Unfolded protein response signaling by transcription factor XBP-1 regulates ADAM10 and is affected in Alzheimers disease.
In Alzheimers disease (AD), disturbed homeostasis of the proteases competing for amyloid precursor protein processing has been reported: a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10), the physiological ?-secretase, is decreased in favor of the amyloid-?-generating enzyme BACE-1. To identify transcription factors that modulate the expression of either protease, we performed a screening approach: 48 transcription factors significantly interfered with ADAM10/BACE-1-promoter activity. One selective inducer of ADAM10 gene expression is the X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1). This protein regulates the unfolded protein-response pathway. We demonstrate that particularly the spliced XBP-1 variant dose dependently regulates ADAM10 expression, which can be synergistically enhanced by 100 nM insulin. Analysis of 2 different transgenic mouse models (APP/PS1 and 5xFAD) revealed that at early time points in pathology XBP-1 metabolism is induced. This is accompanied by a 2-fold augmented ADAM10 amount as compared with nontransgenic littermates (P=0.011). Along with aging of the mice, the system is counterregulated, and XBP-1 together with ADAM10 expression level decreased to ?50% as compared with control animals. Analyses of expression levels in human AD brains showed that ADAM10 mRNA correlated with active XBP-1 (r=0.3120), but expression did not reach levels of healthy age-matched controls, suggesting deregulation of XBP-1 signaling. Our results demonstrate that XBP-1 is a driver of ADAM10 gene expression and that disturbance of this pathway might contribute to development or progression of AD.-Reinhardt, S., Schuck, F., Grösgen, S., Riemenschneider, M., Hartmann, T., Postina, R., Grimm, M., Endres, K. Unfolded protein response signaling by transcription factor XBP-1 regulates ADAM10 and is affected in Alzheimers disease.