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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Vitamin D Insufficiency in HIV-infected Pregnant Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy is Not Associated With Morbidity, Mortality or Growth Impairment in Their Uninfected Infants in Botswana.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Low maternal 25(OH)D (vitamin D) values have been associated with higher mortality and impaired growth among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants of antiretroviral (ART)-naive women. These associations have not been studied among HEU infants of women receiving ART.
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HIV-1 drug mutations in children from northern Tanzania.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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In resource-limited settings, it is a challenge to get quality clinical specimens due to poor infrastructure for their collection, transportation, processing and storage. Using dried blood spots (DBS) might be an alternative to plasma for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in this setting. The objectives of this study were to determine mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance among children <18 months old born to HIV-1-infected mothers enrolled in prevention of mother-to-child transmission services in northern Tanzania.
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Effects of early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection: results from the phase 3 HPTN 052 randomised controlled trial.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Use of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-1 infection has decreased AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and prevents sexual transmission of HIV-1. However, the best time to initiate antiretroviral treatment to reduce progression of HIV-1 infection or non-AIDS clinical events is unknown. We reported previously that early antiretroviral treatment reduced HIV-1 transmission by 96%. We aimed to compare the effects of early and delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes.
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Immune activation markers in peripartum women in Botswana: association with feeding strategy and maternal morbidity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hormone levels shift the immune state in HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women away from Th1 responses and toward regulation to permit fetal tolerance. Limited data exist on inflammation during pregnancy or postpartum in HIV-infected women, though certain inflammatory markers are associated with adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected persons. We measured hsCRP, D-dimer, IFN-?, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-? at 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum in HIV-infected women from the Botswana Mashi PMTCT trial who were randomized to breastfeeding or formula-feeding. Differences in inflammatory markers between gestation and postpartum periods, and by randomized feeding method, were estimated using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for baseline plasma HIV-1 viral load, CD4 count, calendar time, and antiretroviral treatment status. Additionally, we studied the association between marker concentrations at six months postpartum and major adverse clinical events over the following 4.5 years, using case-cohort sampling and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In 86 breastfeeding and 75 formula-feeding women, hsCRP and D-dimer decreased significantly between 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum, while IFN-? increased. There was no significant association between inflammatory marker change and randomized feeding method after adjusting for multiple comparisons and removing outliers. In univariate analysis, TNF-?, D-dimer, and IFN-? concentrations at six months postpartum were significant predictors of subsequent clinical events, and TNF-? remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR?=?4.16, p?=?0.001). In young HIV-infected women in Botswana inflammatory marker concentrations did not differ significantly between women who breast- vs. formula-fed. However, postpartum TNF-? level was predictive of subsequent adverse clinical event.
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Increased CXCR4 Use of HIV-1 Subtype C Identified by Population Sequencing in Patients Failing Antiretroviral Treatment Compared with Treatment-Naive Patients in Botswana.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Abstract HIV-1 uses the coreceptors CCR5 and/or CXCR4 for cell entry. Monotropic CCR5-using variants are found early in the infection while CXCR4-using variants may appear after progression to AIDS. CXCR4 use may consist of both monotropic and dualtropic viruses. The viral phenotype is important in evaluating the response to CCR5 inhibitors, a new class of antiviral drugs. The coreceptor use of HIV-1 was investigated using population sequencing in 24 patients from Botswana, carrying HIV-1 subtype C and failing antiretroviral treatment, while 26 treatment-naive patients acted as controls. Single genome sequencing was used to discern minor HIV-1 populations in the treatment-experienced group. The Geno2Pheno method was employed to predict the coreceptor use phenotype from HIV-1 env gp120 V3 DNA sequences. The glycan-charge model adjusted for subtype C was also used for phenotype prediction. The viral phenotype of population sequences was predicted using Geno2Pheno in 24/24 treatment-experienced patients, of whom eight (33%) were predicted to harbor CXCR4-using strains as compared to 2/26 in the treatment-naive group (p=0.03). Single genome sequencing generated 4-23 clones/patient in the treatment-experienced group. Altogether, 90/295 (31%) putative CXCR4-using clones were identified. In 10/24 (42%) treated patients at least one clone was predicted to be CXCR4-using, further increasing the amount of identified treatment-experienced patients with CXCR4 use. Although subtype C is usually associated with comparatively little CXCR4 use, the frequency of CXCR4 use in treatment-experienced patients with subtype C can be higher, which may have implications for the administration of CCR5 inhibitors in this patient group.
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Risk factors for mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-exposed and unexposed infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in Botswana.
J Paediatr Child Health
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Newborns admitted to neonatal units (NNUs) in resource-limited settings face a high risk of mortality, but the epidemiology of these deaths is poorly understood. We describe risk factors for NNU mortality in an area with high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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Persistently elevated serum interleukin-6 predicts mortality among adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Botswana: results from a clinical trial.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Elevated serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity among HIV-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in European and U.S. cohorts. Few similar data are available from sub-Saharan Africa, where most cART-treated adults reside and the prevalence of advanced immunosuppression and opportunistic infections (OIs) at cART initiation is higher. This was a retrospective nested case-control analysis of clinical trial data from the completed Adult Antiretroviral Treatment and Drug Resistance ("Tshepo") study, 2002-2007, Gaborone, Botswana. We measured pretreatment serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and D-dimer in stored plasma samples from 32 deceased participants (cases) and 64 survivors (controls), matched for age, sex, baseline CD4(+) cell count, and plasma HIV-1 RNA. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were used to compare inflammatory biomarker levels, adjusting for pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and the presence of OIs. A total of 37 (5.7%) of 650 patients died on study, for a crude mortality rate of 20.6/1,000 person-years. Of 37 (86%) study participants who died on study 32 were included in this analysis. Causes of death (n=32) included non-AIDS-defining events (31.3%), HIV-related OIs (28.1%), cART/toxicity-related (21.9%), other infectious etiologies (15.6%), and unknown (3.1%). Median time to death was 31 weeks [interquartile range (IQR) 14-64]. Median baseline levels of all three biomarkers were higher in cases compared to matched controls. After adjusting for BMI and the presence of OIs, only baseline and most recent (near time of event) levels of IL-6 remained as significant predictors of all-cause mortality [adjusted OR (aOR)=1.25, 95% CI (1.05-1.48); p=0.012; and aOR=1.48 (1.05-2.09); p=0.027, respectively]. Serum IL-6 levels are important predictors of all-cause mortality in this adult urban sub-Saharan African cART-treated population. Future translational studies are warranted to better elucidate pathophysiology and inform the design of novel interventions to ameliorate the risk of death among these "at-risk" individuals.
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No clinically significant drug-resistance mutations in HIV-1 subtype C-infected women after discontinuation of NRTI-based or PI-based HAART for PMTCT in Botswana.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Risk of developing drug resistance after stopping antiretroviral regimens to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission is unknown. The Mma Bana Study randomized treatment-naive pregnant women with CD4 ?200 cells per cubic millimeter to receive either abacavir/zidovudine/lamivudine [triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) arm] or lopinavir/ritonavir/zidovudine/lamivudine [protease inhibitor (PI) arm]. Drugs were discontinued after 6 months of breastfeeding. One month after discontinuation, 29 NRTI arm samples and 25 PI arm samples were successfully genotyped. No clinically significant antiretroviral resistance mutations were detected. Eight minor resistance mutations were found among 11 (20%) women (3 from NRTI arm and 8 from PI arm), occurring at similar frequencies to those reported in HIV-1 subtype C treatment-naive cohorts.
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Estimating the prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance using pooled samples.
Stat Methods Med Res
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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In many resource-poor countries, hiv-infected patients receive a standardized antiretroviral cocktail. In these settings, population-level surveillance of drug resistance is needed to characterize the prevalence of resistance mutations and to enable antiretroviral therapy programs to select the optimal regimen for their local population. The surveillance strategy currently recommended by the World Health Organization is prohibitively expensive in some settings and may not provide a sufficiently precise rendering of the emergence of drug resistance. By using a novel assay on pooled sera samples, we decrease surveillance costs while simultaneously increasing the accuracy of drug resistance prevalence estimates for an important mutation that impacts first-line antiretroviral therapy. We present a Bayesian model for pooled-testing data that garners more information from each resistance assay conducted, compared with individual testing. We expand on previous pooling methods to account for uncertainty about the population distribution of within-subject resistance levels. In addition, our model accounts for measurement error of the resistance assay, and this added uncertainty naturally propagates through the Bayesian model to our inference on the prevalence parameter. We conduct a simulation study that informs our pool size recommendations and that shows that this model renders the prevalence parameter identifiable in instances when an existing non-model-based estimator fails.
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High viral load and elevated angiogenic markers associated with increased risk of preeclampsia among women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy in the Mma Bana study, Botswana.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Risk factors associated with preeclampsia in HIV-infected women remain largely unknown. Systemic angiogenic imbalance contributes to preeclampsia in HIV-uninfected women, but changes in angiogenic markers after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation have not been studied.
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Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis and Risk of Severe Anemia or Severe Neutropenia in HAART-Exposed, HIV-Uninfected Infants.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Prophylactic cotrimoxazole is recommended for infants born to HIV-infected mothers. However, cotrimoxazole may increase the risk of severe anemia or neutropenia.
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Birth weight for gestational age norms for a large cohort of infants born to HIV-negative women in Botswana compared with norms for U.S.-born black infants.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Standard values for birth weight by gestational age are not available for sub-Saharan Africa, but are needed to evaluate incidence and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation in settings where HIV, antiretrovirals, and other in utero exposures may impact birth outcomes.
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Validation of A Point-of-Care Lactate Device For Screening At-Risk Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy In Botswana.
J Antivir Antiretrovir
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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BACKGROUND: Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are a major component of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) worldwide but they have been associated with mitochondrial toxicities, with one of the most significant being lactic acidosis. In southern Africa, being female and overweight (BMI > 25) as well as receiving d4T and/or ddI-based cART are risk factors for the development of this potentially life-threatening complication. It is challenging in many resource-limited settings to obtain reliable serum lactate measurements while screening for the presence of lactic acidosis. Point-of-care devices, however, are now available that provide simple, accurate measurements of serum lactate levels at relatively low cost. The objective of this study was to assess the agreement of the portable (Accutrend™ handheld) lactate analyzer to the conventional laboratory system for obtaining serum lactate. METHODS: Eighty two "at-risk" cART-treated adults were evaluated, having their lactate levels tested in parallel using both modalities. RESULTS: The mean (range) lactate level for the portable device was 2.28 (0.9-5.0) compared to 1.96 (0.7-5.4) using the conventional method. There was a strong correlation (p<0.05) between the portable device and the conventional means with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.92 [95% CI: 0.88-0.95]. The mean bias was 0.33 [95% CI: -0.39-1.04], with the portable device having slightly higher values. CONCLUSION: The use of a portable lactate device provides an accurate and user-friendly means of screening at-risk patients for the presence of lactic acidosis in resource-limited settings with limited laboratory capacity.
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy versus zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in a programmatic setting, Botswana.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Few studies have compared the programmatic effectiveness of the recommended strategies of antenatal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We prospectively followed infants (93% formula fed) whose mothers who took either HAART (258 infants) or zidovudine (170 infants) during pregnancy in the Botswana national program. Overall, 10 infants (2.5%) acquired HIV--9 infants in the zidovudine group (5.5%, 95% confidence interval: 2.6% to 10.2%) and 1 infant in the HAART group (0.4%, 95% confidence interval: 0.0% to 2.2%). Maternal HAART was associated with decreased prevention of mother-to-child transmission (P = 0.001) and improved HIV-free survival (P = 0.040) compared with zidovudine (with or without single-dose nevirapine) in a programmatic setting.
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Increased risk of preterm delivery among HIV-infected women randomized to protease versus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based HAART during pregnancy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Protease inhibitor (PI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use in pregnancy has been associated with preterm deliveries in some observational studies.
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Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.
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Statistical interpretation of the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial in Thailand: a case study for statistical issues in efficacy trials.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Recently, the RV144 randomized, double-blind, efficacy trial in Thailand reported that a prime-boost human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine regimen conferred ?30% protection against HIV acquisition. However, different analyses seemed to give conflicting results, and a heated debate ensued as scientists and the broader public struggled with their interpretation. The lack of accounting for statistical principles helped flame the debate, and we leverage these principles to provide a more scientific interpretation. We first address interpretation of frequentist results, including interpretation of P values, synthesis of results from multiple analyses (ie, intention-to-treat versus per-protocol/fully immunized), and accounting for external efficacy trials. Second, we address how Bayesian statistics, which provide clearly interpretable statements about probabilities that the vaccine efficacy takes certain values, provide more information for weighing the evidence about efficacy than do frequentist statistics alone. Third, we evaluate RV144 for completeness of end point ascertainment and integrity of blinding, necessary tasks for establishing robustly interpretable results.
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Effects of in utero antiretroviral exposure on longitudinal growth of HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Botswana.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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The impact of in utero exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on longitudinal growth of HIV-uninfected infants is unknown.
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Influence of Gag-protease-mediated replication capacity on disease progression in individuals recently infected with HIV-1 subtype C.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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HLA class I-mediated selection of immune escape mutations in functionally important Gag epitopes may partly explain slower disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals with protective HLA alleles. To investigate the impact of Gag function on disease progression, the replication capacities of viruses encoding Gag-protease from 60 individuals in early HIV-1 subtype C infection were assayed in an HIV-1-inducible green fluorescent protein reporter cell line and were correlated with subsequent disease progression. Replication capacities did not correlate with viral load set points (P = 0.37) but were significantly lower in individuals with below-median viral load set points (P = 0.03), and there was a trend of correlation between lower replication capacities and lower rates of CD4 decline (P = 0.09). Overall, the proportion of host HLA-specific Gag polymorphisms in or adjacent to epitopes was negatively associated with replication capacities (P = 0.04), but host HLA-B-specific polymorphisms were associated with higher viral load set points (P = 0.01). Further, polymorphisms associated with host-specific protective HLA alleles were linked with higher viral load set points (P = 0.03). These data suggest that transmission or early HLA-driven selection of Gag polymorphisms results in reduced early cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses and higher viral load set points. In support of the former, 46% of individuals with nonprotective alleles harbored a Gag polymorphism exclusively associated with a protective HLA allele, indicating a high rate of their transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, HIV disease progression is likely to be affected by the ability to mount effective Gag CTL responses as well as the replication capacity of the transmitted virus.
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Increased risk of severe infant anemia after exposure to maternal HAART, Botswana.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Maternal highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission but may increase the risk for infant anemia.
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Net survival of perinatally and postnatally HIV-infected children: a pooled analysis of individual data from sub-Saharan Africa.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Previously, HIV epidemic models have used a double Weibull curve to represent high initial and late mortality of HIV-infected children, without distinguishing timing of infection (peri- or post-natally). With more data on timing of infection, which may be associated with disease progression, a separate representation of children infected early and late was proposed.
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Strengthening biostatistics resources in sub-Saharan Africa: research collaborations through U.S. partnerships.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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On September 30, 2009, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a workshop on strengthening biostatistics resources in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). An increase in global spending on health research over the last decade has boosted funds available to conduct biomedical research in low- to mid-income countries. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, the re-emergence of malaria and tuberculosis, and other emerging infectious agents are major driving forces behind the increase in biomedical research and clinical care programs (clinical trials, observational studies and, other public health programs) in SSA (Exp. Biol. Med. 2008; 233:277-285). In addition, the increased engagement of the United States (U.S.) government through the Global Health Initiative, which expands the traditional focus beyond infectious diseases to other causes of poor health and to the recognition of need the to strengthen health systems for a sustainable response, only increases the need for in-depth in-country expertise in all aspects of biomedical research (White House Press Release, 2009). In this workshop, researchers both from the U.S. and SSA were invited to discuss their collaborative work, to discuss ways in which biostatistical activities are carried out within their research projects, and to identify both general and specific needs for capacity building in biostatistics. Capacity building discussions highlighted the critical need to increase the number of well-trained in-country biostatisticians, both to participate in ongoing studies and to contribute to an infrastructure that can produce the next generation of biostatistical researchers.
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Risk factors for very preterm delivery and delivery of very-small-for-gestational-age infants among HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants in Botswana.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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To evaluate risk factors for very preterm delivery (VPTD) and very-small-for-gestational-age (VSGA) births in a country with a high HIV prevalence.
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Minor resistant variants in nevirapine-exposed infants may predict virologic failure on nevirapine-containing ART.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) is widely used to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1. This may result in NVP resistance in both mother and infant. The significance of low levels of NVP resistance mutations in infants treated with NVP-containing antiretroviral treatment (ART) is unknown.
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Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor outcomes among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in Botswana.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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National initiatives offering non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have expanded in sub-Saharan Africa. The Tshepo study is the first clinical trial evaluating the long-term efficacy and tolerability of efavirenz versus nevirapine-based cART among adults in Botswana.
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Adult combination antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: lessons from Botswana and future challenges.
HIV Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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Numerous national public initiatives offering first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV infection have commenced in sub-Saharan Africa since 2002. Presently, 2.1 million of an estimated seven million Africans in need of cART are receiving treatment. Analyses from the region report favorable clinical/treatment outcomes and impressive declines in AIDS-related mortality among HIV-1-infected adults and children receiving cART. While immunologic recovery, virologic suppression and cART adherence rates are on par with resource-rich settings, loss to follow-up and high mortality rates, especially within the first 6 months of treatment, remain a significant problem. Over the next decade, cART coverage rates are expected to improve across the region, with attendant increases in healthcare utilization for HIV- and non-HIV-related complications and the need for expanded laboratory and clinical services. Planned and in-progress trials will evaluate the use of cART to prevent primary HIV-1 infection with so-called test and treat expansions of coverage and treatment. Education and training programs as well as patient-retention strategies will need to be strengthened as national cART programs are expanded and more people require lifelong monitoring and care.
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Perceptions of couple HIV counseling and testing in Botswana: a stakeholder analysis.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2009
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To explore stakeholders perceptions of Couples HIV Counseling and Testing (CHCT) as opposed to individual testing and potential couples preferences for CHCT promotion and service provision.
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Five-year follow up of genotypic resistance patterns in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients in Botswana after failure of thymidine analogue-based regimens.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Our objective was to establish genotypic resistance profiles among the 4% of Batswana patients who experienced virologic failure while being followed within Botswanas National Antiretroviral Treatment Program between 2002 and 2007.
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Response to zidovudine/didanosine-containing combination antiretroviral therapy among HIV-1 subtype C-infected adults in Botswana: two-year outcomes from a randomized clinical trial.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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Numerous national antiretroviral (ARV) treatment initiatives offering protease inhibitor-sparing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have recently commenced in southern Africa, the first of which began in Botswana in January 2002. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of various protease inhibitor-sparing cART regimens requires intensive study in the region, as does investigation of the development of drug resistance and the optimal means of sustaining adherence. The "Tshepo" Study is the first large-scale, randomized, clinical trial that addresses these important issues among HIV-1 subtype C-infected ARV treatment-naive adults in southern Africa.
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Risk factors for early and late transmission of HIV via breast-feeding among infants born to HIV-infected women in a randomized clinical trial in Botswana.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breast-feeding were evaluated in a randomized trial. HIV-infected women and their infants received zidovudine as well as single-dose nevirapine or placebo. Infants were randomized to formula-feed (FF) or breast-feed (BF) in combination with zidovudine prophylaxis. Of 1116 at-risk infants, 6 (1.1%) in the FF group and 7 (1.3%) in the BF group were infected between birth and 1 month (P=.99). Maternal receipt of nevirapine did not predict early MTCT in the BF group (P=.45). Of 547 infants in the BF group at risk for late MTCT, 24 (4.4%) were infected. Maternal HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma (P<.001) and breast milk (P<.001) predicted late MTCT. These findings support the safety of 1 month of breast-feeding in combination with maternal and infant antiretroviral prophylaxis. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00197691 and NCT00197652.
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Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load in plasma using reverse transcriptase activity assay at a district hospital laboratory in Botswana: a decentralization pilot study.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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Roche COBAS Amplicor monitor version 1.5 assay is considered gold standard for viral load monitoring in Botswana. Due to its demand for elaborate infrastructure, viral load testing has been confined to the national HIV reference laboratories. Cavidi ExaVir Load version 2 assay was considered as a potential alternative to decentralize viral load testing to the rural/remote hospital laboratories and thus increase access to therapy. This study compared the performance of ExaVir Load v2 assay at a district hospital laboratory in Serowe and COBAS Amplicor monitor v1.5 assay at the Botswana Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory using quality assessment samples and plasma from HIV-positive individuals. ExaVir Load v2 and COBAS Amplicor monitor v1.5 assays had very good agreement; Kappa statistic 0.951. The COBAS Amplicor monitor v1.5 and ExaVir Load v2 assays detected HIV-1 RNA in 84 and 86 samples but did not detect HIV-1 RNA in 221 and 219 samples, respectively. The two assays detected HIV-1 RNA concordantly in 82 samples and were strongly correlated (r=0.8554, P<0.0001). ExaVir Load v2 assay provided a simple and reliable alternative viral load system that is adaptable to district hospital laboratories. The cost per test is less than RT-PCR. The ExaVir Load v2 systems have since been placed in four more district and primary hospital laboratories.
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Therapeutic levels of lopinavir in late pregnancy and abacavir passage into breast milk in the Mma Bana Study, Botswana.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
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Pharmacokinetic data for lopinavir in late pregnancy and in breastfeeding are limited, and no data for abacavir in breast milk are available.
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy and adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women in Botswana.
J. Infect. Dis.
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It is unknown whether adverse birth outcomes are associated with maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in pregnancy, particularly in resource-limited settings.
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Quantifying ongoing HIV-1 exposure in HIV-1-serodiscordant couples to identify individuals with potential host resistance to HIV-1.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure.
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Risk factors for symptomatic hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in Botswana: results from a clinical trial.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
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Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors are an integral component of combination antiretroviral treatment regimens. However, their ability to inhibit polymerase-? has been associated with several mitochondrial toxicities, including potentially life-threatening lactic acidosis. A total of 650 antiretroviral-naive adults (69% female) initiated combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and were intensively screened for toxicities including lactic acidosis as part of a 3-year clinical trial in Botswana. Patients were categorized as no lactic acidosis symptoms, minor symptoms but lactate <4.4 mmol/liter, and symptoms with lactate ? 4.4 mmol/liter [moderate to severe symptomatic hyperlactatemia (SH) or lactic acidosis (LA)]. Of 650 participants 111 (17.1%) developed symptoms and/or laboratory results suggestive of lactic acidosis and had a serum lactate drawn; 97 (87.4%) of these were female. There were 20 events, 13 having SH and 7 with LA; all 20 (100%) were female (p<0.001). Cox proportional hazard analysis limited to the 451 females revealed that having a higher baseline BMI was predictive for the development of SH/LA [aHR=1.17 per one-unit increase (1.08-1.25), p<0.0001]. Ordered logistic regression performed among all 650 patients revealed that having a lower baseline hemoglobin [aOR=1.28 per one-unit decrease (1.1-1.49), p=0.002] and being randomized to d4T/3TC-based cART [aOR=1.76 relative to ZDV/3TC (1.03-3.01), p=0.04] were predictive of the symptoms and/or the development of SH/LA. cART-treated women in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those having higher body mass indices, should receive additional monitoring for SH/LA. Women presently receiving d4T/3TC-based cART in such settings also warrant more intensive monitoring.
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High prevalence of hypertension and placental insufficiency, but no in utero HIV transmission, among women on HAART with stillbirths in Botswana.
PLoS ONE
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Increased stillbirth rates occur among HIV-infected women, but no studies have evaluated the pathological basis for this increase, or whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) influences the etiology of stillbirths. It is also unknown whether HIV infection of the fetus is associated with stillbirth.
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Children who acquire HIV infection perinatally are at higher risk of early death than those acquiring infection through breastmilk: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
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Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed.
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Specificity of four laboratory approaches for cross-sectional HIV incidence determination: analysis of samples from adults with known nonrecent HIV infection from five African countries.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
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Assays to determine cross-sectional HIV incidence misclassify some individuals with nonrecent HIV infection as recently infected, overestimating HIV incidence. We analyzed factors associated with false-recent misclassification in five African countries. Samples from 2197 adults from Botswana, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda who were HIV infected > 12 months were tested using the (1) BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED), (2) avidity assay, (3) BED and avidity assays with higher assay cutoffs (BED+ avidity screen), and (4) multiassay algorithm (MAA) that includes the BED+ avidity screen, CD4 cell count, and HIV viral load. Logistic regression identified factors associated with misclassification. False-recent misclassification rates and 95% confidence intervals were BED alone: 7.6% (6.6, 8.8); avidity assay alone: 3.5% (2.7, 4.3); BED+ avidity screen: 2.2% (1.7, 2.9); and MAA: 1.2% (0.8, 1.8). The misclassification rate for the MAA was significantly lower than the rates for the other three methods (each p < 0.05). Misclassification rates were lower when the analysis was limited to subtype C-endemic countries, with the lowest rate obtained for the MAA [0.8% (0.2, 1.9)]. Factors associated with misclassification were for BED alone: country of origin, antiretroviral treatment (ART), viral load, and CD4 cell count; for avidity assay alone: country of origin; for BED+ avidity screen: country of origin and ART. No factors were associated with misclassification using the MAA. In a multivariate model, these associations remained significant with one exception: the association of ART with misclassification was completely attenuated. A MAA that included CD4 cell count and viral load had lower false-recent misclassification than the BED or avidity assays (alone or in combination). Studies are underway to compare the sensitivity of these methods for detection of recent HIV infection.
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Using HIV viral load to guide treatment-for-prevention interventions.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
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To provide evidence that HIV-1 RNA load can guide treatment-for-prevention interventions to mitigate the HIV epidemic.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.