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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Recommendations for the empirical treatment of complicated urinary tract infections using surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance in the Netherlands.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Complicated urinary tract infections (c-UTIs) are among the most common nosocomial infections and a substantial part of the antimicrobial agents used in hospitals is for the treatment of c-UTIs. Data from surveillance can be used to guide the empirical treatment choices of clinicians when treating c-UTIs. We therefore used nation-wide surveillance data to evaluate antimicrobial coverage of agents for the treatment of c-UTI in the Netherlands.
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International multicenter evaluation of the DiversiLab bacterial typing system for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Successful multidrug-resistant clones are increasing in prevalence globally, which makes the ability to identify these clones urgent. However, adequate, easy-to-perform, and reproducible typing methods are lacking. We investigated whether DiversiLab (DL), an automated repetitive-sequence-based PCR bacterial typing system (bioMérieux), is suitable for comparing isolates analyzed at different geographic centers. A total of 39 Escherichia coli and 39 Klebsiella species isolates previously typed by the coordinating center were analyzed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) confirmed the presence of one cluster of 6 isolates, three clusters of 3 isolates, and three clusters of 2 isolates for each set of isolates. DL analysis was performed in 11 centers in six different countries using the same protocol. The DL profiles of 425 E. coli and 422 Klebsiella spp. were obtained. The DL system showed a lower discriminatory power for E. coli than did PFGE. The local DL data showed a low concordance, as indicated by the adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients (0.132 to 0.740 and 0.070 to 1.0 [E. coli] and 0.091 to 0.864 and 0.056 to 1.0 [Klebsiella spp.], respectively). The central analysis showed a significantly improved concordance (0.473 to 1.0 and 0.290 to 1.0 [E. coli] and 0.513 to 0.965 and 0.425 to 1.0 [Klebsiella spp.], respectively). The misclassifications of profiles for individual isolates were mainly due to inconsistent amplification, which was most likely due to variations in the quality and amounts of the isolated DNA used for amplification. Despite local variations, the DL system has the potential to indicate the occurrence of clonal outbreaks in an international setting, provided there is strict adherence to standardized, reproducible DNA isolation methods and analysis protocols, all supported by a central database for profile comparisons.
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Consequences of switching from a fixed 2 : 1 ratio of amoxicillin/clavulanate (CLSI) to a fixed concentration of clavulanate (EUCAST) for susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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The CLSI recommends a fixed 2 : 1 ratio of co-amoxiclav for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Enterobacteriaceae, while EUCAST recommends a fixed 2 mg/L clavulanate concentration. The aims of this study were: (i) to determine the influence of a switch from CLSI to EUCAST methodology on Escherichia coli susceptibility rates; (ii) to compare susceptibility results obtained using EUCAST-compliant microdilution with those from disc diffusion and the Etest; and (iii) to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with E. coli sepsis treated with co-amoxiclav in relation to the susceptibility results obtained using either method.
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Identical plasmid AmpC beta-lactamase genes and plasmid types in E. coli isolates from patients and poultry meat in the Netherlands.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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The increasing prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide problem. Recent studies showed that poultry meat and humans share identical Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase genes, plasmid types, and Escherichia coli strain types, suggesting that transmission from poultry meat to humans may occur. The aim of this study was to compare plasmid-encoded Ambler class C beta-lactamase (pAmpC) genes, their plasmids, and bacterial strain types between E. coli isolates from retail chicken meat and clinical isolates in the Netherlands. In total, 98 Dutch retail chicken meat samples and 479 third-generation cephalosporin non-susceptible human clinical E. coli isolates from the same period were screened for pAmpC production. Plasmid typing was performed using PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). E coli strains were compared using Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST). In 12 of 98 chicken meat samples (12%), pAmpC producing E. coli were detected (all blaCMY-2). Of the 479 human E. coli, 25 (5.2%) harboured pAmpC genes (blaCMY-2 n = 22, blaACT n = 2, blaMIR n = 1). PBRT showed that 91% of poultry meat isolates harboured blaCMY-2 on an IncK plasmid, and 9% on an IncI1 plasmid. Of the human blaCMY-2 producing isolates, 42% also harboured blaCMY-2 on an IncK plasmid, and 47% on an IncI1 plasmid. Thus, 68% of human pAmpC producing E. coli have the same AmpC gene (blaCMY-2) and plasmid type (IncI1 or IncK) as found in poultry meat. MLST showed one cluster containing one human isolate and three meat isolates, with an IncK plasmid. These findings imply that a foodborne transmission route of blaCMY-2 harbouring plasmids cannot be excluded and that further evaluation is required.
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Appropriateness of empirical treatment and outcome in bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing bacteria.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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We studied clinical characteristics, appropriateness of initial antibiotic treatment, and other factors associated with day 30 mortality in patients with bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in eight Dutch hospitals. Retrospectively, information was collected from 232 consecutive patients with ESBL bacteremia (due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae) between 2008 and 2010. In this cohort (median age of 65 years; 24 patients were <18 years of age), many had comorbidities, such as malignancy (34%) or recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) (15%). One hundred forty episodes (60%) were nosocomial, 54 (23%) were otherwise health care associated, and 38 (16%) were community acquired. The most frequent sources of infection were UTI (42%) and intra-abdominal infection (28%). Appropriate therapy within 24 h after bacteremia onset was prescribed to 37% of all patients and to 54% of known ESBL carriers. The day 30 mortality rate was 20%. In a multivariable analysis, a Charlson comorbidity index of ? 3, an age of ? 75 years, intensive care unit (ICU) stay at bacteremia onset, a non-UTI bacteremia source, and presentation with severe sepsis, but not inappropriate therapy within <24 h (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 3.45), were associated with day 30 mortality. Further assessment of confounding and a stratified analysis for patients with UTI and non-UTI origins of infection did not reveal a statistically significant effect of inappropriate therapy on day 30 mortality, and these results were insensitive to the possible misclassification of patients who had received ?-lactam-?-lactamase inhibitor combinations or ceftazidime as initial treatment. In conclusion, ESBL bacteremia occurs mostly in patients with comorbidities requiring frequent hospitalization, and 84% of episodes were health care associated. Factors other than inappropriate therapy within <24 h determined day 30 mortality.
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Antibiotic exposure and resistance development in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species in intensive care units.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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We quantified the association between antibiotic exposure and acquisition of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species in intensive care unit patients.
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Method for phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in enterobacter species in the routine clinical setting.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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In 271 Enterobacter blood culture isolates from 12 hospitals, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence varied between 0% and 30% per hospital. High prevalence was associated with dissemination, indicating the potential relevance of infection control measures. Screening with cefepime or Vitek 2, followed by a cefepime/cefepime-clavulanate Etest, was an accurate strategy for ESBL detection in Enterobacter isolates (positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 99%).
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Selective digestive tract decontamination and selective oropharyngeal decontamination and antibiotic resistance in patients in intensive-care units: an open-label, clustered group-randomised, crossover study.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Previously, we assessed selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) on survival and prevention of bacteraemia in patients in intensive-care units. In this analysis, we aimed to assess effectiveness of these interventions for prevention of respiratory tract colonisation and bacteraemia with highly resistant microorganisms acquired in intensive-care units.
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Effect of open and closed endotracheal suctioning on cross-transmission with Gram-negative bacteria: a prospective crossover study.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Cross-transmission of Gram-negative bacteria increases the likelihood of acquisition of infections and emergence of antibiotic resistance in intensive care units. Respiratory tracts of mechanically ventilated patients are frequently colonized with Gram-negative bacteria and endotracheal suctioning may facilitate cross-transmission. It is unknown whether closed suction systems, as compared with open suction systems, prevent cross-transmission. The objective was to determine whether closed suction systems, as compared with open suction systems, reduce the incidence of cross-transmission of Gram-negative bacteria in intensive care units.
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A set of multiplex PCRs for genotypic detection of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases, carbapenemases, plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamases and OXA ?-lactamases.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Worldwide, resistance of Gram-negative micro-organisms to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems owing to ?-lactamases is an increasing problem. Although the CTX-M, TEM and SHV extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) are most widely disseminated, other ?-lactamase families have also recently emerged, such as plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamases and carbapenemases. Here we describe a new set of multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) with one amplification protocol enabling detection of 25 prevalent ?-lactamase families, including ESBLs, carbapenemases, plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamases and OXA ?-lactamases.
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[Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae following foreign travel].
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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This is the first report of 3 patients in whom carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified in the Netherlands following foreign travel. They were a 55-year-old man who had undergone chemotherapy for lung cancer metastases, a 66-year-old woman and a 30-year-old man. The first patient was transferred from a Greek hospital; his isolate belonged to an epidemic clone (multilocus sequence type 258) with a KPC-2 carbapenemase gene. The patient died from pneumonia. The other two patients, who had been travelling around in India, were found to be colonised in the gasto-intestinal tract with different multiresistant K. pneumoniae isolates containing a New Delhi metallo-carbapenemase gene (NDM-1). The rapid emergence and dissemination of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems such as imipenem and meropenem poses a considerable threat to clinical patient care and public health. Carbapenemase-producing strains are characterized by resistance to nearly all available beta-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins and carbapenems. These strains are often also resistant to other classes of antibiotics. Invasive infections by these strains are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Adequate microbiological laboratory detection and infection control measures in hospital are pivotal to preventing dissemination in the Dutch healthcare setting.
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Guideline for phenotypic screening and confirmation of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Adequate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is crucial for infection control measures and appropriate choice of antimicrobial therapy. This guideline aims to improve the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the routine setting of clinical microbiology laboratories. Detection of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae includes a screening step followed by a genotypic and optional phenotypic confirmatory step. For all Enterobacteriaceae, the meropenem screening breakpoint to detect carbapenemases is set at >or=0.5mg/L or a zone diameter of or=2mg/L or a zone diameter
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Evolution in quantum leaps: multiple combinatorial transfers of HPI and other genetic modules in Enterobacteriaceae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Horizontal gene transfer is a key step in the evolution of Enterobacteriaceae. By acquiring virulence determinants of foreign origin, commensals can evolve into pathogens. In Enterobacteriaceae, horizontal transfer of these virulence determinants is largely dependent on transfer by plasmids, phages, genomic islands (GIs) and genomic modules (GMs). The High Pathogenicity Island (HPI) is a GI encoding virulence genes that can be transferred between different Enterobacteriaceae. We investigated the HPI because it was present in an Enterobacter hormaechei outbreak strain (EHOS). Genome sequence analysis showed that the EHOS contained an integration site for mobile elements and harbored two GIs and three putative GMs, including a new variant of the HPI (HPI-ICEEh1). We demonstrate, for the first time, that combinatorial transfers of GIs and GMs between Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates must have occurred. Furthermore, the excision and circularization of several combinations of the GIs and GMs was demonstrated. Because of its flexibility, the multiple integration site of mobile DNA can be considered an integration hotspot (IHS) that increases the genomic plasticity of the bacterium. Multiple combinatorial transfers of diverse combinations of the HPI and other genomic elements among Enterobacteriaceae may accelerate the generation of new pathogenic strains.
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Ecological effects of selective decontamination on resistant gram-negative bacterial colonization.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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Selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) eradicate gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from the intestinal and respiratory tract in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, but their effect on antibiotic resistance remains controversial.
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Yersiniabactin reduces the respiratory oxidative stress response of innate immune cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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Enterobacteriaceae that contain the High Pathogenicity Island (HPI), which encodes the siderophore yersiniabactin, display increased virulence. This increased virulence may be explained by the increased iron scavenging of the bacteria, which would both enhance bacterial growth and limit the availability of iron to cells of the innate immune system, which require iron to catalyze the Haber-Weiss reaction that produces hydroxyl radicals. In this study, we show that yersiniabactin increases bacterial growth when iron-saturated lactoferrin is the main iron source. This suggests that yersiniabactin provides bacteria with additional iron from saturated lactoferrin during infection. Furthermore, the production of ROS by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, and a mouse macrophage cell line is blocked by yersiniabactin, as yersiniabactin reduces iron availability to the cells. Importantly, iron functions as a catalyst during the Haber-Weiss reaction, which generates hydroxyl radicals. While the physiologic role of the Haber-Weiss reaction in the production of hydroxyl radicals has been controversial, the siderophores yersiniabactin, aerobactin, and deferoxamine and the iron-chelator deferiprone also reduce ROS production in activated innate immune cells. This suggests that this reaction takes place under physiological conditions. Of the tested iron chelators, yersiniabactin was the most effective in reducing the ROS production in the tested innate immune cells. The likely decreased bacterial killing by innate immune cells resulting from the reduced production of hydroxyl radicals may explain why the HPI-containing Enterobacteriaceae are more virulent. This model centered on the reduced killing capacity of innate immune cells, which is indirectly caused by yersiniabactin, is in agreement with the observation that the highly pathogenic group of Yersinia is more lethal than the weakly pathogenic and the non-pathogenic group.
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Identification of resistance and virulence factors in an epidemic Enterobacter hormaechei outbreak strain.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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Bacterial strains differ in their ability to cause hospital outbreaks. Using comparative genomic hybridization, Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates were studied to identify genetic markers specific for Enterobacter cloacae complex outbreak strains. No outbreak-specific genes were found that were common in all investigated outbreak strains. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify specific genetic markers for an Enterobacter hormaechei outbreak strain (EHOS) that caused a nationwide outbreak in The Netherlands. Most EHOS isolates carried a large conjugative plasmid (pQC) containing genes encoding heavy-metal resistance, mobile elements, pili-associated proteins and exported proteins as well as multiple-resistance genes. Furthermore, the chromosomally encoded high-pathogenicity island (HPI) was highly associated with the EHOS strain. In addition, other DNA fragments were identified that were associated with virulence: three DNA fragments known to be located on a virulence plasmid (pLVPK), as well as phage- and plasmid-related sequences. Also, four DNA fragments encoding putative pili with the most homology to pili of Salmonella enterica were associated with the EHOS. Finally, four DNA fragments encoding putative outer-membrane proteins were negatively associated with the EHOS. In conclusion, resistance and putative virulence genes were identified in the EHOS that may have contributed to increased epidemicity. The high number of genes detected in the EHOS that were related to transferable elements reflects the genomic plasticity of the E. cloacae complex and may explain the emergence of the EHOS in the hospital environment.
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Effect of long-term trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole treatment on resistance and integron prevalence in the intestinal flora: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in children.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole selects for integron-positive and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the intestinal flora.
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Colistin resistance in gram-negative bacteria during prophylactic topical colistin use in intensive care units.
Intensive Care Med
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Topical use of colistin as part of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) has been associated with improved patient outcome in intensive care units (ICU), yet little is known about the risks of colistin resistance. We quantified effects of selective decontamination on acquisition of colistin-resistant gram-negative bacteria (GNB) using data from a cluster-randomized study and a single-centre cohort.
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Changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation after open and closed endotracheal suctioning: a prospective observational study.
J Crit Care
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It is widely assumed that closed suction systems (CSSs), as compared with open suction systems (OSSs), better guarantee optimal oxygenation with less disturbance of physiologic parameters in mechanically ventilated intensive care patients. We, therefore, quantified changes in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo(2)) in patients undergoing endotracheal suctioning (ES) with CSS and OSS.
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Detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae with a commercial DNA microarray.
J. Med. Microbiol.
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The Check-MDR CT102 DNA microarray enables detection of the most prevalent carbapenemases (NDM, VIM, KPC, OXA-48 and IMP) and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) gene families (SHV, TEM and CTX-M). The test performance of this microarray was evaluated with 95 Enterobacteriaceae isolates suspected of being carbapenemase producers, i.e. with meropenem MICs ?0.5 mg l(-1). The collection of isolates contained 70 carbapenemase-producing isolates, including 37 bla(KPC)-, 20 bla(VIM)-, five bla(OXA-48)-, four bla(KPC)/bla(VIM)- and four bla(NDM)-positive isolates; and 25 carbapenemase-gene-negative isolates. ESBLs were produced by 51 of the isolates. PCR and sequencing of ?-lactamase genes was used as reference test. For detection of carbapenemases, the sensitivity of the microarray was 97% (68/70), with 100% specificity. The two negative isolates tested positive when the microarray test was repeated; these isolates were an OXA-48- and a KPC-producing isolate. For ESBL detection, the sensitivity was 100% (51/51) and the specificity was 98% (43/44), although 20% of the SHV-12 ESBLs were categorized as SHV-2-like ESBLs. In conclusion, the CDT102 microarray is a rapid and accurate tool for the detection of carbapenemase and ESBL genes, although the array seems less suitable for epidemiology of ESBL genes.
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Comparison of ESBL contamination in organic and conventional retail chicken meat.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
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Contamination of retail chicken meat by Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria likely contributes to the increasing incidence of infections with these bacteria in humans. This study aimed to compare the prevalence and load of ESBL positive isolates between organic and conventional retail chicken meat samples, and to compare the distribution of ESBL genes, strain genotypes and co-resistance. In 2010, 98 raw chicken breasts (n=60 conventional; n=38 organic) were collected from 12 local stores in the Netherlands. Prevalence of ESBL producing micro-organisms was 100% on conventional and 84% on organic samples (p<0.001). Median loads of ESBL producing micro-organisms were 80 (range <20-1360) in conventional, and <20 (range 0-260) CFU/25 g in organic samples (p=0.001). The distribution of ESBL genes in conventional samples and organic samples was 42% versus 56%, respectively (N.S.), for CTX-M-1, 20% versus 42% (N.S.) for TEM-52, and 23% versus 3% (p<0.001) for SHV-12. CTX-M-2 (7%), SHV-2 (5%) and TEM-20 (3%) were exclusively found in conventional samples. Co-resistance rates of ESBL positive isolates were not different between conventional and organic samples (co-trimoxazole 56%, ciprofloxacin 14%, and tobramycin 2%), except for tetracycline, 73% and 46%, respectively, p<0.001). Six of 14 conventional meat samples harbored 4 MLST types also reported in humans and 5 of 10 organic samples harbored 3 MLST types also reported in humans (2 ST10, 2 ST23, ST354). In conclusion, the majority of organic chicken meat samples were also contaminated with ESBL producing E. coli, and the ESBL genes and strain types were largely the same as in conventional meat samples.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.