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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Structural and biochemical characterization of the Cop9 signalosome CSN5/CSN6 heterodimer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The Cop9 signalosome complex (CSN) regulates the functional cycle of the major E3 ubiquitin ligase family, the cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). Activated CRLs are covalently modified by the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 8). CSN serves an essential role in myriad cellular processes by reversing this modification through the isopeptidase activity of its CSN5 subunit. CSN5 alone is inactive due to an auto-inhibited conformation of its catalytic domain. Here we report the molecular basis of CSN5 catalytic domain activation and unravel a molecular hierarchy in CSN deneddylation activity. The association of CSN5 and CSN6 MPN (for Mpr1/Pad1 N-terminal) domains activates its isopeptidase activity. The CSN5/CSN6 module, however, is inefficient in CRL deneddylation, indicating a requirement of further elements in this reaction such as other CSN subunits. A hybrid molecular model of CSN5/CSN6 provides a structural framework to explain these functional observations. Docking this model into a published CSN electron density map and using distance constraints obtained from cross-linking coupled to mass-spectrometry, we find that the C-termini of the CSN subunits could form a helical bundle in the centre of the structure. They likely play a key scaffolding role in the spatial organization of CSN and precise positioning of the dimeric MPN catalytic core.
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Cytosolic pH regulates cell growth through distinct GTPases, Arf1 and Gtr1, to promote Ras/PKA and TORC1 activity.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Regulation of cell growth by nutrients is governed by highly conserved signaling pathways, yet mechanisms of nutrient sensing are still poorly understood. In yeast, glucose activates both the Ras/PKA pathway and TORC1, which coordinately regulate growth through enhancing translation and ribosome biogenesis and suppressing autophagy. Here, we show that cytosolic pH acts as a cellular signal to activate Ras and TORC1 in response to glucose availability. We demonstrate that cytosolic pH is sensitive to the quality and quantity of the available carbon source (C-source). Interestingly, Ras/PKA and TORC1 are both activated through the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), which was previously identified as a sensor for cytosolic pH in vivo. V-ATPase interacts with two distinct GTPases, Arf1 and Gtr1, which are required for Ras and TORC1 activation, respectively. Together, these data provide a molecular mechanism for how cytosolic pH links C-source availability to the activity of signaling networks promoting cell growth.
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Early steps in autophagy depend on direct phosphorylation of Atg9 by the Atg1 kinase.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Bulk degradation of cytoplasmic material is mediated by a highly conserved intracellular trafficking pathway termed autophagy. This pathway is characterized by the formation of double-membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes engulfing the substrate and transporting it to the vacuole/lysosome for breakdown and recycling. The Atg1/ULK1 kinase is essential for this process; however, little is known about its targets and the means by which it controls autophagy. Here we have screened for Atg1 kinase substrates using consensus peptide arrays and identified three components of the autophagy machinery. The multimembrane-spanning protein Atg9 is a direct target of this kinase essential for autophagy. Phosphorylated Atg9 is then required for the efficient recruitment of Atg8 and Atg18 to the site of autophagosome formation and subsequent expansion of the isolation membrane, a prerequisite for a functioning autophagy pathway. These findings show that the Atg1 kinase acts early in autophagy by regulating the outgrowth of autophagosomal membranes.
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Scalable inference of heterogeneous reaction kinetics from pooled single-cell recordings.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Mathematical methods combined with measurements of single-cell dynamics provide a means to reconstruct intracellular processes that are only partly or indirectly accessible experimentally. To obtain reliable reconstructions, the pooling of measurements from several cells of a clonal population is mandatory. However, cell-to-cell variability originating from diverse sources poses computational challenges for such process reconstruction. We introduce a scalable Bayesian inference framework that properly accounts for population heterogeneity. The method allows inference of inaccessible molecular states and kinetic parameters; computation of Bayes factors for model selection; and dissection of intrinsic, extrinsic and technical noise. We show how additional single-cell readouts such as morphological features can be included in the analysis. We use the method to reconstruct the expression dynamics of a gene under an inducible promoter in yeast from time-lapse microscopy data.
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No damage of joint cartilage of the lower limbs in an ultra-endurance athlete -- an MRI-study.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2013
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Osteoarthritis is an increasing burden in an ageing population. Sports, especially when leading to an overstress of joints, is under suspicion to provoke or at least accelerate the genesis of osteoarthritis. We present the radiologic findings of a 49-years old ultra-endurance athlete with 35 years of training and competing, whose joints of the lower limbs were examined using three different types of magnetic resonance imaging, including a microscopic magnetic resonance imaging coil. To date no case report exists where an ultra-endurance athlete was examined such detailed regarding overuse-injuries of his joints.
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Energetics of elementary reaction steps relevant for CO oxidation: CO and O2 adsorption on model Pd nanoparticles and Pd(111).
Faraday Discuss.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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The energetics of elementary surface processes relevant for CO oxidation, particularly CO and 02 adsorption, were investigated by a direct calorimetric method on model Pd nanoparticles and on the extended Pd(111) single crystal surface. The focus of this study lies on a detailed understanding of how a nanometer scale confinement of matter affects the binding strength of gaseous adsorbates. We report adsorption energies and sticking coefficients of CO and 02 measured as a function of the adsorbate surface coverage both on pristine and O-covered Pd surfaces. The reduced dimensions of the Pd substrate were found to affect the binding strength of the adsorbates in two principle ways: (i) via the change of the local adsorption environment that can result e.g. in stronger adsorbate bonding at the particles low coordinated surface sites and (ii) via the contraction of the Pd lattice in small clusters and a concomitant weakening of chemisorptive interaction. Particularly for 02 adsorption, the change of the adsorption site from a three-fold hollow on Pd(111) to the edge site on Pd nanoparticles (approximately 4 nm sized on average) was found to result in a strong increase of the Pd-O bond strength. In contrast, CO adsorbs weaker on Pd nanoparticles as compared to the extended Pd(111) surface. In total, the binding energies of adsorbates on Pd and with this their surface coverages turn out to depend in a non-monotonic way on the particular structure of Pd surfaces, including the local structure of the adsorption site as well as the global properties of the small clusters arising e.g. from the lattice contraction.
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In scarcity and abundance: metabolic signals regulating cell growth.
Physiology (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Although nutrient availability is a major driver of cell growth, and continuous adaptation to nutrient supply is critical for the development and survival of all organisms, the molecular mechanisms of nutrient sensing are only beginning to emerge. Here, we highlight recent advances in the field of nutrient sensing and discuss arising principles governing how metabolism might regulate growth-promoting pathways. In addition, we discuss signaling functions of metabolic enzymes not directly related to their metabolic activity.
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The RING Domain of the Scaffold Protein Ste5 Adopts a Molten Globular Character with High Thermal and Chemical Stability.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Ste5 is a scaffold protein that controls the pheromone response of the MAP-kinase cascade in yeast cells. Upon pheromone stimulation, Ste5 (through its RING-H2 domain) interacts with the ? and ? subunits of an activated heterodimeric G protein and promotes activation of the MAP-kinase cascade. With structural and biophysical studies, we show that the Ste5 RING-H2 domain exists as a molten globule under native buffer conditions, in yeast extracts, and even in denaturing conditions containing urea (7?M). Furthermore, it exhibits high thermal stability in native conditions. Binding of the Ste5 RING-H2 domain to the physiological G?/? (Ste4/Ste18) ligand is accompanied by a conformational transition into a better folded, more globular structure. This study reveals novel insights into the folding mechanism and recruitment of binding partners by the Ste5 RING-H2 domain. We speculate that many RING domains may share a similar mechanism of substrate recognition and molten-globule-like character.
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tRNA tKUUU, tQUUG, and tEUUC wobble position modifications fine-tune protein translation by promoting ribosome A-site binding.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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tRNA modifications are crucial to ensure translation efficiency and fidelity. In eukaryotes, the URM1 and ELP pathways increase cellular resistance to various stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation and oxidative agents, by promoting thiolation and methoxycarbonylmethylation, respectively, of the wobble uridine of cytoplasmic (tK(UUU)), (tQ(UUG)), and (tE(UUC)). Although in vitro experiments have implicated these tRNA modifications in modulating wobbling capacity and translation efficiency, their exact in vivo biological roles remain largely unexplored. Using a combination of quantitative proteomics and codon-specific translation reporters, we find that translation of a specific gene subset enriched for AAA, CAA, and GAA codons is impaired in the absence of URM1- and ELP-dependent tRNA modifications. Moreover, in vitro experiments using native tRNAs demonstrate that both modifications enhance binding of tK(UUU) to the ribosomal A-site. Taken together, our data suggest that tRNA thiolation and methoxycarbonylmethylation regulate translation of genes with specific codon content.
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Substrate recognition in selective autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Dynamic protein turnover through regulated protein synthesis and degradation ensures cellular growth, proliferation, differentiation and adaptation. Eukaryotic cells utilize two mechanistically distinct but largely complementary systems - the 26S proteasome and the lysosome (or vacuole in yeast and plants) - to effectively target a wide range of proteins for degradation. The concerted action of the ubiquitination machinery and the 26S proteasome ensures the targeted and tightly regulated degradation of a subset of commonly short-lived cellular proteins. Autophagy is a distinct degradation pathway, which transports a highly heterogeneous set of cargos in dedicated vesicles, called autophagosomes, to the lysosome. There the cargo becomes degraded and its molecular building blocks are recycled. While general autophagy randomly engulfs portions of the cytosol, selective autophagy employs dedicated cargo adaptors to specifically enrich the forming autophagosomes for a certain type of cargo as a response to various intra- or extracellular signals. Selective autophagy targets a wide range of cargos including long-lived proteins and protein complexes, organelles, protein aggregates and even intracellular microbes. In this review we summarize available data on cargo recognition mechanisms operating in selective autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and emphasize their differences and common themes. Moreover, we derive general regulatory principles underlying cargo recognition in selective autophagy, and describe the system-wide crosstalk between these two cellular protein degradation systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Ubiquitin-Proteasome System. Guest Editors: Thomas Sommer and Dieter H. Wolf.
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Prediction of transcribed PIWI-interacting RNAs from CHO RNAseq data.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are currently the most important mammalian host for the manufacture of biopharmaceuticals. To enhance our understanding of cellular processes, pathways, and the genetic setup of CHO cell lines, we predicted PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs) from small RNA sequencing data. Although piRNAs are the least understood class of small non-coding RNAs that mediate RNA silencing, it is believed that they play a pivotal role in protecting genome integrity by repressing transposable elements. Since genomic integrity is the key to prolonged stability of recombinant CHO cell lines, we characterized piRNA sequences and expression in six CHO cell lines by computational analysis of an existing small RNA sequencing dataset using proTRAC and the published CHO genome as reference. Here we present the result of this analysis consisting of 25,626 piRNAs and 540 piRNA clusters. Moreover we provide first evidence for differential piRNA expression in adherent and suspension-adapted CHO-K1 and DUKXB11 host cell lines as well as their recombinant derivatives, indicating that piRNAs might be tools for cell line development and engineering.
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The physiologic increase in expression of some type I IFN-inducible genes during pregnancy is not associated with improved disease activity in pregnant patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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During pregnancy, most patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience a spontaneous improvement in their condition. Since type I interferons (IFN) have immunomodulatory properties, we investigated whether type I IFN-inducible genes are upregulated in pregnant patients with RA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for type I IFN-inducible genes (IFI 35, IFI44, IFI44L, IFIT3, OAS1, and Siglec1) in patients with RA and healthy women during and after pregnancy as well as in nonpregnant controls. IFN-alpha and IFN-beta levels in sera of patients and healthy donors were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. It was found that healthy women did not show a change of gene expression levels from the second trimester until postpartum, yet some type I IFN-inducible genes were significantly upregulated in pregnant and postpartum women compared with nonpregnant individuals. In patients with RA, a pronounced upregulation of IFI35 and IFI44 at the second trimester and a peak expression of Siglec1 at the third trimester were observed. Pregnancy levels of IFI35 and IFI44 in patients with RA were higher than those of nonpregnant patients with RA. No significant association of gene expression levels with disease activity was found. In the sera of patients and healthy women, IFN-beta was undetectable and IFN-alpha levels remained stable throughout pregnancy and postpartum. Thus, pregnancy can give rise to an increased expression of type I IFN-inducible genes, reflecting an upregulation of the innate immune system. However, an association of type I IFN-inducible genes with pregnancy induced disease amelioration seems unlikely.
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Ubiquitylation-dependent localization of PLK1 in mitosis.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) critically regulates mitosis through its dynamic localization to kinetochores, centrosomes and the midzone. The polo-box domain (PBD) and activity of PLK1 mediate its recruitment to mitotic structures, but the mechanisms regulating PLK1 dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we identify PLK1 as a target of the cullin 3 (CUL3)-based E3 ubiquitin ligase, containing the BTB adaptor KLHL22, which regulates chromosome alignment and PLK1 kinetochore localization but not PLK1 stability. In the absence of KLHL22, PLK1 accumulates on kinetochores, resulting in activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). CUL3-KLHL22 ubiquitylates Lys 492, located within the PBD, leading to PLK1 dissociation from kinetochore phosphoreceptors. Expression of a non-ubiquitylatable PLK1-K492R mutant phenocopies inactivation of CUL3-KLHL22. KLHL22 associates with the mitotic spindle and its interaction with PLK1 increases on chromosome bi-orientation. Our data suggest that CUL3-KLHL22-mediated ubiquitylation signals degradation-independent removal of PLK1 from kinetochores and SAC satisfaction, which are required for faithful mitosis.
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Dynamic processes at stress promoters regulate the bimodal expression of HOG response genes.
Commun Integr Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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Osmotic stress triggers the activation of the HOG (high osmolarity glycerol) pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This signaling cascade culminates in the activation of the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) Hog1. Quantitative single cell measurements revealed a discrepancy between kinase- and transcriptional activities of Hog1. While kinase activity increases proportionally to stress stimulus, gene expression is inhibited under low stress conditions. Interestingly, a slow stochastic gene activation process is responsible for setting a tunable threshold for gene expression under basal or low stress conditions, which generates a bimodal expression pattern at intermediate stress levels.
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Transient activation of the HOG MAPK pathway regulates bimodal gene expression.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved signaling modules that control many cellular processes by integrating intra- and extracellular cues. The p38/Hog1 MAPK is transiently activated in response to osmotic stress, leading to rapid translocation into the nucleus and induction of a specific transcriptional program. When investigating the dynamic interplay between Hog1 activation and Hog1-driven gene expression, we found that Hog1 activation increases linearly with stimulus, whereas the transcriptional output is bimodal. Modeling predictions, corroborated by single-cell experiments, established that a slow stochastic transition from a repressed to an activated transcriptional state in conjunction with transient Hog1 activation generates this behavior. Together, these findings provide a molecular mechanism by which a cell can impose a transcriptional threshold in response to a linear signaling behavior.
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The TFIIH subunit Tfb3 regulates cullin neddylation.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Cullin proteins are scaffolds for the assembly of multisubunit ubiquitin ligases, which ubiquitylate a large number of proteins involved in widely varying cellular functions. Multiple mechanisms cooperate to regulate cullin activity, including neddylation of their C-terminal domain. Interestingly, we found that the yeast Cul4-type cullin Rtt101 is not only neddylated but also ubiquitylated, and both modifications promote Rtt101 function in vivo. Surprisingly, proper modification of Rtt101 neither correlated with catalytic activity of the RING domain of Hrt1 nor required the Nedd8 ligase Dcn1. Instead, ubiquitylation of Rtt101 was dependent on the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc4, while efficient neddylation involves the RING domain protein Tfb3, a subunit of the transcription factor TFIIH. Tfb3 also controls Cul3 neddylation and activity in vivo, and physically interacts with Ubc4 and the Nedd8-conjugating enzyme Ubc12 and the Hrt1/Rtt101 complex. Together, these results suggest that the conserved RING domain protein Tfb3 controls activation of a subset of cullins.
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Control of Ubp3 ubiquitin protease activity by the Hog1 SAPK modulates transcription upon osmostress.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Protein ubiquitylation is a key process in the regulation of many cellular processes. The balance between the activity of ubiquitin ligases and that of proteases controls the level of ubiquitylation. In response to extracellular stimuli, stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) modulate gene expression to maximize cell survival. In yeast, the Hog1 SAPK has a key role in reprogramming the gene expression pattern required for cell survival upon osmostress. Here, we show that the Ubp3 ubiquitin protease is a target for the Hog1 SAPK to modulate gene expression. ubp3 mutant cells are defective in expression of osmoresponsive genes. Hog1 interacts with and phosphorylates Ubp3 at serine 695, which is essential to determine the extent of transcriptional activation in response to osmostress. Furthermore, Ubp3 is recruited to osmoresponsive genes to modulate transcriptional initiation as well as elongation. Therefore, Ubp3 activity responds to external stimuli and is required for transcriptional activation upon osmostress.
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The N-terminal domain of the V-ATPase subunit a is regulated by pH in vitro and in vivo.
Channels (Austin)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Regulation of the activity of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is a well known, yet poorly understood phenomenon, which might underlie the contribution of V-ATPases in various cellular signaling processes.(1) In yeast, V-ATPase is regulated by glucose and contributes to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). We have recently shown that, in vivo, glucose regulates V-ATPase through cytosolic pH, suggesting that V-ATPase contains a pH sensitive subunit, which regulates assembly of the holo-complex.(2) Here, we present the purification and biochemical characterization of the N-terminal domain of subunit a, Vph1N, which has been suggested to act as a pH sensor in mammalian cells.(3) Interestingly, our studies demonstrate pH-dependent oligomerization of this domain in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, we identify a membrane proximal region that is required for the pH-dependent oligomerization, and suggest a speculative model for the regulation of the V-ATPase holo-complex by pH.
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Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals interconnected system-wide responses to perturbations of kinases and phosphatases in yeast.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
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The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins by kinases and phosphatases constitute an essential regulatory network in eukaryotic cells. This network supports the flow of information from sensors through signaling systems to effector molecules and ultimately drives the phenotype and function of cells, tissues, and organisms. Dysregulation of this process has severe consequences and is one of the main factors in the emergence and progression of diseases, including cancer. Thus, major efforts have been invested in developing specific inhibitors that modulate the activity of individual kinases or phosphatases; however, it has been difficult to assess how such pharmacological interventions would affect the cellular signaling network as a whole. Here, we used label-free, quantitative phosphoproteomics in a systematically perturbed model organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to determine the relationships between 97 kinases, 27 phosphatases, and more than 1000 phosphoproteins. We identified 8814 regulated phosphorylation events, describing the first system-wide protein phosphorylation network in vivo. Our results show that, at steady state, inactivation of most kinases and phosphatases affected large parts of the phosphorylation-modulated signal transduction machinery-and not only the immediate downstream targets. The observed cellular growth phenotype was often well maintained despite the perturbations, arguing for considerable robustness in the system. Our results serve to constrain future models of cellular signaling and reinforce the idea that simple linear representations of signaling pathways might be insufficient for drug development and for describing organismal homeostasis.
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Activation of Atg1 kinase in autophagy by regulated phosphorylation.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2010
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Autophagy is a highly regulated trafficking pathway that leads to selective degradation of cellular constituents such as protein aggregates and excessive and damaged organelles. Atg1 is an essential part of the core autophagic machinery, which triggers induction of autophagy and the Cvt pathway. Although changes in Atg1 phosphorylation and complex formation are thought to regulate its function, the mechanism of Atg1 kinase activation remains unclear. Using a quantitative mass spectrometry approach, we identified 29 phosphorylation sites, of which five are either upregulated or downregulated by rapamycin treatment. Two phosphorylation sites, threonine 226 and serine 230, are evolutionarily conserved and located in the activation loop of the amino terminal kinase domain of Atg1. These phosphorylation events are not required for Atg1 localization to the phagosome assembly site (PAS), or the proper assembly of the multisubunit Atg1 kinase complex and binding to its activator Atg13. However, mutation of either one of these sites results in a loss of Atg1 kinase activity and its function in autophagy and the Cvt pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that phosphorylation of Atg1 on multiple sites provides critical mechanisms to regulate Atg1 function in autophagy and the Cvt pathway.
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Structural analysis of the conserved ubiquitin-binding motifs (UBMs) of the translesion polymerase iota in complex with ubiquitin.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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Ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs) provide specificity to the ubiquitin system, which is also involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) in eukaryotic cells. Upon DNA damage, the UBDs (UBM domains) of polymerase iota (Pol ?) interact with ubiquitinated proliferating cell nuclear antigen to regulate the interchange between processive DNA polymerases and TLS. We report a biophysical analysis and solution structures of the two conserved UBM domains located in the C-terminal tail of murine Pol ? in complex with ubiquitin. The 35-amino acid core folds into a helix-turn-helix motif, which belongs to a novel domain fold. Similar to other UBDs, UBMs bind to ubiquitin on the hydrophobic surface delineated by Leu-8, Ile-44, and Val-70, however, slightly shifted toward the C terminus. In addition, UBMs also use electrostatic interactions to stabilize binding. NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements revealed that UBMs bind monoubiquitin, and Lys-63- but not Lys-48-linked chains. Importantly, these biophysical data are supported by functional studies. Indeed, yeast cells expressing ubiquitin mutants specifically defective for UBM binding are viable but sensitive to DNA damaging conditions that require TLS for repair.
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RNAi-based screening identifies the Mms22L-Nfkbil2 complex as a novel regulator of DNA replication in human cells.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Cullin 4 (Cul4)-based ubiquitin ligases emerged as critical regulators of DNA replication and repair. Over 50 Cul4-specific adaptors (DNA damage-binding 1 (Ddb1)-Cul4-associated factors; DCAFs) have been identified and are thought to assemble functionally distinct Cul4 complexes. Using a live-cell imaging-based RNAi screen, we analysed the function of DCAFs and Cul4-linked proteins, and identified specific subsets required for progression through G1 and S phase. We discovered C6orf167/Mms22-like protein (Mms22L) as a putative human orthologue of budding yeast Mms22, which, together with cullin Rtt101, regulates genome stability by promoting DNA replication through natural pause sites and damaged templates. Loss of Mms22L function in human cells results in S phase-dependent genomic instability characterised by spontaneous double-strand breaks and DNA damage checkpoint activation. Unlike yeast Mms22, human Mms22L does not stably bind to Cul4, but is degraded in a Cul4-dependent manner and upon replication stress. Mms22L physically and functionally interacts with the scaffold-like protein Nfkbil2 that co-purifies with histones, several chromatin remodelling and DNA replication/repair factors. Together, our results strongly suggest that the Mms22L-Nfkbil2 complex contributes to genome stability by regulating the chromatin state at stalled replication forks.
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Selective autophagy: ubiquitin-mediated recognition and beyond.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Eukaryotic cells use autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system as their major protein degradation pathways. Whereas the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in the rapid degradation of proteins, autophagy pathways can selectively remove protein aggregates and damaged or excess organelles. Proteasome-mediated degradation requires previous ubiquitylation of the cargo, which is then recognized by ubiquitin receptors directing it to 26S proteasomes. Although autophagy has long been viewed as a random cytoplasmic degradation system, the involvement of ubiquitin as a specificity factor for selective autophagy is rapidly emerging. Recent evidence also suggests active crosstalk between proteasome-mediated degradation and selective autophagy. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that link autophagy and the proteasome system, as well as the emerging roles of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins in selective autophagy. On the basis of the evolutionary history of autophagic ubiquitin receptors, we propose a common origin for metazoan ubiquitin-dependent autophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway of yeast.
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Interplay between wheat cultivars, biocontrol pseudomonads, and soil.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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There is a significant potential to improve the plant-beneficial effects of root-colonizing pseudomonads by breeding wheat genotypes with a greater capacity to sustain interactions with these bacteria. However, the interaction between pseudomonads and crop plants at the cultivar level, as well as the conditions which favor the accumulation of beneficial microorganisms in the wheat rhizosphere, is largely unknown. Therefore, we characterized the three Swiss winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars Arina, Zinal, and Cimetta for their ability to accumulate naturally occurring plant-beneficial pseudomonads in the rhizosphere. Cultivar performance was measured also by the ability to select for specific genotypes of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) producers in two different soils. Cultivar-specific differences were found; however, these were strongly influenced by the soil type. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of fragments of the DAPG biosynthetic gene phlD amplified from natural Pseudomonas rhizosphere populations revealed that phlD diversity substantially varied between the two soils and that there was a cultivar-specific accumulation of certain phlD genotypes in one soil but not in the other. Furthermore, the three cultivars were tested for their ability to benefit from Pseudomonas inoculants. Interestingly, Arina, which was best protected against Pythium ultimum infection by inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol strain CHA0, was the cultivar which profited the least from the bacterial inoculant in terms of plant growth promotion in the absence of the pathogen. Knowledge gained of the interactions between wheat cultivars, beneficial pseudomonads, and soil types allows us to optimize cultivar-soil combinations for the promotion of growth through beneficial pseudomonads. Additionally, this information can be implemented by breeders into a new and unique breeding strategy for low-input and organic conditions.
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CellCognition: time-resolved phenotype annotation in high-throughput live cell imaging.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Fluorescence time-lapse imaging has become a powerful tool to investigate complex dynamic processes such as cell division or intracellular trafficking. Automated microscopes generate time-resolved imaging data at high throughput, yet tools for quantification of large-scale movie data are largely missing. Here we present CellCognition, a computational framework to annotate complex cellular dynamics. We developed a machine-learning method that combines state-of-the-art classification with hidden Markov modeling for annotation of the progression through morphologically distinct biological states. Incorporation of time information into the annotation scheme was essential to suppress classification noise at state transitions and confusion between different functional states with similar morphology. We demonstrate generic applicability in different assays and perturbation conditions, including a candidate-based RNA interference screen for regulators of mitotic exit in human cells. CellCognition is published as open source software, enabling live-cell imaging-based screening with assays that directly score cellular dynamics.
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Cytosolic pH is a second messenger for glucose and regulates the PKA pathway through V-ATPase.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Glucose is the preferred carbon source for most cell types and a major determinant of cell growth. In yeast and certain mammalian cells, glucose activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), but the mechanisms of PKA activation remain unknown. Here, we identify cytosolic pH as a second messenger for glucose that mediates activation of the PKA pathway in yeast. We find that cytosolic pH is rapidly and reversibly regulated by glucose metabolism and identify the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a proton pump required for the acidification of vacuoles, as a sensor of cytosolic pH. V-ATPase assembly is regulated by cytosolic pH and is required for full activation of the PKA pathway in response to glucose, suggesting that it mediates, at least in part, the pH signal to PKA. Finally, V-ATPase is also regulated by glucose in the Min6 beta-cell line and contributes to PKA activation and insulin secretion. Thus, these data suggest a novel and potentially conserved glucose-sensing pathway and identify a mechanism how cytosolic pH can act as a signal to promote cell growth.
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The Cul3-KLHL21 E3 ubiquitin ligase targets aurora B to midzone microtubules in anaphase and is required for cytokinesis.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2009
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Cul3 (Cullin3)-based E3 ubiquitin ligases recently emerged as critical regulators of mitosis. In this study, we identify two mammalian BTB (Bric-a-brac-Tramtrack-Broad complex)-Kelch proteins, KLHL21 and KLHL22, that interact with Cul3 and are required for efficient chromosome alignment. Interestingly, KLHL21 but not KLHL22 is necessary for cytokinesis and regulates translocation of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) from chromosomes to the spindle midzone in anaphase, similar to the previously described BTB-Kelch proteins KLHL9 and KLHL13. KLHL21 directly binds to aurora B and mediates ubiquitination of aurora B in vitro. In contrast to KLHL9 and KLHL13, KLHL21 localizes to midzone microtubules in anaphase and recruits aurora B and Cul3 to this region. Together, our results suggest that different Cul3 adaptors nonredundantly regulate aurora B during mitosis, possibly by ubiquitinating different pools of aurora B at distinct subcellular localizations.
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Cullin neddylation and substrate-adaptors counteract SCF inhibition by the CAND1-like protein Lag2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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Cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligases are activated through covalent modification of the cullin subunit by the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8. Cullin neddylation dissociates the ligase assembly inhibitor Cand1, and promotes E2 recruitment and ubiquitin transfer by inducing a conformational change. Here, we have identified and characterized Lag2 as a likely Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologue of mammalian Cand1. Similar to Cand1, Lag2 directly interacts with non-neddylated yeast cullin Cdc53 and prevents its neddylation in vivo and in vitro. Binding occurs through a conserved C-terminal beta-hairpin structure that inserts into the Skp1-binding pocket on the cullin, and an N-terminal motif that covers the neddylation lysine. Interestingly, Lag2 is itself neddylated in vivo on a lysine adjacent to this N-terminal-binding site. Overexpression of Lag2 inhibits Cdc53 activity in strains defective for Skp1 or neddylation functions, implying that these activities are important to counteract Lag2 in vivo. Our results favour a model in which binding of substrate-specific adaptors triggers release of Cand1/Lag2, whereas subsequent neddylation of the cullin facilitates the removal and prevents re-association of Lag2/Cand1.
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Telomerase is essential to alleviate pif1-induced replication stress at telomeres.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2009
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Pif1, an evolutionarily conserved helicase, negatively regulates telomere length by removing telomerase from chromosome ends. Pif1 has also been implicated in DNA replication processes such as Okazaki fragment maturation and replication fork pausing. We find that overexpression of Saccharomyces cervisiae PIF1 results in dose-dependent growth inhibition. Strong overexpression causes relocalization of the DNA damage response factors Rfa1 and Mre11 into nuclear foci and activation of the Rad53 DNA damage checkpoint kinase, indicating that the toxicity is caused by accumulation of DNA damage. We screened the complete set of approximately 4800 haploid gene deletion mutants and found that moderate overexpression of PIF1, which is only mildly toxic on its own, causes growth defects in strains with mutations in genes involved in DNA replication and the DNA damage response. Interestingly, we find that telomerase-deficient strains are also sensitive to PIF1 overexpression. Our data are consistent with a model whereby increased levels of Pif1 interfere with DNA replication, causing collapsed replication forks. At chromosome ends, collapsed forks result in truncated telomeres that must be rapidly elongated by telomerase to maintain viability.
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The human Dcn1-like protein DCNL3 promotes Cul3 neddylation at membranes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Cullin (Cul)-based E3 ubiquitin ligases are activated through the attachment of Nedd8 to the Cul protein. In yeast, Dcn1 (defective in Cul neddylation 1 protein) functions as a scaffold-like Nedd8 E3-ligase by interacting with its Cul substrates and the Nedd8 E2 Ubc12. Human cells express 5 Dcn1-like (DCNL) proteins each containing a C-terminal potentiating neddylation domain but distinct amino-terminal extensions. Although the UBA-containing DCNL1 and DCNL2 are likely functional homologues of yeast Dcn1, DCNL3 also interacts with human Culs and is able to complement the neddylation defect of yeast dcn1Delta cells. DCNL3 down-regulation by RNAi decreases Cul neddylation, and overexpression of a Cul3 mutant deficient in DCNL3 binding interferes with Cul3 function in vivo. Interestingly, DCNL3 accumulates at the plasma membrane through a conserved, lipid-modified motif at the N terminus. Membrane-bound DCNL3 is able to recruit Cul3 to membranes and is functionally important for Cul3 neddylation in vivo. We conclude that DCNL proteins function as nonredundant Cul Nedd8-E3 ligases. Moreover, the diversification of the N termini in mammalian Dcn1 homologues may contribute to substrate specificity by regulating their subcellular localization.
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Yeast Uri1p promotes translation initiation and may provide a link to cotranslational quality control.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Translation initiation in eukaryotes is accomplished by a large set of translation initiation factors, some of which are regulated by signals monitoring intracellular and environmental conditions. Here, we show that Uri1p is required for efficient translation initiation in budding yeast. Indeed, uri1Delta cells are slow growing, sensitive to translation inhibitors and they exhibit an increased 80S peak in polysome profiles. Moreover, GCN4 translation is derepressed in uri1Delta cells, strongly supporting an initiation defect. Genetic and biochemical experiments indicate that Uri1p interacts with the translation initiation factor eIF1A and promotes ternary complex (TC) recruitment to the 40S subunit. Interestingly, we found that Uri1p is also part of a chaperone-network, including the prefoldin Pfd6p and several other proteins involved in cotranslational quality control such as the ribosome-associated Hsp70 chaperone Ssb1p, the Hsp40 Sis1p and the translation elongation factor eEF1A. Together with genetic data, these interactions indicate that Uri1p may coordinate translation initiation and cotranslational quality control.
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An interaction network of the mammalian COP9 signalosome identifies Dda1 as a core subunit of multiple Cul4-based E3 ligases.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionarily conserved macromolecular complex that interacts with cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) and regulates their activity by hydrolyzing cullin-Nedd8 conjugates. The CSN sequesters inactive CRL4(Ddb2), which rapidly dissociates from the CSN upon DNA damage. Here we systematically define the protein interaction network of the mammalian CSN through mass spectrometric interrogation of the CSN subunits Csn1, Csn3, Csn4, Csn5, Csn6 and Csn7a. Notably, we identified a subset of CRL complexes that stably interact with the CSN and thus might similarly be activated by dissociation from the CSN in response to specific cues. In addition, we detected several new proteins in the CRL-CSN interactome, including Dda1, which we characterized as a chromatin-associated core subunit of multiple CRL4 proteins. Cells depleted of Dda1 spontaneously accumulated double-stranded DNA breaks in a similar way to Cul4A-, Cul4B- or Wdr23-depleted cells, indicating that Dda1 interacts physically and functionally with CRL4 complexes. This analysis identifies new components of the CRL family of E3 ligases and elaborates new connections between the CRL and CSN complexes.
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Selective types of autophagy in yeast.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Autophagy is the process through which cytosol and organelles are sequestered into a double-membrane vesicle called an autophagosome and delivered to the vacuole/lysosome for breakdown and recycling. One of its primary roles in unicellular organisms is to regulate intracellular homeostasis and to adjust organelle numbers in response to stress such as changes in nutrient availability. In higher eukaryotes, autophagy plays also an important role in stress-response, development, cell differentiation, immunity and tumor suppression. Importantly, a misregulation in this catabolic pathway is associated with diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and myopathies. For a long time, starvation-induced autophagy has been considered a non-selective pathway, however, numerous recent observations revealed that autophagy can also selectively eliminate specific proteins, protein complexes and organelles. Most of these studies used yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. In this compendium, we will review what is known about the mechanisms and roles of selective types of autophagy in yeast and highlight possible connections of these pathways with human diseases. In addition, we will discuss some selective types of autophagy, which have so far only been described in higher eukaryotes.
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Ubiquitin-related modifier Urm1 acts as a sulphur carrier in thiolation of eukaryotic transfer RNA.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) can change protein function, localization or turnover by covalent attachment to lysine residues. Although UBLs achieve this conjugation through an intricate enzymatic cascade, their bacterial counterparts MoaD and ThiS function as sulphur carrier proteins. Here we show that Urm1p, the most ancient UBL, acts as a sulphur carrier in the process of eukaryotic transfer RNA (tRNA) modification, providing a possible evolutionary link between UBL and sulphur transfer. Moreover, we identify Uba4p, Ncs2p, Ncs6p and Yor251cp as components of this conserved pathway. Using in vitro assays, we show that Ncs6p binds to tRNA, whereas Uba4p first adenylates and then directly transfers sulphur onto Urm1p. Finally, functional analysis reveals that the thiolation function of Urm1p is critical to regulate cellular responses to nutrient starvation and oxidative stress conditions, most likely by increasing translation fidelity.
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Cullin-3 and the endocytic system: New functions of ubiquitination for endosome maturation.
Cell Logist
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Cullin-RING-ligases (CRLs) comprise the largest class of multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligases, which regulate a broad range of cellular processes. Cullin3 (Cul3) recently emerged as an important regulator of intracellular trafficking, in particular secretion and endosome maturation. Here we summarize and discuss possible functions and substrates of Cul3 in the endocytic system.
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Fbw7? and Fbw7? collaborate to shuttle cyclin E1 into the nucleolus for multiubiquitylation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
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Cyclin E1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) that promotes replicative functions, is normally expressed periodically within the mammalian cell cycle, peaking at the G(1)-S-phase transition. This periodicity is achieved by E2F-dependent transcription in late G(1) and early S phases and by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. The ubiquitin ligase that targets phosphorylated cyclin E is SCF(Fbw7) (also known as SCF(Cdc4)), a member of the cullin ring ligase (CRL) family. Fbw7, a substrate adaptor subunit, is expressed as three splice-variant isoforms with different subcellular distributions: Fbw7? is nucleoplasmic but excluded from the nucleolus, Fbw7? is cytoplasmic, and Fbw7? is nucleolar. Degradation of cyclin E in vivo requires SCF complexes containing Fbw7? and Fbw7?, respectively. In vitro reconstitution showed that the role of SCF(Fbw7?) in cyclin E degradation, rather than ubiquitylation, is to serve as a cofactor of the prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1 in the isomerization of a noncanonical proline-proline bond in the cyclin E phosphodegron. This isomerization is required for subsequent binding and ubiquitylation by SCF(Fbw7?). Here we show that Pin1-mediated isomerization of the cyclin E phosphodegron and subsequent binding to Fbw7? drive nucleolar localization of cyclin E, where it is ubiquitylated by SCF(Fbw7?) prior to its degradation by the proteasome. It is possible that this constitutes a mechanism for rapid inactivation of phosphorylated cyclin E by nucleolar sequestration prior to its multiubiquitylation and degradation.
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Atg1 kinase regulates early and late steps during autophagy.
Autophagy
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The notion that phosphorylation constitutes a major mechanism to induce autophagy was established 15 years ago when a conserved Atg1/ULK kinase family was identified as an essential component of the autophagy machinery. The key observation was that starved atg1? cells lack autophagosomes in the cytosol and fail to accumulate autophagic bodies in the vacuole. Although many studies have revealed important details of Atg1 activation and function, a cohesive model for how Atg1 regulates the autophagic machinery is lacking. Our recent findings identified conserved steps of temporal and spatial regulation of Atg1/ULK1 kinase at both the PAS and autophagosomal membranes, suggesting that Atg1 not only promotes autophagy induction, but may also facilitate late stages of autophagosome biogenesis.
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An integrated image analysis platform to quantify signal transduction in single cells.
Integr Biol (Camb)
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Microscopy can provide invaluable information about biological processes at the single cell level. It remains a challenge, however, to extract quantitative information from these types of datasets. We have developed an image analysis platform named YeastQuant to simplify data extraction by offering an integrated method to turn time-lapse movies into single cell measurements. This platform is based on a database with a graphical user interface where the users can describe their experiments. The database is connected to the engineering software Matlab, which allows extracting the desired information by automatically segmenting and quantifying the microscopy images. We implemented three different segmentation methods that recognize individual cells under different conditions, and integrated image analysis protocols that allow measuring and analyzing distinct cellular readouts. To illustrate the power and versatility of YeastQuant, we investigated dynamic signal transduction processes in yeast. First, we quantified the expression of fluorescent reporters induced by osmotic stress to study noise in gene expression. Second, we analyzed the dynamic relocation of endogenous proteins from the cytoplasm to the cell nucleus, which provides a fast measure of pathway activity. These examples demonstrate that YeastQuant provides a versatile and expandable database and an experimental framework that improves image analysis and quantification of diverse microscopy-based readouts. Such dynamic single cell measurements are highly needed to establish mathematical models of signal transduction pathways.
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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Daniel J Klionsky, Fábio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kiššová, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Fréderic Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sérgio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramón Corbalán, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Josee Hebert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kågedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Róza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-Bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Péter Low, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Fredéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfè, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Regnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, Jose L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stéphane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, María S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Stralfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, Fengfeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-Jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun.
Autophagy
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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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Structural basis for a reciprocal regulation between SCF and CSN.
Cell Rep
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Skp1-Cul1-Fbox (SCF) E3 ligases are activated by ligation to the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8, which is reversed by the deneddylating Cop9 signalosome (CSN). However, CSN also promotes SCF substrate turnover through unknown mechanisms. Through biochemical and electron microscopy analyses, we determined molecular models of CSN complexes with SCF(Skp2/Cks1) and SCF(Fbw7) and found that CSN occludes both SCF functional sites-the catalytic Rbx1-Cul1 C-terminal domain and the substrate receptor. Indeed, CSN binding prevents SCF interactions with E2 enzymes and a ubiquitination substrate, and it inhibits SCF-catalyzed ubiquitin chain formation independent of deneddylation. Importantly, CSN prevents neddylation of the bound cullin, unless binding of a ubiquitination substrate triggers SCF dissociation and neddylation. Taken together, the results provide a model for how reciprocal regulation sensitizes CSN to the SCF assembly state and inhibits a catalytically competent SCF until a ubiquitination substrate drives its own degradation by displacing CSN, thereby promoting cullin neddylation and substrate ubiquitination.
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Binding of the Atg1/ULK1 kinase to the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 regulates autophagy.
EMBO J.
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Autophagy is an intracellular trafficking pathway sequestering cytoplasm and delivering excess and damaged cargo to the vacuole for degradation. The Atg1/ULK1 kinase is an essential component of the core autophagy machinery possibly activated by binding to Atg13 upon starvation. Indeed, we found that Atg13 directly binds Atg1, and specific Atg13 mutations abolishing this interaction interfere with Atg1 function in vivo. Surprisingly, Atg13 binding to Atg1 is constitutive and not altered by nutrient conditions or treatment with the Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1)-inhibitor rapamycin. We identify Atg8 as a novel regulator of Atg1/ULK1, which directly binds Atg1/ULK1 in a LC3-interaction region (LIR)-dependent manner. Molecular analysis revealed that Atg13 and Atg8 cooperate at different steps to regulate Atg1 function. Atg8 targets Atg1/ULK1 to autophagosomes, where it may promote autophagosome maturation and/or fusion with vacuoles/lysosomes. Moreover, Atg8 binding triggers vacuolar degradation of the Atg1-Atg13 complex in yeast, thereby coupling Atg1 activity to autophagic flux. Together, these findings define a conserved step in autophagy regulation in yeast and mammals and expand the known functions of LIR-dependent Atg8 targets to include spatial regulation of the Atg1/ULK1 kinase.
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Moment-based inference predicts bimodality in transient gene expression.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Recent computational studies indicate that the molecular noise of a cellular process may be a rich source of information about process dynamics and parameters. However, accessing this source requires stochastic models that are usually difficult to analyze. Therefore, parameter estimation for stochastic systems using distribution measurements, as provided for instance by flow cytometry, currently remains limited to very small and simple systems. Here we propose a new method that makes use of low-order moments of the measured distribution and thereby keeps the essential parts of the provided information, while still staying applicable to systems of realistic size. We demonstrate how cell-to-cell variability can be incorporated into the analysis obviating the need for the ubiquitous assumption that the measurements stem from a homogeneous cell population. We demonstrate the method for a simple example of gene expression using synthetic data generated by stochastic simulation. Subsequently, we use time-lapsed flow cytometry data for the osmo-stress induced transcriptional response in budding yeast to calibrate a stochastic model, which is then used as a basis for predictions. Our results show that measurements of the mean and the variance can be enough to determine the model parameters, even if the measured distributions are not well-characterized by low-order moments only--e.g., if they are bimodal.
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Quantitative and dynamic assay of single cell chemotaxis.
Integr Biol (Camb)
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We have developed a single-cell assay platform that allows quantitative analysis of single cell chemotaxis by dynamic morphogenetic gradients, subcellular microscopic imaging and automated image analysis, and have applied these to measure cellular polarization of budding yeast. The computer-controlled microfluidic device regulates the gradient profile at any given time, and allows quantitative monitoring of cell morphology and the localization and expression of specific marker proteins during the dynamic polarization process. With this integrated experimental system, we compare the polarized signaling response of wild-type and far1-H7 mutant cells, which express a truncated Far1 protein unable to interact with Cdc24. Our results confirm that Far1 functions as an adaptor that recruits polarity establishment proteins to the site of extracellular signaling. Moreover, by changing the gradient profile and estimating the number of bound surface receptors, we quantitatively address why surprisingly small differences in pheromone concentration across yeast cells can be amplified into a robust polarity axis. This integrated single cell experimental platform thus opens the possibility to quantitatively investigate the molecular regulatory mechanism of chemotaxis in yeast, which serves as a paradigm to understand the fundamental processes involved in cancer metastasis, angiogenesis and axon generation.
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Cullin-3 regulates late endosome maturation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Cullin-3 (Cul3) functions as a scaffolding protein in the Bric-a-brac, Tramtrack, Broad-complex (BTB)-Cul3-Rbx1 ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. Here, we report a previously undescribed role for Cul3 complexes in late endosome (LE) maturation. RNAi-mediated depletion of Cul3 results in a trafficking defect of two cargoes of the endolysosomal pathway, influenza A virus (IAV) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). IAV is able to reach an acidic endosomal compartment, coinciding with LE/lysosome (LY) markers. However, it remains trapped or the capsid is unable to uncoat after penetration into the cytosol. Similarly, activation and subsequent ubiquitination of EGFR appear normal, whereas downstream EGFR degradation is delayed and its ligand EGF accumulates in LE/LYs. Indeed, Cul3-depleted cells display severe morphological defects in LEs that could account for these trafficking defects; they accumulate acidic LE/LYs, and some cells become highly vacuolated, with enlarged Rab7-positive endosomes. Together, these results suggest a crucial role of Cul3 in regulating late steps in the endolysosomal trafficking pathway.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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