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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The role of baseline HIV-1 RNA, drug resistance, and regimen type as determinants of response to first-line antiretroviral therapy.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The factors influencing virological response to first-line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in an Italian cohort of HIV-1-infected patients were examined. Eligible patients were those enrolled in a national prospective observational cohort (Antiretroviral Resistance Cohort Analysis), starting first-line cART between 2001 and 2011 and who had at least one follow-up of HIV-1 RNA. The primary endpoint was virological success, defined as the first viral load <50? copies/ml. Time to events were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard model. One thousand three hundred five patients met the study inclusion criteria. In a multivariable model adjusting for transmission mode, presence of transmitted drug resistance, baseline CD4(+) cell count, viral subtype, and type of NRTI backbone employed, independent predictors of virological success were higher baseline viral load (?500,000 vs. <100,000 HR 0.52; P?100,000? copies/ml, virologic success was only associated with the use of integrase inhibitors in the first cART regimen. Independent predictors of immunological success were baseline CD4(+) cell count and wGSS <3. High baseline HIV-1 RNA, predicted activity of the first-line regimen based on genotypic resistance testing, gender, and use of new agents were found to predict time to achieve virological success. The type of initial nucleoside analog backbone was not found to predict virological response.
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Rilpivirine resistance and the dangerous liaisons with substitutions at position 184 among patients infected with HIV-1: analysis from a national drug-resistance database (ARCA).
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Rilpivirine (RPV) is a novel NNRTI with a mutational pattern different from first-generation drugs of the same class: 16 resistance-associated mutations (RAM) are listed, but the combination E138K?+?M184I seems to be the most important. Aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of these RAMs in Italian HIV-1 infected patients and to assess if previous drug history could represent a risk to develop RPV-related RAMs. The analysis was performed using the ARCA database, which contains data on resistance and therapy from subjects throughout Italy. Prevalence of RPV-associated and first-generation NNRTI-associated RAMs was evaluated. Linear regression model, odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval were used to assess factors associated with the development of RPV RAMs, substitutions at position 184 and their combinations. A total of 8,067 tests were selected within the database. In Italian HIV-positive HAART-naïve patients, prevalence of the main RAMs for RPV is low except for E138A (present in 5.1% of subjects). The combination E138K?+?M184I is absent in both naïve and experienced subjects. A previous exposure to NVP might increase the risk to develop RPV-associated RAMs. TDF, EFV, and possibly FTC may predispose to the selection for M184I. Among Italian patients the susceptibility to RPV is widespread since some severe substitutions (e.g., E138K are rare), whereas issues exist for others (i.e., E138A, Y181C) which are more frequent. Appropriate use of RPV within a therapeutic sequencing might be controversial.
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Trends and correlates of HIV-1 resistance among subjects failing an antiretroviral treatment over the 2003-2012 decade in Italy.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Despite a substantial reduction in virological failures following introduction of new potent antiretroviral therapies in the latest years, drug resistance remains a limitation for the control of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated trends and correlates of resistance in treatment failing patients in a comprehensive database over a time period of relevant changes in prescription attitudes and treatment guidelines.
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Identification of a new HIV-1 BC circulating recombinant form (CRF60_BC) in Italian young men having sex with men.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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HIV-1 recombination, reverse transcriptase (RT) low fidelity and high replication rate are the drivers of variability and evolution on the global scale. Only few of these HIV-1 chimeric forms have been characterized in Europe, despite 20% of infections are due to unique or circulating recombinant forms worldwide. An outbreak of BC recombinants has been recently described in a southern region of Italy, Apulia, in men having sex with men (MSM) seeking sexual partners on-line. We analyzed the full length genome of HIV-1 BC recombinants harbored by three recently infected subjects, two MSM and a heterosexual woman, with no evidence of epidemiological link. The recombination analysis showed a unique recombination pattern of a subtype C genome with 3 subtype B fragments corresponding to HXB2 positions: [1-463] in the 5'LTR , [2804-3037] in RT and [8662-9548] corresponding to the C-terminal segment of gp41, nef and most of 3'LTR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the South American origin of the C subtype parental strain. A research conducted in an Italian nationwide database provided six additional similar sequences from other Italian regions with identical recombination pattern in pol gene; a further BLAST search retrieved one full length genome isolated in France with the same mosaic pattern, except an additional B subtype short fragment in the integrase region. These recombinant isolates, designated CRF60_BC, led to the identification of the first Italian circulating recombinant form, which gave rise to an epidemic burst mainly involving MSM.
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Discordances with HIV-1 RNA quantitative determinations by three commercial assays in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Accurate HIV-1 RNA quantitation is required to support the scale up of antiretroviral therapy in African countries. Extreme HIV-1 genetic variability in Africa may affect the ability of commercially available assays to detect and quantify HIV-1 RNA accurately. The aim of this study was to compare three real-time PCR assays for quantitation of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in patients from the Republic of Congo, an area with highly diversified HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants. The Abbott RealTime HIV-1, BioMérieux HIV-1 EasyQ test 1.2 and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 1.0 were compared for quantitation of HIV-1 RNA in 37 HIV-1 seropositive pregnant women enrolled in the Kento-Mwana project for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo. The sample panel included a variety of HIV-1 subtypes with as many as 21 (56.8%) putative unique recombinant forms. Qualitative detection of HIV-1 RNA was concordant by all three assays in 33/37 (89.2%) samples. Of the remaining 4 (10.8%) samples, all were positive by Roche, three by Abbott and none by BioMérieux. Differences exceeding 1Log in positive samples were found in 4/31 (12.9%), 10/31 (32.3%) and 5/31 (16.1%) cases between Abbott and BioMérieux, Roche and BioMérieux, and Abbott and Roche, respectively. In this sample panel representative of highly polymorphic HIV-1 in Congo, the agreement among the three assays was moderate in terms of HIV-1 RNA detectability and rather inconsistent in terms of quantitation.
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Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence of interactions between Italian heterosexual and South American homosexual males as the main source of national HIV-1 subtype C epidemics.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The HIV-1 clade C is prevalent worldwide and spread from Africa to South East Asia and South America early in the course of the epidemic. As a consequence of migration waves about 13% of the Italian HIV-1 epidemic is sustained by this clade. Two hundred fifty-four C pol sequences from the Italian ARCA database collected during 1997-2011 were analyzed. Epidemiological networks and geographical fluxes were identified through phylogeny using Bayesian approaches. Patients' country of origin was Italy, Africa, South America, and South East Asia for 44.9%, 23.6%, 4.7%, and 1.6%, respectively. Heterosexuals and men having sex with men accounted for 83.2% and 16.8%, respectively. Modality of infection was distributed differently: heterosexuals were largely prevalent among Italians (84.1%) and Africans (95.3%), while men having sex with men predominated among South Americans (66.7%). Eight significant clusters encompassing 111 patients (43.7%) were identified. Comparison between clustering and non-clustering patients indicated significant differences in country of origin, modality of infection and gender. Men having sex with men were associated to a higher probability to be included in networks (70% for men having sex with men vs. 30.3% for heterosexuals). Phylogeography highlighted two significant groups. One contained Indian strains and the second encompassed South Americans and almost all Italian strains. Phylogeography indicated that the spread of C subtype among Italians is related to South American variant. Although Italian patients mainly reported themselves as heterosexuals, homo-bisexual contacts were likely their source of infection. Phylogenetic monitoring is warranted to guide public health interventions aimed at controlling HIV infection.
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Switch to raltegravir-based regimens and HIV DNA decrease in patients with suppressed HIV RNA.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Raltegravir intensification is associated with an increase in 2-LTR episomal HIV DNA= circles, indicating a persistent low-level replication, in some individuals in ART with suppressed HIV RNA. We aimed at monitoring residual plasma HIV RNA and cellular HIV DNA in virologically suppressed patients switching to a raltegravir-based regimen.
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Time on drug analysis based on real life data.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The health condition of HIV-1 infected patients has improved during the last years, but lifelong antiretroviral treatment is still needed. However resistance, multiple side effects and drug to drug interactions of antiretrovirals challenge the establishment of a long lasting regimen. The average running time of each antiretroviral drug composing the therapy episodes combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may be seen as an indicator of effectiveness and tolerability.
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Longitudinal analysis of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism by single and triplicate HIV-1 RNA and DNA sequencing in patients undergoing successful first-line antiretroviral therapy.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Maraviroc has been shown to be effective in patients harbouring CCR5-tropic HIV-1. While this CCR5 antagonist has initially been used in salvage therapy, its excellent safety profile makes it ideal for antiretroviral treatment simplification strategies in patients with suppressed plasma viraemia. The aim of this study was to compare HIV-1 tropism as detected in baseline plasma RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA prior to first-line therapy and to analyse tropism evolution while on successful treatment.
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Virological and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Regimens Containing Maraviroc in HIV Type 1-Infected Patients in Clinical Practice: Role of Different Tropism Testing Results and of Concomitant Treatments.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Abstract We assessed the immunovirological response to antiretroviral regimens containing maraviroc in HIV-infected viremic patients with viral tropism predicted by different assays. We selected antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients initiating regimens containing maraviroc after different phenotypic or genotypic viral tropism assays, with at least one HIV-1 RNA determination during follow-up. Survival analysis was employed to assess the virological response as time to HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml and immunological response as time to a CD4 cell count increase of ?100/?l from baseline. Predictors of these outcomes were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression models. In 191 treatments with maraviroc, virological response was achieved in 65.4% and the response was modestly influenced by the baseline viral load and concomitant drug activity but not influenced by the type of tropism assay employed. Immunological response was achieved in 58.1%; independent predictors were baseline HIV-1 RNA (per log10 higher: HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.60) and concomitant therapy with enfuvirtide (HR 2.05, 0.96-4.39) but not tropism assay results. Of 17 patients with baseline R5-tropic virus and available tropism results while viremic during follow-up on maraviroc, seven (41%) showed a tropism switch to non-R5 virus. A significant proportion of experienced patients treated with regimens containing maraviroc achieved virological response. The tropism test type used was not associated with immunovirological response and concomitant treatment with enfuvirtide increased the chance of immunological response. More than half of virological failures with maraviroc were not accompanied by tropism switch.
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Superinfection with drug-resistant HIV is rare and does not contribute substantially to therapy failure in a large European cohort.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Superinfection with drug resistant HIV strains could potentially contribute to compromised therapy in patients initially infected with drug-sensitive virus and receiving antiretroviral therapy. To investigate the importance of this potential route to drug resistance, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to detect superinfection from routinely collected genotyping data, and assessed whether superinfection contributed to increased drug resistance in a large European cohort of viremic, drug treated patients.
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Stability of unfrozen whole blood DNA for remote genotypic analysis of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Maraviroc is an HIV-1 coreceptor antagonist that has shown good efficacy and tolerability in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients harboring CCR5-tropic virus. The use of Maraviroc in treatment simplification in patients with suppressed plasma HIV-1 RNA requires analysis of HIV-1 DNA. Coreceptor tropism testing is often performed remotely at reference laboratories. In this study paired whole blood stored at + 4[degree sign]C and at-20[degree sign]C were compared as a source for genotypic coreceptor tropism testing.
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RegaDB: community-driven data management and analysis for infectious diseases.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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RegaDB is a free and open source data management and analysis environment for infectious diseases. RegaDB allows clinicians to store, manage and analyse patient data, including viral genetic sequences. Moreover, RegaDB provides researchers with a mechanism to collect data in a uniform format and offers them a canvas to make newly developed bioinformatics tools available to clinicians and virologists through a user friendly interface. Availability and implementation: Source code, binaries and documentation are available on http://rega.kuleuven.be/cev/regadb. RegaDB is written in the Java programming language, using a web-service-oriented architecture.
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HIV-1 fitness landscape models for indinavir treatment pressure using observed evolution in longitudinal sequence data are predictive for treatment failure.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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We previously modeled the in vivo evolution of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) under drug selective pressure from cross-sectional viral sequences. These fitness landscapes (FLs) were made by using first a Bayesian network (BN) to map epistatic substitutions, followed by scaling the fitness landscape based on an HIV evolution simulator trying to evolve the sequences from treatment naïve patients into sequences from patients failing treatment. In this study, we compared four FLs trained with different sequence populations. Epistatic interactions were learned from three different cross-sectional BNs, trained with sequence from patients experienced with indinavir (BNT), all protease inhibitors (PIs) (BNP) or all PI except indinavir (BND). Scaling the fitness landscape was done using cross-sectional data from drug naïve and indinavir experienced patients (Fcross using BNT) and using longitudinal sequences from patients failing indinavir (FlongT using BNT, FlongP using BNP, FlongD using BND). Evaluation to predict the failing sequence and therapy outcome was performed on independent sequences of patients on indinavir. Parameters included estimated fitness (LogF), the number of generations (GF) or mutations (MF) to reach the fitness threshold (average fitness when a major resistance mutation appeared), the number of generations (GR) or mutations (MR) to reach a major resistance mutation and compared to genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) from Rega and HIVdb algorithms. In pairwise FL comparisons we found significant correlation between fitness values for individual sequences, and this correlation improved after correcting for the subtype. Furthermore, FLs could predict the failing sequence under indinavir-containing combinations. At 12 and 48 weeks, all parameters from all FLs and indinavir GSS (both for Rega and HIVdb) were predictive of therapy outcome, except MR for FlongT and FlongP. The fitness landscapes have similar predictive power for treatment response under indinavir-containing regimen as standard rules-based algorithms, and additionally allow predicting genetic evolution under indinavir selective pressure.
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Declining prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral treatment-exposed individuals in Western Europe.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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HIV-1 drug resistance represents a major obstacle to infection and disease control. This retrospective study analyzes trends and determinants of resistance in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-exposed individuals across 7 countries in Europe. Of 20 323 cases, 80% carried at least one resistance mutation: these declined from 81% in 1997 to 71% in 2008. Predicted extensive 3-class resistance was rare (3.2% considering the cumulative genotype) and peaked at 4.5% in 2005, decreasing thereafter. The proportion of cases exhausting available drug options dropped from 32% in 2000 to 1% in 2008. Reduced risk of resistance over calendar years was confirmed by multivariable analysis.
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Clinical evaluation of Rega 8: an updated genotypic interpretation system that significantly predicts HIV-therapy response.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Clinically evaluating genotypic interpretation systems is essential to provide optimal guidance in designing potent individualized HIV-regimens. This study aimed at investigating the ability of the latest Rega algorithm to predict virological response on a short and longer period. MATERIALS METHODS: 9231 treatment changes episodes were extracted from an integrated patient database. The virological response after 8, 24 and 48 weeks was dichotomized to success and failure. Success was defined as a viral load below 50 copies/ml or alternatively, a 2 log decrease from the baseline viral load at 8 weeks. The predictive ability of Rega version 8 was analysed in comparison with that of previous evaluated version Rega 5 and two other algorithms (ANRS v2011.05 and Stanford HIVdb v6.0.11). A logistic model based on the genotypic susceptibility score was used to predict virological response, and additionally, confounding factors were added to the model. Performance of the models was compared using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
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Identification and structural characterization of novel genetic elements in the HIV-1 V3 loop regulating coreceptor usage.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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The interaction between HIV-1 gp120 and CCR5 N terminus is critical for R5-virus entry and affects CCR5 antagonists activity. Knowledge of how different genetic signatures of gp120 V3 domain effect the strength of this interaction is limited.
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Near full-length sequence analysis of HIV type 1 BF recombinants from Italy.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Recombination between HIV-1 subtypes B and F has generated several circulating and unique recombinant forms, particularly in Latin American areas. In Italy, subtype B is highly prevalent while subtype F is the most common pure non-B subtype. To investigate the recombination pattern in Italian BF recombinant viruses, we characterized full-length sequences derived from 15 adult patients, mostly Italian and infected by the heterosexual route. One of the BF mosaics was a CRF29, three sequences clustered with low bootstrap values with CRF39, CRF40, and CRF42. With the exception of the CRF29-like sequence, the other recombination patterns were unique, but two possible clusters were identified. Analysis of the gp120 V3 domain suggested a possible link with subtype F from Eastern Europe rather than from Latin America, favoring the hypothesis of local recombination between clade B and F viruses over that of import of BF recombinants from Latin America. HIV-1 subtypes B and F appear prone to generation of unique recombinants in Italy, warranting epidemiological surveillance and investigation of a possible clinical significance.
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Interpretation of genotypic HIV-1 resistance to darunavir and virological response: validation of available systems and of a new score.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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There is not yet consensus on interpretation of genotypic HIV-1 resistance to darunavir (DRV). We validated existing rules and a newly derived score.
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Detection of drug resistance mutations at low plasma HIV-1 RNA load in a European multicentre cohort study.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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Guidelines indicate a plasma HIV-1 RNA load of 500-1000 copies/mL as the minimal threshold for antiretroviral drug resistance testing. Resistance testing at lower viral load levels may be useful to guide timely treatment switches, although data on the clinical utility of this remain limited. We report here the influence of viral load levels on the probability of detecting drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and other mutations by routine genotypic testing in a large multicentre European cohort, with a focus on tests performed at a viral load <1000 copies/mL.
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HIV-1 mutational pathways under multidrug therapy.
AIDS Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Genotype-derived drug resistance profiles are a valuable asset in HIV-1 therapy decisions. Therapy decisions could be further improved, both in terms of predicting length of current therapy success and in preserving followup therapy options, through better knowledge of mutational pathways- here defined as specific locations on the viral genome which, when mutant, alter the risk that additional specific mutations arise. We limit the search to locations in the reverse transcriptase region of the HIV-1 genome which host resistance mutations to nucleoside (NRTI) and non-nucleoside (NNRTI) reverse transcriptase inhibitors (as listed in the 2008 International AIDS Society report), or which were mutant at therapy start in 5% or more of the therapies studied.
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HIV-2 infection, end-stage renal disease and protease inhibitor intolerance: which salvage regimen?
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and enfuvirtide are ineffective against HIV-2 replication. These considerations may have particular significance in the formulation of second-line or salvage regimens for HIV-2 infection when resistance or toxicity precludes the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) or specific nucleoside analogues. We describe a case of a treatment-experienced patient with important limitations in therapeutic options dictated by the presence of HIV-2 infection, severe HIV nephropathy (requiring haemodialysis), intolerance to PIs and clinical contraindications to the use of some nucleoside analogues (anaemia, pancreatic toxicity and high cardiovascular risk). A three-drug regimen based on raltegravir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and lamivudine was given, with no major toxicity, good immunological response and complete viral suppression. Our case indicates that regimens based on integrase inhibitors could represent an effective alternative in PI-resistant or PI-intolerant patients with HIV-2, and that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may be used in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring haemodialysis who cannot take other nucleoside analogues because of treatment-limiting adverse effects.
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A prognostic model for estimating the time to virologic failure in HIV-1 infected patients undergoing a new combination antiretroviral therapy regimen.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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HIV-1 genotypic susceptibility scores (GSSs) were proven to be significant prognostic factors of fixed time-point virologic outcomes after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) switch/initiation. However, their relative-hazard for the time to virologic failure has not been thoroughly investigated, and an expert system that is able to predict how long a new cART regimen will remain effective has never been designed.
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No pol mutation is associated independently with the lack of immune recovery in patients infected with HIV and failing antiretroviral therapy.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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An investigation was undertaken to determine whether specific pol mutations hinder long-term immune recovery regardless of virological response. In total, 826 patients with >50 HIV RNA copies/ml, who underwent genotypic resistance testing between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2003 after >3 years of antiretroviral treatment, and were followed up for >3 years after genotypic resistance testing, were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome of the study was the lack of immune recovery after >3 years of follow-up, defined as a slope by linear regression <0. The viremia detectability ratio was defined as the number of HIV RNA values of >50 copies/ml divided by the number of HIV RNA measurements during follow-up. Logistic regression was used for univariable and multivariable analysis. Median (Q1, Q3) values at baseline were the following: age 40 (37, 45) years, years on antiretroviral therapy 4.45 (3.65, 5.47), HIV RNA 3.91 (3.39, 4.53) log(10) copies/ml, CD4+ T-cell 358 (211, 524)/µl. After 3.13 years of follow-up, 375 patients (45.4%) showed a lack of immune recovery. The risk of lack of immune recovery increased independently with increasing baseline CD4+ counts (OR=1.104 per 50-cell increase, 95% CI=1.069-1.142, P<0.0001), increasing viremia detectability ratio during follow-up (OR=1.145 per 0.1-unit increase, 95% CI=1.093-1.202, P<0.0001), and with earlier calendar years of resistance testing (overall effect: P=0.0007). In conclusion, no pol mutation is associated independently with the lack of immune recovery.
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A novel methodology for large-scale phylogeny partition.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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Understanding the determinants of virus transmission is a fundamental step for effective design of screening and intervention strategies to control viral epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis can be a valid approach for the identification of transmission chains, and very-large data sets can be analysed through parallel computation. Here we propose and validate a new methodology for the partition of large-scale phylogenies and the inference of transmission clusters. This approach, on the basis of a depth-first search algorithm, conjugates the evaluation of node reliability, tree topology and patristic distance analysis. The method has been applied to identify transmission clusters of a phylogeny of 11,541 human immunodeficiency virus-1 subtype B pol gene sequences from a large Italian cohort. Molecular transmission chains were characterized by means of different clinical/demographic factors, such as the interaction between male homosexuals and male heterosexuals. Our method takes an advantage of a flexible notion of transmission cluster and can become a general framework to analyse other epidemics.
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Low rate of virological failure and maintenance of susceptibility to HIV-1 protease inhibitors with first-line lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral treatment in clinical practice.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
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Protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant HIV-1 has hardly ever been detected at failed boosted PI-based first-line antiretroviral regimens in clinical trials. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in clinical practice. To address this gap, data from patients starting a first-line lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/rtv)-based therapy with available baseline HIV-1 RNA load, a viral genotype and follow-up viral load after 3 and 6 months of treatment were extracted from the Italian Antiretroviral Resistance Cohort Analysis (ARCA) observational database. Based on survival analysis, 39 (7.1%) and 43 (7.8%) of the 548 examined patient cases had an HIV-1 RNA >500 and >50 copies/ml, respectively, after 6 months of treatment. Cox proportional hazard models detected baseline HIV-1 RNA (RH 1.79, 95%CI 1.10-2.92 per 1-log(10) increase, P=0.02) and resistance to the nucleoside backbone (RH 1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06 per 10-point increase using the Stanford HIVdb algorithm, P<0.001) as independent predictors of HIV-1 RNA at >500 copies/ml, but not at the >50 copies/ml cutoff criteria. Higher baseline viral load, older patient age, heterosexual route of infection and use of tenofovir/emtricitabine were predictors of failure at month 3 using the 50-copy and/or 500-copy threshold. Resistance to LPV/rtv did not occur or increase in any of the available 36 follow-up HIV-1 genotypes. Resistance to the nucleoside backbone (M184V) developed in four cases. Despite the likely differences in patient population and adherence, both the low rate of virological failure and the lack of development of LPV/rtv resistance documented in clinical trials are thus confirmed in clinical practice.
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Antiretroviral therapy optimisation without genotype resistance testing: a perspective on treatment history based models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2010
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Although genotypic resistance testing (GRT) is recommended to guide combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), funding and/or facilities to perform GRT may not be available in low to middle income countries. Since treatment history (TH) impacts response to subsequent therapy, we investigated a set of statistical learning models to optimise cART in the absence of GRT information.
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Comparative determination of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism by Enhanced Sensitivity Trofile, gp120 V3-loop RNA and DNA genotyping.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Trofile is the prospectively validated HIV-1 tropism assay. Its use is limited by high costs, long turn-around time, and inability to test patients with very low or undetectable viremia. We aimed at assessing the efficiency of population genotypic assays based on gp120 V3-loop sequencing for the determination of tropism in plasma viral RNA and in whole-blood viral DNA. Contemporary and follow-up plasma and whole-blood samples from patients undergoing tropism testing via the enhanced sensitivity Trofile (ESTA) were collected. Clinical and clonal geno2pheno[coreceptor] (G2P) models at 10% and at optimised 5.7% false positive rate cutoff were evaluated using viral DNA and RNA samples, compared against each other and ESTA, using Cohens kappa, phylogenetic analysis, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC).
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Emerging mutations at virological failure of HAART combinations containing tenofovir and lamivudine or emtricitabine.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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To compare the emergence of drug-resistant HIV variants at failure of lamivudine (3TC)/tenofovir (TDF)-containing or emtricitabine (FTC)/TDF-containing HAART as a consequence of the different 3TC and FTC intracellular half-lives.
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Only slight impact of predicted replicative capacity for therapy response prediction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Replication capacity (RC) of specific HIV isolates is occasionally blamed for unexpected treatment responses. However, the role of viral RC in response to antiretroviral therapy is not yet fully understood.
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Impact of extensive HIV-1 variability on molecular diagnosis in the Congo basin.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Previous studies have shown a high HIV-1 genetic variability in the Republic of Congo. This can greatly influence the performance of molecular assays for HIV-1 diagnosis.
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Comparison of HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation systems in predicting virological outcomes over time.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Several decision support systems have been developed to interpret HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping results. This study compares the ability of the most commonly used systems (ANRS, Rega, and Stanfords HIVdb) to predict virological outcome at 12, 24, and 48 weeks.
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Rules-based HIV-1 genotypic resistance interpretation systems predict 8 week and 24 week virological antiretroviral treatment outcome and benefit from drug potency weighting.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2009
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To test retrospectively the ability of four freely available rules-based expert systems to predict short- and medium-term virological outcome following an antiretroviral treatment switch in pre-treated HIV-1 patients.
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Investigation of expert rule bases, logistic regression, and non-linear machine learning techniques for predicting response to antiretroviral treatment.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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The extreme flexibility of the HIV type-1 (HIV-1) genome makes it challenging to build the ideal antiretroviral treatment regimen. Interpretation of HIV-1 genotypic drug resistance is evolving from rule-based systems guided by expert opinion to data-driven engines developed through machine learning methods.
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Evolution and predictors of HIV type-1 drug resistance in patients failing combination antiretroviral therapy in Italy.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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This study aimed to examine the evolution of genotypic drug resistance prevalence in treatment-failing patients in the multicentre, Italian, Antiretroviral Resistance Cohort Analysis (ARCA).
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Stochastic modelling of genotypic drug-resistance for human immunodeficiency virus towards long-term combination therapy optimization.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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Several mathematical models have been investigated for the description of viral dynamics in the human body: HIV-1 infection is a particular and interesting scenario, because the virus attacks cells of the immune system that have a role in the antibody production and its high mutation rate permits to escape both the immune response and, in some cases, the drug pressure. The viral genetic evolution is intrinsically a stochastic process, eventually driven by the drug pressure, dependent on the drug combinations and concentration: in this article the viral genotypic drug resistance onset is the main focus addressed. The theoretical basis is the modelling of HIV-1 population dynamics as a predator-prey system of differential equations with a time-dependent therapy efficacy term, while the viral genome mutation evolution follows a Poisson distribution. The instant probabilities of drug resistance are estimated by means of functions trained from in vitro phenotypes, with a roulette-wheel-based mechanisms of resistant selection. Simulations have been designed for treatments made of one and two drugs as well as for combination antiretroviral therapies. The effect of limited adherence to therapy was also analyzed. Sequential treatment change episodes were also exploited with the aim to evaluate optimal synoptic treatment scenarios.
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Advantages of predicted phenotypes and statistical learning models in inferring virological response to antiretroviral therapy from HIV genotype.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Inferring response to antiretroviral therapy from the viral genotype alone is challenging. The utility of an intermediate step of predicting in vitro drug susceptibility is currently controversial. Here, we provide a retrospective comparison of approaches using either genotype or predicted phenotypes alone, or in combination.
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A comparison of three computational modelling methods for the prediction of virological response to combination HIV therapy.
Artif Intell Med
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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HIV treatment failure is commonly associated with drug resistance and the selection of a new regimen is often guided by genotypic resistance testing. The interpretation of complex genotypic data poses a major challenge. We have developed artificial neural network (ANN) models that predict virological response to therapy from HIV genotype and other clinical information. Here we compare the accuracy of ANN with alternative modelling methodologies, random forests (RF) and support vector machines (SVM).
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Robust supervised and unsupervised statistical learning for HIV type 1 coreceptor usage analysis.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates differ in their use of coreceptors to enter target cells. This has important implications for both viral pathogenicity and susceptibility to entry inhibitors, recently approved or under development. Predicting HIV-1 coreceptor usage on the basis of sequence information is a challenging task, due to the high variability of the envelope. The associations of the whole HIV-1 envelope genetic features (subtype, mutations, insertions-deletions, physicochemical properties) and clinical markers (viral RNA load, CD8(+), CD4(+) T cell counts) with viral tropism were investigated, using a set of 2896 (659 after filter, 593 patients) sequence-tropism pairs available at the Los Alamos HIV database. Bootstrapped hierarchical clustering was used to assess mutational covariation. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to assess the relative importance of different features. Different machine learning (logistic regression, support vector machines, decision trees, rule bases, instance based reasoning) and feature selection (filter and embedded) methods, along with loss functions (accuracy, AUC of ROC curves, sensitivity, specificity, f-measure), were applied and compared for the classification of X4 variants. Extra-sample error estimation was assessed via multiple cross-validation and adjustments for multiple testing. A high-performing, compact, and interpretable logistic regression model was derived to infer HIV-1 coreceptor tropism for a given patient [accuracy = 92.76 (SD 3.07); AUC = 0.93 (SD 0.04)].
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Predicting the response to combination antiretroviral therapy: retrospective validation of geno2pheno-THEO on a large clinical database.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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Expert-based genotypic interpretation systems are standard methods for guiding treatment selection for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. We previously introduced the software pipeline geno2pheno-THEO (g2p-THEO), which on the basis of viral sequence predicts the response to treatment with a combination of antiretroviral compounds by applying methods from statistical learning and the estimated potential of the virus to escape from drug pressure.
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HIV-1 subtype F1 epidemiological networks among Italian heterosexual males are associated with introduction events from South America.
PLoS ONE
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About 40% of the Italian HIV-1 epidemic due to non-B variants is sustained by F1 clade, which circulates at high prevalence in South America and Eastern Europe. Aim of this study was to define clade F1 origin, population dynamics and epidemiological networks through phylogenetic approaches. We analyzed pol sequences of 343 patients carrying F1 subtype stored in the ARCA database from 1998 to 2009. Citizenship of patients was as follows: 72.6% Italians, 9.3% South Americans and 7.3% Rumanians. Heterosexuals, Homo-bisexuals, Intravenous Drug Users accounted for 58.1%, 24.0% and 8.8% of patients, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 70% of sequences clustered in 27 transmission networks. Two distinct groups were identified; the first clade, encompassing 56 sequences, included all Rumanian patients. The second group involved the remaining clusters and included 10 South American Homo-bisexuals in 9 distinct clusters. Heterosexual modality of infection was significantly associated with the probability to be detected in transmission networks. Heterosexuals were prevalent either among Italians (67.2%) or Rumanians (50%); by contrast, Homo-bisexuals accounted for 71.4% of South Americans. Among patients with resistant strains the proportion of clustering sequences was 57.1%, involving 14 clusters (51.8%). Resistance in clusters tended to be higher in South Americans (28.6%) compared to Italian (17.7%) and Rumanian patients (14.3%). A striking proportion of epidemiological networks could be identified in heterosexuals carrying F1 subtype residing in Italy. Italian Heterosexual males predominated within epidemiological clusters while foreign patients were mainly Heterosexual Rumanians, both males and females, and South American Homo-bisexuals. Tree topology suggested that F1 variant from South America gave rise to the Italian F1 epidemic through multiple introduction events. The contact tracing also revealed an unexpected burden of resistance in epidemiological clusters underlying the need of public interventions to limit the spread of non-B subtypes and transmitted drug resistance.
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Standardized representation, visualization and searchable repository of antiretroviral treatment-change episodes.
AIDS Res Ther
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To identify the determinants of successful antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, researchers study the virological responses to treatment-change episodes (TCEs) accompanied by baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, and genotypic resistance data. Such studies, however, often differ in their inclusion and virological response criteria making direct comparisons of study results problematic. Moreover, the absence of a standard method for representing the data comprising a TCE makes it difficult to apply uniform criteria in the analysis of published studies of TCEs.
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Performance of genotypic tropism testing on proviral DNA in clinical practice: results from the DIVA study group.
New Microbiol.
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The DIVA study is aimed at setting up a standardized genotypic tropism-testing on proviral-DNA for the routine clinical diagnostic-laboratory.
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Efficacy of antiretroviral therapy switch in HIV-infected patients: a 10-year analysis of the EuResist Cohort.
Intervirology
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been shown to be effective in many recent trials. However, there is limited data on time trends of HAART efficacy after treatment change.
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Predicting response to antiretroviral treatment by machine learning: the EuResist project.
Intervirology
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For a long time, the clinical management of antiretroviral drug resistance was based on sequence analysis of the HIV genome followed by estimating drug susceptibility from the mutational pattern that was detected. The large number of anti-HIV drugs and HIV drug resistance mutations has prompted the development of computer-aided genotype interpretation systems, typically comprising rules handcrafted by experts via careful examination of in vitro and in vivo resistance data. More recently, machine learning approaches have been applied to establish data-driven engines able to indicate the most effective treatments for any patient and virus combination. Systems of this kind, currently including the Resistance Response Database Initiative and the EuResist engine, must learn from the large data sets of patient histories and can provide an objective and accurate estimate of the virological response to different antiretroviral regimens. The EuResist engine was developed by a European consortium of HIV and bioinformatics experts and compares favorably with the most commonly used genotype interpretation systems and HIV drug resistance experts. Next-generation treatment response prediction engines may valuably assist the HIV specialist in the challenging task of establishing effective regimens for patients harboring drug-resistant virus strains. The extensive collection and accurate processing of increasingly large patient data sets are eagerly awaited to further train and translate these systems from prototype engines into real-life treatment decision support tools.
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Naturally occurring hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance-related mutations in HCV genotype 1-infected subjects in Italy.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
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To assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations in HCV genotype 1-infected PI-naive individuals in Italy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.