Insufficiency of pancreatic anastomosis with leakage from the pancreatic stump and the development of fistulas account for the majority of surgical complications following pancreatic resection, which are often life threatening. The cause of pancreatic fistulas of the remnant tissue on a molecular level remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) formation and to define parameters that may predict the resection outcome. Pancreatic resection margins were selected from 31 patients, including 16 individuals without and 15 patients with POPF, to analyze the degree of fibrosis, lipomatous atrophy, inflammatory activity and infiltration. Wound healing factors were assessed by luminex technology using tissue homogenates, while the distribution in situ was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Increased chronic inflammatory infiltration, a higher degree of fibrosis and a reduction in lipomatous atrophy were observed in the samples without anastomotic fistulas. Multiplex analysis of 38 wound healing factors demonstrated significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and -12, glucagon-like peptide-1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3 and -12 in the group without fistulas, while lower concentrations of IL-10, IL-17 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide were observed. Therefore, the observations of the present study indicated that increased inflammatory infiltration and inflammatory activity, as well as higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and higher MMP levels at the resection margins, predisposed individuals to a lower fistula incidence rate following pancreatic resection.
Unlike the MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade that phosphorylates p38 on the activation loop, T cell receptor (TCR) signaling results in phosphorylation on Tyr-323 (pY323, alternative pathway). Using mice expressing p38? and p38? with Y323F substitutions, we show that alternatively but not MAPK cascade-activated p38 up-regulates the transcription factors NFATc1 and IRF4, which are required for proliferation and cytokine production. Conversely, activation of p38 with UV or osmotic shock mitigated TCR-mediated activation by phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of NFATc1. Notably, UVB treatment of human psoriatic lesions reduced skin-infiltrating p38 pY323(+) T cell IRF4 and IL-17 production. Thus, distinct mechanisms of p38 activation converge on NFATc1 with opposing effects on T cell immunity, which may underlie the beneficial effect of phototherapy on psoriasis.
Loosening of implants occurs mainly for two reasons: bacterial infection of the implant or "aseptic loosening" presumably due to wear particles derived from the implant. To gain further insight into the pathomechanism, we analysed activation of the T cell response in these patients.
Bacterial infections of bones remain a serious complication of endoprosthetic surgery. These infections are difficult to treat, because many bacterial species form biofilms on implants, which are relatively resistant towards antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms elicit a progressive local inflammatory response, resulting in tissue damage and bone degradation. In the majority of patients, replacement of the prosthesis is required. To address the question of how the local inflammatory response is linked to bone degradation, tissue samples were taken during surgery and gene expression of the macrophage inflammatory proteins MIP1? (CCL3) and MIP2? (CXCL2) was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. MIPs were expressed predominantly at osteolytic sites, in close correlation with CD14 which was used as marker for monocytes/macrophages. Colocalisation of MIPs with monocytic cells could be confirmed by histology. In vitro experiments revealed that, aside from monocytic cells, also osteoblasts were capable of MIP production when stimulated with bacteria; moreover, CCL3 induced the differentiation of monocytes to osteoclasts. In conclusion, the multifunctional chemokines CCL3 and CXCL2 are produced locally in response to bacterial infection of bones. In addition to their well described chemokine activity, these cytokines can induce generation of bone resorbing osteoclasts, thus providing a link between bacterial infection and osteolysis.
CSPG4 marks pericytes, undifferentiated precursors and tumor cells. We assessed whether the shed ectodomain of CSPG4 (sCSPG4) might circulate and reflect potential changes in CSPG4 tissue expression (pCSPG4) due to desmoplastic and malignant aberrations occurring in pancreatic tumors. Serum sCSPG4 was measured using ELISA in test (n?=?83) and validation (n?=?221) cohorts comprising donors (n?=?11+26) and patients with chronic pancreatitis (n?=?11+20) or neoplasms: benign (serous cystadenoma SCA, n?=?13+20), premalignant (intraductal dysplastic IPMNs, n?=?9+55), and malignant (IPMN-associated invasive carcinomas, n?=?4+14; ductal adenocarcinomas, n?=?35+86). Pancreatic pCSPG4 expression was evaluated using qRT-PCR (n?=?139), western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. sCSPG4 was found in circulation, but its level was significantly lower in pancreatic patients than in donors. Selective maintenance was observed in advanced IPMNs and PDACs and showed a nodal association while lacking prognostic relevance. Pancreatic pCSPG4 expression was preserved or elevated, whereby neoplastic cells lacked pCSPG4 or tended to overexpress without shedding. Extreme pancreatic overexpression, membranous exposure and tissue(high)/sera(low)-discordance highlighted stroma-poor benign cystic neoplasm. SCA is known to display hypoxic markers and coincide with von-Hippel-Lindau and Peutz-Jeghers syndromes, in which pVHL and LBK1 mutations affect hypoxic signaling pathways. In vitro testing confined pCSPG4 overexpression to normal mesenchymal but not epithelial cells, and a third of tested carcinoma cell lines; however, only the latter showed pCSPG4-responsiveness to chronic hypoxia. siRNA-based knockdowns failed to reduce the malignant potential of either normoxic or hypoxic cells. Thus, overexpression of the newly established conditional hypoxic indicator, CSPG4, is apparently non-pathogenic in pancreatic malignancies but might mark distinct epithelial lineage and contribute to cell polarity disorders. Surficial retention on tumor cells renders CSPG4 an attractive therapeutic target. Systemic 'drop and restoration' alterations accompanying IPMN and PDAC progression indicate that the interference of pancreatic diseases with local and remote shedding/release of sCSPG4 into circulation deserves broad diagnostic exploration.
Cancer cells often lose contact inhibition to undergo anchorage-independent proliferation and become resistant to apoptosis by inactivating the Hippo signaling pathway, resulting in activation of the transcriptional co-activator yes-associated protein (YAP). However, the oncogenic mechanisms of YAP activity are unclear.
Stroma reaction leading to fibrosis is the most characteristic histopathological feature of both pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis with increased fibrosis compared with healthy pancreatic tissue and further increased fibrosis during radiochemotherapy. Recent studies using intravoxel incoherent motion-derived parameters did not show differences for structural diffusion constant D between these 2 diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that D correlates with the histopathological grade of fibrosis in pancreatic lesions.
Major histocompatibility complex class II antigens (MHC class II) are constitutively expressed by professional antigen presenting cells and present antigenic peptides to specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. MHC class II expression, however, can also be induced on epithelial cells and in a variety of solid tumors. We tested MHC class II expression on tissue samples derived from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET). Immunohistochemistry revealed MHC class II expression in 86 of 112 (76.8%) PDAC samples and in 30 of 43 (70.0%) PET samples. In PDAC and PET, MHC class II expression correlated significantly with severity and activity of intratumoral inflammation, as well as with the infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes. High MHC class II expression significantly correlated with a better histological grade of differentiation in PDAC. In vitro MHC class II expression could be induced on PDAC tumor cell lines by interferon-?. These cells were then able to present the staphylococci enterotoxin B superantigen to T lymphocytes, which resulted in T cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that MHC class II expression on pancreatic tumor cells is induced by the intratumoral inflammatory reaction in pancreatic tumors.
Galectin-3 influences neoangiogenesis, tumor cell adhesion, and tumor-immune-escape mechanisms. Hence, the expression of galectin-3 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) was evaluated. Galectin-3 expression in PDAC cell lines was proven by the presence of intracellular protein and by release into the supernatant. Furthermore, galectin-3 was found in the majority of human tissue samples. Serum concentrations of galectin-3 in PDAC patients did not differ significantly from healthy donors and did not correlate with established tumor markers. In conclusion, galectin-3 is expressed in PDAC tissues suggesting a role in tumor development; however, no relationship between expression and clinical findings could be established.
In the recent years, the participation of the animal lectin galectin (gal)-3 in inflammation and in host defence mechanisms was extensively studied. In vivo studies implied - among others - a role of gal-3 in the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to sites of bacterial infection. In that context, we asked the question whether gal-3 was chemotactic for PMN. Functional assays revealed that gal-3 was not chemotactic for PMN, but that it inhibited the spontaneous migration and the chemotaxis of PMN towards complement C5a, interleukin (IL)-8, or ATP. Moreover, gal-3 inhibited the shape change and the actin polymerisation of PMN that occurs in response to C5a or IL-8. By use of FITC-labelled gal-3, we found that it attached rapidly to the PMN membrane in a lactose-sensitive manner. In response to gal-3 the MAP kinase p38 was phosphorylated. This kinase is crucial for the migration of PMN towards end-target chemokines, such as C5a, and is activated in response to C5a or IL-8. When PMN were preincubated with gal-3, the C5a-induced p38 phosphorylation was transiently enhanced, but eventually down-modulated. We conclude that by interfering with the chemokine-induced p38 phosphorylation gal-3 inhibits chemotaxis of PMN.
As part of ongoing studies to obtain a global picture of invasion related events in colorectal liver metastases, here, we report our findings on gene expression of the pro-angiogenic subgroup of chemokines, the CXCL-ELR+ chemokines. Apart from their pro-angiogenic and chemoattractant function, these chemokines appear to also contribute to tumor cell transformation, growth and invasion. In our nude mouse model of colorectal liver metastases, we found CXCL1,2,3,5 and 8 (IL-8) to be up-regulated in the tumor cells of the invasion front as compared to the tumor cells in the inner parts of the tumor. ShRNA mediated down-regulation of the most prominently up-regulated group member, CXCL1/gro-alpha resulted in inhibition of cell viability, invasion and proliferation. In vivo, down-regulation of CXCL1 resulted in a nearly complete prevention of tumor growth in nude mice. Mechanistically, auto-regulatory mechanisms involving NF-kappaB and Akt appear to be involved in pro-tumorigenic functions of CXCL1.
Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas are tumors of low malignant potential whose histogenesis has been discussed controversially. In the series of 15 solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms presented here, we demonstrate that discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumor 1 is expressed significantly by these tumors (diffuse expression in 8 cases, focal expression in 4 cases, and scarce expression in 3 cases). Similar to the high expression of CD117, this finding parallels the immunohistochemical findings in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Using double immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, we furthermore show that centroacinar cells express discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumors 1. Thus, our findings suggest that, similarly to CD10 or vimentin, the expression of discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumors 1 may serve as a novel marker for centroacinar cells and for solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms, which is suggestive of a centroacinar origin of these neoplasms.
The protease ADAM10 influences progression and metastasis of cancer cells and is overexpressed in various malignancies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the expression and potential function of ADAM10 in the pathophysiology of pancreatic cancer (PDAC). ADAM10 expression in normal pancreatic (NP), chronic pancreatitis (CP), PDAC tissues, as well as PDAC cell lines was determined. To evaluate whether rhADAM10 or ADAM10 silencing influences cancer cell viability, MTT assay was used. Matrigel invasion and wound healing assays were performed to observe influence on invasion and migration. ADAM10 mRNA was expressed in all samples of NP, CP and PDAC tissue and cell lines. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed stronger ADAM10 expression in PDAC than in NP. ADAM10 silencing or rhADAM10 had no effect on cell viability. ADAM10 silencing markedly reduced invasiveness and migration of cancer cells. These findings establish ADAM10 as a contributing factor in PDAC invasion and metastasis.
Treatment of cachexia requires pharmacological intervention which, in turn, requires knowledge of the mediators and processes. Cachexia markers that are specifically expressed in pancreatic cancer and secreted into the blood circulation have yet to be identified. The aim of our study was to investigate the serum protein profiles and protein alterations associated with cachexia and to identify potential disease protein biomarkers indicative for this syndrome.
Undifferentiated (anaplastic) pancreatic cancer and undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells (giant cell tumour) are rare variants of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Representing biologically highly aggressive neoplasms, they are frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage. The response to established chemo- or radiochemotherapeutic treatment regimens is poor, and undifferentiated pancreatic cancer generally has a dismal prognosis. As additional therapeutic options have not yet been investigated in undifferentiated pancreatic cancer, the aim was to analyse the expression of putative therapeutic targets that have shown promising results in various other neoplasms.
Anaplastic pancreatic cancers are rare neoplasms. The available data are focused on pathologic and molecular features, and little is known about the clinical presentation and management. The outcome of operative exploration and resection is unknown.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is frequently associated with fibrosis and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate in the desmoplastic stroma. Moreover, in PDAC, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is observed. To explore a possible connection between the infiltrating cells, particularly the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and the tumor cell transition, biopsies of patients with PDAC (n = 115) were analysed with regard to PMN infiltration and nuclear expression of ?-catenin and of ZEB1, well-established indicators of EMT. In biopsies with a dense PMN infiltrate, a nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin and of ZEB1 was observed. To address the question whether PMN could induce EMT, they were isolated from healthy donors and were cocultivated with pancreatic tumor cells grown as monolayers. Rapid dyshesion of the tumor cells was seen, most likely due to an elastase-mediated degradation of E-cadherin. In parallel, the transcription factor TWIST was upregulated, ?-catenin translocated into the nucleus, ZEB1 appeared in the nucleus, and keratins were downregulated. EMT was also induced when the tumor cells were grown under conditions preventing attachment to the culture plates. Here, also in the absence of elastase, E-cadherin was downmodulated. PMN as well as prevention of adhesion induced EMT also in liver cancer cell line. In conclusion, PMN via elastase induce EMT in vitro, most likely due to the loss of cell-to-cell contact. Because in pancreatic cancers the transition to a mesenchymal phenotype coincides with the PMN infiltrate, a contribution of the inflammatory response to the induction of EMT and-by implication-to tumor progression is possible.
Standard cancer cell lines do not model the intratumoural heterogeneity situation sufficiently. Clonal selection leads to a homogeneous population of cells by genetic drift. Heterogeneity of tumour cells, however, is particularly critical for therapeutically relevant studies, since it is a prerequisite for acquiring drug resistance and reoccurrence of tumours. Here, we report the isolation of a highly tumourigenic primary pancreatic cancer cell line, called JoPaca-1 and its detailed characterization at multiple levels. Implantation of as few as 100 JoPaca-1 cells into immunodeficient mice gave rise to tumours that were histologically very similar to the primary tumour. The high heterogeneity of JoPaca-1 was reflected by diverse cell morphology and a substantial number of chromosomal aberrations. Comparative whole-genome sequencing of JoPaca-1 and BxPC-3 revealed mutations in genes frequently altered in pancreatic cancer. Exceptionally high expression of cancer stem cell markers and a high clonogenic potential in vitro and in vivo was observed. All of these attributes make this cell line an extremely valuable model to study the biology of and pharmaceutical effects on pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) presenting with a micropapillary growth pattern is frequently associated with a prominent neutrophil infiltration into the tumor. The relevance of neutrophil infiltrates for tumor progression, however, is still debated. To gain insight into the role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in PDAC, we assessed their effect on pancreatic tumor cells grown in vitro as monolayers. Time-lapse video microscopy showed a PMN-induced dyshesion of the tumor cells, and subsequent experiments revealed that this dyshesion was due to PMN elastase-mediated degradation of E-cadherin, an adhesion molecule that mediates the intercellular contact of the tumor cells. E-cadherin degradation by elastase or--(for comparison) down-modulation by specific siRNA, significantly increased the migratory capacity of the pancreatic tumor cells, leading to the hypothesis that PMNs could contribute to the invasive tumor growth. To address this issue, biopsies of patients with PDAC (n = 112) were analyzed. We found that E-cadherin expression correlated negatively with PMN infiltration, compatible with the notion that E-cadherin is cleaved by PMN-derived elastase, which in turn could result in the dispersal of the tumor cells, enhanced migratory capacity and thus invasive tumor growth.
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