Rapid growth of plant cells by cell division and expansion requires an endomembrane trafficking system. The endomembrane compartments, such as the Golgi stacks, endosome and vesicles, are important in the synthesis and trafficking of cell wall materials during cell elongation. However, changes in the morphology, distribution and number of these compartments during the different stages of cell proliferation and differentiation have not yet been clarified. In this study, we examined these changes at the ultrastructural level in tobacco Bright yellow 2 (BY-2) cells during the log and stationary phases of growth. We analyzed images of the BY-2 cells prepared by the high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution technique with the aid of an auto-acquisition transmission electron microscope system. We quantified the distribution of secretory and endosomal compartments in longitudinal sections of whole cells by using wide-range gigapixel-class images obtained by merging thousands of transmission electron micrographs. During the log phase, all Golgi stacks were composed of several thick cisternae. Approximately 20 vesicle clusters (VCs), including the trans-Golgi network and secretory vesicle cluster, were observed throughout the cell. In the stationary-phase cells, Golgi stacks were thin with small cisternae, and only a few VCs were observed. Nearly the same number of multivesicular body and small high-density vesicles were observed in both the stationary and log phases. Results from electron microscopy and live fluorescence imaging indicate that the morphology and distribution of secretory-related compartments dramatically change when cells transition from log to stationary phases of growth.
The development of cells specialized for water conduction or support is a striking innovation of plants that has enabled them to colonize land. The NAC transcription factors regulate the differentiation of these cells in vascular plants. However, the path by which plants with these cells have evolved from their nonvascular ancestors is unclear. We investigated genes of the moss Physcomitrella patens that encode NAC proteins. Loss-of-function mutants formed abnormal water-conducting and supporting cells, as well as malformed sporophyte cells, and overexpression induced ectopic differentiation of water-conducting-like cells. Our results show conservation of transcriptional regulation and cellular function between moss and Arabidopsis thaliana water-conducting cells. The conserved genetic basis suggests roles for NAC proteins in the adaptation of plants to land.
Peroxisomes are essential organelles that are characterized by the possession of enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as part of their normal catalytic cycle. During the metabolic process, peroxisomal proteins are inevitably damaged by H2O2 and the integrity of the peroxisomes is impaired. Here, we show that autophagy, an intracellular process for vacuolar degradation, selectively degrades dysfunctional peroxisomes. Marked accumulation of peroxisomes was observed in the leaves but not roots of autophagy-related (ATG)-knockout Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. The peroxisomes in leaf cells contained markedly increased levels of catalase in an insoluble and inactive aggregate form. The chemically inducible complementation system in ATG5-knockout Arabidopsis provided the evidence that these accumulated peroxisomes were delivered to vacuoles for degradation by autophagy. Interestingly, autophagosomal membrane structures specifically recognized the abnormal peroxisomes at the site of the aggregates. Thus, autophagy is essential for the quality control of peroxisomes in leaves and for proper plant development under natural growth conditions.
In plants, genes involved in photosynthesis are encoded separately in nuclei and plastids, and tight cooperation between these two genomes is therefore required for the development of functional chloroplasts. Golden2-like (GLK) transcription factors are involved in chloroplast development, directly targeting photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes for up-regulation. Although overexpression of GLKs leads to chloroplast development in non-photosynthetic organs, the mechanisms of coordination between the nuclear gene expression influenced by GLKs and the photosynthetic processes inside chloroplasts are largely unknown. To elucidate the impact of GLK-induced expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes on the construction of photosynthetic systems, chloroplast morphology and photosynthetic characteristics in greenish roots of Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing GLKs were compared with those in wild-type roots and leaves. Overexpression of GLKs caused up-regulation of not only their direct targets but also non-target nuclear and plastid genes, leading to global induction of chloroplast biogenesis in the root. Large antennae relative to reaction centers were observed in wild-type roots and were further enhanced by GLK overexpression due to the increased expression of target genes associated with peripheral light-harvesting antennae. Photochemical efficiency was lower in the root chloroplasts than in leaf chloroplasts, suggesting that the imbalance in the photosynthetic machinery decreases the efficiency of light utilization in root chloroplasts. Despite the low photochemical efficiency, root photosynthesis contributed to carbon assimilation in Arabidopsis. Moreover, GLK overexpression increased CO? fixation and promoted phototrophic performance of the root, showing the potential of root photosynthesis to improve effective carbon utilization in plants.
Over-expression of sigE, a gene encoding an RNA polymerase sigma factor in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, is known to activate sugar catabolism and bioplastic production. In this study, we investigated the effects of sigE over-expression on cell morphology, photosynthesis and hydrogen production in this cyanobacterium. Transmission electron and scanning probe microscopic analyses revealed that sigE over-expression increased the cell size, possibly as a result of aberrant cell division. Over-expression of sigE reduced respiration and photosynthesis activities via changes in gene expression and chlorophyll fluorescence. Hydrogen production under micro-oxic conditions is enhanced in sigE over-expressing cells. Despite these pleiotropic phenotypes, the sigE over-expressing strain showed normal cell viability under both nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions. These results provide insights into the inter-relationship among metabolism, cell morphology, photosynthesis and hydrogen production in this unicellular cyanobacterium.
To investigate the distribution of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and the IAA synthetic cells in maize coleoptiles, we established immunohistochemistry of IAA using an anti-IAA-C-monoclonal antibody. We first confirmed the specificity of the antibody by comparing the amounts of endogenous free and conjugated IAA to the IAA signal obtained from the IAA antibody. Depletion of endogenous IAA showed a corresponding decrease in immuno-signal intensity and negligible cross-reactivity against IAA-related compounds, including tryptophan, indole-3-acetamide, and conjugated-IAA was observed. Immunolocalization showed that the IAA signal was intense in the approximately 1 mm region and the outer epidermis at the approximately 0.5 mm region from the top of coleoptiles treated with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid. By contrast, the IAA immuno-signal in the outer epidermis almost disappeared after 5-methyl-tryptophan treatment. Immunogold labeling of IAA with an anti-IAA-N-polyclonal antibody in the outer-epidermal cells showed cytoplasmic localization of free-IAA, but none in cell walls or vacuoles. These findings indicated that IAA is synthesized in the 0–2.0 mm region of maize coleoptile tips from Trp, in which the outer-epidermal cells of the 0.5 mm tip are the most active IAA synthetic cells.
CtBP/BARS is a unique protein family in having quite diversified cellular functions, intercellular localizations, and developmental roles. ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) is the sole homolog of CtBP/BARS from Arabidopsis thaliana, although it has plant AN-specific motifs and a long C-terminus. Previous studies suggested that AN would function in the nucleus as a transcriptional co-repressor, as CtBPs function in animals; however, precise verification has been lacking. In this paper, we isolated a homologous gene (MAN) of AN from liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. Transformation of the Arabidopsis an-1 mutant with 35S-driven MAN completely complemented the an-1 phenotype, although it lacks the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) that exists in AN proteins isolated from other plant species. We constructed several plasmids for expressing modified ANs with amino acid substitutions in known motifs. The results clearly indicated that modified AN with mutations in the putative NLS-like domain could complement the an-1 phenotype. Therefore, we re-examined localization of AN using several techniques. Our results demonstrated that AN localizes on punctuate structures around the Golgi, partially overlapping with a trans-Golgi network resident, which highlighted an unexpected link between leaf development and membrane trafficking. We should reconsider the roles and evolutionary traits of AN based on these findings.
The genome of Synechocystis PCC 6803 contains a single gene encoding an aquaporin, aqpZ. The AqpZ protein functioned as a water-permeable channel in the plasma membrane. However, the physiological importance of AqpZ in Synechocystis remains unclear. We found that growth in glucose-containing medium inhibited proper division of ?aqpZ cells and led to cell death. Deletion of a gene encoding a glucose transporter in the ?aqpZ background alleviated the glucose-mediated growth inhibition of the ?aqpZ cells. The ?aqpZ cells swelled more than the wild type after the addition of glucose, suggesting an increase in cytosolic osmolarity. This was accompanied by a down-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway and concurrent glycogen accumulation. Metabolite profiling by GC/TOF-MS of wild-type and ?aqpZ cells revealed a relative decrease of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and certain amino acids in the mutant. The changed levels of metabolites may have been the cause for the observed decrease in growth rate of the ?aqpZ cells along with decreased PSII activity at pH values ranging from 7.5 to 8.5. A mutant in sll1961, encoding a putative transcription factor, and a ?hik31 mutant, lacking a putative glucose-sensing kinase, both exhibited higher glucose sensitivity than the ?aqpZ cells. Examination of protein expression indicated that sll1961 functioned as a positive regulator of aqpZ gene expression but not as the only regulator. Overall, the ?aqpZ cells showed defects in macronutrient metabolism, pH homeostasis, and cell division under photomixotrophic conditions, consistent with an essential role of AqpZ in glucose metabolism.
The cyanelles of glaucocystophytes are probably the most primitive of known extant plastids and the closest to cyanobacteria. Their kidney shape and FtsZ arc during the early stage of division define cyanelle division. In order to deepen and expand earlier results (Planta 227:177-187, 2007), cells of Cyanophora paradoxa were fixed with two different chemical and two different freeze-fixation methods. In addition, cyanelles from C. paradoxa were isolated to observe the surface structure of dividing cyanelles using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). A shallow furrow started on one side of the division plane. The furrow subsequently extended, covering the entire division circle, and then invaginated deeply, becoming clearly visible. The typical FtsZ arc was 2.3-3.4 microm long. This length matches that of the cleavage furrow observed using FE-SEM. The cyanelle cleavage furrows are from one-fourth to one-half of the circumference of the division plane. The shallow furrow that appears on the cyanelle outer surface effectively changes the division plane. Using freeze-fixation methods, the electron-dense stroma and peptidoglycan could be distinguished. In addition, an electron-dense belt structure (the cyanelle ring) was observed inside the leading edge at the cyanelle division plane. The FtsZ arc is located at the division plane ahead of the cyanelle ring. Immunogold-TEM localization shows that FtsZ is located interiorly of the cyanelle ring. The lack of an outer PD ring, together with the arch-shaped furrow, suggests that the mechanical force of the initial (arch shaped) septum furrow constriction comes from inside the cyanelle.
Sex-dependent thermogenesis during reproductive organ development in the inflorescence is a characteristic feature of some of the protogynous arum species. One such plant, skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), can produce massive heat during the female stage but not during the subsequent male stage in which the stamen completes development, the anthers dehisce, and pollen is released. Unlike other thermogenic species, skunk cabbage belongs to the bisexual flower group. Although recent studies have identified the spadix as the thermogenic organ, it remains unclear how individual tissues or intracellular structures are involved in thermogenesis. In this study, reproductive organ development and organelle biogenesis were examined during the transition from the female to the male stage. During the female stage, the stamens exhibit extensive structural changes including changes in organelle structure and density. They accumulate high levels of mitochondrial proteins, including possible thermogenic factors, alternative oxidase, and uncoupling protein. By contrast, the petals and pistils do not undergo extensive changes during the female stage. However, they contain a larger number of mitochondria than during the male stage in which they develop large cytoplasmic vacuoles. Comparison between female and male spadices suggests that mitochondrial number rather than their level of activity correlates with thermogenesis. Their spadices, even in the male, contain a larger amount of mitochondria that had greater oxygen consumption, compared with non-thermogenic plants. Taken together, our data suggest that the extensive maturation process in stamens produces massive heat through increased metabolic activities. The possible mechanisms by which petal and pistil metabolism may affect thermogenesis are also discussed.
A taste-modifying protein, miraculin, is highly accumulated in ripe fruit of miracle fruit (Richadella dulcifica) and the content can reach up to 10% of the total soluble protein in these fruits. Although speculated for decades that miraculin is secreted into intercellular spaces in miracle fruit, no evidence exists of its cellular localization. To study the cellular localization of miraculin in plant cells, using miracle fruit and transgenic tomato that constitutively express miraculin, immunoelectron microscopy, imaging GFP fusion proteins, and immunological detection of secreted proteins in culture medium of transgenic tomato were carried out. Immunoelectron microscopy showed the specific accumulation of miraculin in the intercellular layers of both miracle fruit and transgenic tomato. Imaging GFP fusion protein demonstrated that the miraculin-GFP fusion protein was accumulated in the intercellular spaces of tomato epidermal cells. Immunological detection of secreted proteins in culture medium of transgenic tomato indicated that miraculin was secreted from the roots of transgenic tomato expressing miraculin. This study firstly showed the evidences of the intercellular localization of miraculin, and provided a new insight of biological roles of miraculin in plants.
Phagocytosis is a fundamental cellular event for the uptake of nutrients from the environment in several kinds of eukaryote. Most ciliates egest waste and undigested materials in food vacuoles (FVs) through a cytoproct, which is a specific organelle for defecation. It is considered that FV egestion is initiated by fusion between the FV membrane and plasma membrane in a cytoproct and completed with retrieval of the membrane into a cytoplasmic space. In addition, electron microscopy indicated that microfilaments might be involved in the recycling process of the FV membrane in ciliates over 30 years ago; however, there is no conclusive evidence. Here we demonstrated actin organization on FV near a cytoproct in Tetrahymena thermophila by using a marker for a cytoproct. Moreover, it was revealed that cells treated with actin cytoskeletal inhibitor, Latrunculin B, might be suppressed for membrane retrieval in a cytoproct following FV egestion. On the other hand, the actin structures, likely to be the site of membrane retrieval, were frequently observed in the cells treated with cytoplasmic microtubules inhibitor, Nocodazole. We concluded that actin filaments were probably required for recycling of the FV membrane in a cytoproct although the role was not essential for FV egestion. In addition, it was possible that microtubules might be involved in transportation of recycling vesicles of FV coated with F-actin.
Xylem vessel elements are hollow cellular units that assemble end-to-end to form a continuous vessel throughout the plant body; the xylem vessel is strengthened by the xylem elements reinforced secondary cell walls (SCWs). This work aims to unravel the contribution of unknown actors in xylem vessel differentiation using the model in vitro cell culture system of Zinnia elegans differentiating cell cultures and the model in vivo system of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Tracheary Element Differentiation-Related6 (TED6) and TED7 were selected based on an RNA interference (RNAi) screen in the Zinnia system. RNAi reduction of TED6 and 7 delayed tracheary element (TE) differentiation and co-overexpression of TED6 and 7 increased TE differentiation in cultured Zinnia cells. Arabidopsis TED6 and 7 were expressed preferentially in differentiating vessel elements in seedlings. Aberrant SCW formation of root vessel elements was induced by transient RNAi of At TED7 alone and enhanced by inhibition of both TED6 and 7. Protein-protein interactions were demonstrated between TED6 and a subunit of the SCW-related cellulose synthase complex. Our strategy has succeeded in finding two novel components in SCW formation and has opened the door for in-depth analysis of their molecular functions.
Na+/H+ antiporters influence proton or sodium motive force across the membrane. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has six genes encoding Na+/H+ antiporters, nhaS1-5 and sll0556. In this study, the function of NhaS3 was examined. NhaS3 was essential for growth of Synechocystis, and loss of nhaS3 was not complemented by expression of the Escherichia coli Na+/H+ antiporter NhaA. Membrane fractionation followed by immunoblotting as well as immunogold labeling revealed that NhaS3 was localized in the thylakoid membrane of Synechocystis. NhaS3 was shown to be functional over a pH range from pH 6.5 to 9.0 when expressed in E. coli. A reduction in the copy number of nhaS3 in the Synechocystis genome rendered the cells more sensitive to high Na+ concentrations. NhaS3 had no K+/H+ exchange activity itself but enhanced K+ uptake from the medium when expressed in an E. coli potassium uptake mutant. Expression of nhaS3 increased after shifting from low CO2 to high CO2 conditions. Expression of nhaS3 was also found to be controlled by the circadian rhythm. Gene expression peaked at the beginning of subjective night. This coincided with the time of the lowest rate of CO2 consumption caused by the ceasing of O2-evolving photosynthesis. This is the first report of a Na+/H+ antiporter localized in thylakoid membrane. Our results suggested a role of NhaS3 in the maintenance of ion homeostasis of H+, Na+, and K+ in supporting the conversion of photosynthetic products and in the supply of energy in the dark.
The cotyledon of legume seeds is a storage organ that provides nutrients for seed germination and seedling growth. The spatial and temporal control of the degradation processes within cotyledons has not been elucidated. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, a common calcium deposit in plants, have often been reported to be present in legume seeds. In this study, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was employed at the SPring-8 facility to examine the three-dimensional distribution of crystals inside cotyledons during seed maturation and germination of Lotus miyakojimae (previously Lotus japonicus accession Miyakojima MG-20). Using this technique, we could detect the outline of the embryo, void spaces in seeds and the cotyledon venation pattern. We found several sites that strongly inhibited X-ray transmission within the cotyledons. Light and polarizing microscopy confirmed that these areas corresponded to CaOx crystals. Three-dimensional observations of dry seeds indicated that the CaOx crystals in the L. miyakojimae cotyledons were distributed along lateral veins; however, their distribution was limited to the abaxial side of the procambium. The CaOx crystals appeared at stage II (seed-filling stage) of seed development, and their number increased in dry seeds. The number of crystals in cotyledons was high during germination, suggesting that CaOx crystals are not degraded for their calcium supply. Evidence for the conservation of CaOx crystals in cotyledons during the L. miyakojimae germination process was also supported by the biochemical measurement of oxalic acid levels.
Bacterial endosymbionts belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae were recently identified in the unicellular green alga Carteria cerasiformis, providing the first molecular evidence of rickettsial endosymbionts within photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, previous morphological studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with conventional chemical fixation did not demonstrate whether the endosymbionts of C. cerasiformis have the diagnostic characteristics of the family Rickettsiaceae. In this study, we observed the rickettsial endosymbionts "MIDORIKO" within C. cerasiformis cells by TEM with high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation. The rickettsial endosymbionts resided directly in the C. cerasiformis cytoplasm without engulfing or encompassing membranes or vacuoles. The endosymbionts had a Gram-negative cell envelope composed of outer and inner bilayer membranes. The thicknesses of the outer and inner leaflets of the bacterial cell wall were almost identical. These morphological characteristics are consistent with those of the genus Rickettsia, but the cell wall structure differed from that of the genus Orientia within the family Rickettsiaceae.
The galactolipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) are the predominant lipids in thylakoid membranes and indispensable for photosynthesis. Among the three isoforms that catalyze MGDG synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, MGD1 is responsible for most galactolipid synthesis in chloroplasts, whereas MGD2 and MGD3 are required for DGDG accumulation during phosphate (Pi) starvation. A null mutant of Arabidopsis MGD1 (mgd1-2), which lacks both galactolipids and shows a severe defect in chloroplast biogenesis under nutrient-sufficient conditions, accumulated large amounts of DGDG, with a strong induction of MGD2/3 expression, during Pi starvation. In plastids of Pi-starved mgd1-2 leaves, biogenesis of thylakoid-like internal membranes, occasionally associated with invagination of the inner envelope, was observed, together with chlorophyll accumulation. Moreover, the mutant accumulated photosynthetic membrane proteins upon Pi starvation, indicating a compensation for MGD1 deficiency by Pi stress-induced galactolipid biosynthesis. However, photosynthetic activity in the mutant was still abolished, and light-harvesting/photosystem core complexes were improperly formed, suggesting a requirement for MGDG for proper assembly of these complexes. During Pi starvation, distribution of plastid nucleoids changed concomitantly with internal membrane biogenesis in the mgd1-2 mutant. Moreover, the reduced expression of nuclear- and plastid-encoded photosynthetic genes observed in the mgd1-2 mutant under Pi-sufficient conditions was restored after Pi starvation. In contrast, Pi starvation had no such positive effects in mutants lacking chlorophyll biosynthesis. These observations demonstrate that galactolipid biosynthesis and subsequent membrane biogenesis inside the plastid strongly influence nucleoid distribution and the expression of both plastid- and nuclear-encoded photosynthetic genes, independently of photosynthesis.
Intestinal microfold cells (M cells) are an enigmatic lineage of intestinal epithelial cells that initiate mucosal immune responses through the uptake and transcytosis of luminal antigens. The mechanisms of M-cell differentiation are poorly understood, as the rarity of these cells has hampered analysis. Exogenous administration of the cytokine RANKL can synchronously activate M-cell differentiation in mice. Here we show the Ets transcription factor Spi-B was induced early during M-cell differentiation. Absence of Spi-B silenced the expression of various M-cell markers and prevented the differentiation of M cells in mice. The activation of T cells via an oral route was substantially impaired in the intestine of Spi-B-deficient (Spib(-/-)) mice. Our study demonstrates that commitment to the intestinal M-cell lineage requires Spi-B as a candidate master regulator.
Tight coordination between plastid differentiation and plant development is best evidenced by the synchronized development of photosynthetic tissues and the biogenesis of chloroplasts. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana roots demonstrate accelerated chlorophyll accumulation and chloroplast development when they are detached from shoots. However, this phenomenon is repressed by auxin treatment. Mutant analyses suggest that auxin transported from the shoot represses root greening via the function of indole-3-acetic acid14, auxin response factor7 (ARF7), and ARF19. Cytokinin signaling, on the contrary, is required for chlorophyll biosynthesis in roots. The regulation by auxin/cytokinin is dependent on the transcription factor long hypocotyl5 (HY5), which is required for the expression of key chlorophyll biosynthesis genes in roots. The expression of yet another root greening transcription factor, golden2-like2 (GLK2), was found to be regulated in opposing directions by auxin and cytokinin. Furthermore, both the hormone signaling and the GLK transcription factors modified the accumulation of HY5 in roots. Overexpression of GLKs in the hy5 mutant provided evidence that GLKs require HY5 to maximize their activities in root greening. We conclude that the combination of HY5 and GLKs, functioning downstream of light and auxin/cytokinin signaling pathways, is responsible for coordinated expression of the key genes in chloroplast biogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.