison of two methods; Germany, 2009/10.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During the autumn wave of the pandemic influenza virus A/(H1N1) 2009 (pIV) the German population was offered an AS03-adjuvanted vaccine. The authors compared results of two methods calculating the effectiveness of the vaccine (VE). The test-negative case-control method used data from virologic surveillance including influenza-positive and negative patients. An innovative case-series methodology explored data from all nationally reported laboratory-confirmed influenza cases. The proportion of reported cases occurring in vaccinees during an assumed unprotected phase after vaccination was compared with that occurring in vaccinees during their assumed protected phase. The test-negative case-control method included 1,749 pIV cases and 2,087 influenza test-negative individuals of whom 6 (0.3%) and 36 (1.7%), respectively, were vaccinated. The case series method included data from 73,280 cases. VE in the two methods was 79% (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?35-93%; P = 0.007) and 87% (95% CI = 78-92%; P<0.001) for individuals less than 14 years of age and 70% (95% CI = -45%-94%, P = 0.13) and 74% (95% CI = 64-82%; P<0.001) for individuals above the age of 14. Both methods yielded similar VE in both age groups; and VE for the younger age group seemed to be higher.
Related JoVE Video
Monitoring pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination coverage in Germany 2009/10 - results from thirteen consecutive cross-sectional surveys.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To monitor pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake during the vaccination campaign in Germany 2009/10, thirteen consecutive cross-sectional telephone-surveys were performed between November 2009 and April 2010. In total 13,010 household-interviews were conducted. Vaccination coverage in persons >14 years of age remained low, both in the general population (8.1%; 95%CI: 7.4-8.8) and in specific target groups such as healthcare workers and individuals with underlying chronic diseases (12.8%; 95%CI: 11.4-14.4). Previous vaccination against seasonal influenza was a main factor independently associated with pandemic influenza vaccination (Odds ratio=8.8; 95%CI: 7.2-10.8). The campaign failed to reach people at risk who were not used to receive their annual seasonal influenza shot.
Related JoVE Video
Trouble with bleeding: risk factors for acute hepatitis C among HIV-positive gay men from Germany--a case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify risk factors for hepatitis C among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), focusing on potential sexual, nosocomial, and other non-sexual determinants.
Related JoVE Video
Time trends of syphilis and HSV-2 co-infection among men who have sex with men in the German HIV-1 seroconverter cohort from 1996-2007.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Numbers of newly diagnosed HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Germany increased after the year 2000. We sought to explore trends in STI co-infections around the time of HIV seroconversion in patients from the German HIV-1 seroconverter cohort from 1996-2007.
Related JoVE Video
Shedding and transmission of novel influenza virus A/H1N1 infection in households--Germany, 2009.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Essential epidemiologic and virologic parameters must be measured to provide evidence for policy/public health recommendations and mathematical modeling concerning novel influenza A/H1N1 virus (NIV) infections. Therefore, from April through August of 2009, the authors collected nasopharyngeal specimens and information on antiviral medication and symptoms from households with NIV infection on a daily basis in Germany. Specimens were analyzed quantitatively by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In 36 households with 83 household contacts, 15 household contacts became laboratory-confirmed secondary cases of NIV. Among 47 contacts without antiviral prophylaxis, 12 became cases (secondary attack rate of 26%), and 1 (8%) of these was asymptomatic. The mean and median serial interval were 2.6 and 3 days, respectively (range: 1-3 days). On average, the authors detected viral RNA copies for 6.6 illness days (treated in time = 5.7 days, not treated in time = 7.1 days; P = 0.06), but they estimated that most patients cease to excrete viable virus by the fifth illness day. Shedding profiles were consistent with the number and severity of symptoms. Compared with other nasopharyngeal specimen types, nasal wash was the most sensitive. These results support the notion that epidemiologic and virologic characteristics of NIV are in many aspects similar to those of seasonal influenza.
Related JoVE Video
Mumps outbreak in the Republic of Moldova, 2007-2008.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Moldova experienced a nationwide mumps outbreak between 2007 and 2008. Single-dose monovalent mumps vaccination at 15 to 18 months was introduced in 1983, replaced by a 2-dose MMR schedule at age 1 and 6 to 7 years in 2002. We investigated the outbreak to quantify its extent, explore the role of primary and secondary vaccine failure, and provide control recommendations.
Related JoVE Video
Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously. We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified the proportion of cases acquired in Germany in order to investigate risk factors for sporadic autochthonous Giardia infections.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence rate of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent children: a prospective nationwide surveillance study in Germany.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An increasing incidence in disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria is being reported. We investigated the burden of disease in immunocompetent German children in a prospective nationwide study from April 2003 to September 2005. Ninety-seven percent of children presented with lymphadenitis; median age was 2.5 years. Using the capture-recapture method, we estimated a cumulative incidence rate of 3.1/100000 children.
Related JoVE Video
Breaking the waves: modelling the potential impact of public health measures to defer the epidemic peak of novel influenza A/H1N1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared phase 6 of the novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic. Although by the end of September 2009, the novel virus had been reported from all continents, the impact in most countries of the northern hemisphere has been limited. The return of the virus in a second wave would encounter populations that are still nonimmune and not vaccinated yet. We modelled the effect of control strategies to reduce the spread with the goal to defer the epidemic wave in a country where it is detected in a very early stage.
Related JoVE Video
Cumulative HIV viremia during highly active antiretroviral therapy is a strong predictor of AIDS-related lymphoma.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AIDS-related lymphoma contributes to significant morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We assessed the predictive role of cumulative HIV viremia and other risk factors in the development of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors related to a hospital-associated cluster of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 infections in Germany During 2007.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2007, Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 027 emerged in Germany. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to identify specific risk factors for infection with this strain. Logistic regression analysis involving 15 case patients and 31 control patients revealed that exposure to fluoroquinolones (matched odds ratio, 36.2; P < .01) or cephalosporins (matched odds ratio, 19.1; P < .01) was independently related to C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 infection.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-prevalence in tuberculosis patients in Germany, 2002-2009: an estimation based on HIV and tuberculosis surveillance data.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV comorbidity is a major challenge in TB prevention and control but difficult to assess in Germany as in other countries, where data confidentiality precludes notifying the HIV status of TB patients. We aimed to estimate the HIV-prevalence in TB patients in Germany, 2002-2009, and to characterize the HIV/TB patients demographically. Data from the long-term observational open multicentre cohort ClinSurv HIV were used to identify incident TB in HIV-positive individuals. We assessed the cohorts coverage for the nationwide HIV-positive population by contrasting ClinSurv HIV patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART) with national HIV patient numbers derived from ART prescriptions (data by Insight Health; available for 2006-2009). The HIV-prevalence in TB patients was calculated as the number of HIV/TB cases projected for Germany over all culture-positive TB notifications. From 2002 to 2009, 298 of 15,531 HIV-positive patients enrolled in the ClinSurv HIV cohort were diagnosed with TB. A 21% cohort coverage was determined. The annual estimates of the HIV-prevalence in TB patients were on average 4.5% and ranged from 3.5% (95%CI 2.3-5.1%) in 2007 to 6.6% (95%CI 5.0-8.5%) in 2005. The most recent estimate for 2009 was 4.0% (95%CI 2.6-5.9%). The 298 HIV/TB patients were characterized by a male-to-female ratio of 2.1, by a median age of 38 years at TB diagnosis, and by 59% of the patients having a foreign origin, mainly from Subsahara Africa. We provide, to our knowledge, the first estimate of the HIV-prevalence in TB patients for Germany by joint evaluation of anonymous HIV and TB surveillance data sources. The identified level of HIV in TB patients approximates available surveillance data from neighbouring countries and indicates a non-negligible HIV/TB burden in Germany. Our estimation approach is valuable for epidemiological monitoring of HIV/TB within the current legal frameworks.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of rotavirus vaccination in regions with low and moderate vaccine uptake in Germany.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In Germany, routine RV-vaccination is not adopted into the national immunization schedule as of 2012. Because RV-vaccines were already on the market since 2006, in 2010 a moderate (58%) and low (22%) vaccine uptake was observed in the 5 eastern federal states (EFS) and the 11 western federal states (WFS), respectively. To assess the impact of RV-vaccination, we compared the incidence rates (IR) of RV-related hospitalizations before (2004?2006) and in seasons after (2008/09-2010/11) RV-vaccine introduction in Germany by utilizing data from the national mandatory disease reporting system. In the EFS, the IR was significantly reduced in age-groups < 18 mo in 2008/09 and in age-groups < 24 mo in 2009/10-2010/11. In the WFS an IR-reduction was observed only in age-groups < 12 mo in 2008/09 and in age-groups < 18 mo in 2009/10-2010/11. Overall IR-reduction in age-groups < 24 mo comparing 2008-11 with 2004-06 was 36% and 25% in EFS and WFS, respectively. In addition, we computed IR-ratios (IRR) in the seasons after mid-2006 with negative binomial regression. The effect of vaccination was independent from the geographic region. Vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in RV-related hospitalizations in the age-groups 6-23 mo. Most prominently, vaccination of 50% of infants led to an estimated decrease in age group 6-11 mo by 42%. No significant reduction was observed in age-groups ? 24 mo. In conclusion, in the German setting with low to moderate vaccine uptake, RV-related hospitalization incidence decreased substantially depending on the achieved vaccination coverage, but only in the first two years of life.
Related JoVE Video
Preventable and non-preventable risk factors for influenza transmission and hygiene behavior in German influenza households, pandemic season (H1N1) 2009/2010.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To date, little is known about the role of behavioral risk factors for influenza transmission as well as hygiene behavior in the household setting during the influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009. In a household-based study conducted during 2008/2009, we identified several behavioral risk factors for influenza transmission; 30% of index patients and 30% of household contacts reported increased hand cleaning frequency in the week after symptom onset of the index patient. We conducted another household-based study during the pandemic season 2009/2010.
Related JoVE Video
The risk of AIDS-defining events is decreasing over time in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort.
BMC Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With ageing of the HIV-infected population, long-term exposure to treatment, varying adherence, emerging resistance and complications to therapies, effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) needs to be monitored continuously at the population level. The German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort is a multi-centre, open, long-term observational cohort including patients with a known or reliably estimated date of HIV-infection i.e. last negative and first positive HIV antibody test within a maximum three-year interval or laboratory evidence of seroconversion. Our study aims to investigate survival improvements and changes in AIDS risk over calendar periods in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.