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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Cloning and expression analysis of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) reductase gene from Aquilaria sinensis].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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The study aimed to clone the open reading frame of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) from Aquilaria sinensis and analyze the bioinformatics and expression of the gene. One unique sequence containing C4H domain was discovered in our previous reported wound transcriptome dataset of A. sinensis. The open reading frame of C4H was cloned by RT-PCR strategy with the template of mixed RNA extracted from A. sinensis stem which treated by different wound time. The bioinformatic analysis of this gene and its corresponding protein was performed. C4H expression profiles in responds to MeJA (methyl jasmonate) application were analyzed by real-time PCR. The length of C4H open reading frame (ORF) was 1 515 bp, encoding 514 amino acids. The GenBank accession number is KF134783. Inducible-experiments showed that the genes were induced by mechanical wound as well as MeJA induction, and reached the highest expression level at 8 h and 20 h, respectively. The full-length cDNA of C4H and its expression patterns will provide a foundation for further research on its function in the molecular mechanisms of aromatic compounds and flavonoids biosynthesis.
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[Preparation and antigenicity analysis of recombinant aegyptin-like protein of Aedes albopictus].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To clone and express the aegyptin-like protein (alALP) encoding gene from Aedes albopictus salivary gland, and analyze its antigenicity.
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MSCs modified with ACE2 restore endothelial function following LPS challenge by inhibiting the activation of RAS.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Angiotensin (Ang) II plays an important role in the process of endothelial dysfunction in acute lung injury(ALI) and is degraded by angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2). However, treatmentsthat target ACE2 to injured endothelium and promote endothelial repair of ALI are lacking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of homing to the injured site and delivering a protective gene. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of genetically modified MSCs, which overexpress the ACE2 protein in a sustained manner via a lentiviral vector, on Ang II production in endothelium and in vitro repair of LPS-induced endothelial injury.We found that the efficiency of lentiviral vector transduction of MSCs was as high as 97.8% and was well maintained over 30 passages. MSCs modified with ACE2 showed a sustained high expression of ACE2 mRNA and protein. The modified MSCs secreted soluble ACE2 protein into the culture medium, which reduced the concentration of Ang II and increased the production of Ang 1-7. MSCs modified with ACE2 were more effective at restoring endothelial function than were unmodified MSCs, as shown by the enhanced survival of endothelial cells; the downregulated production of inflammatory mediators, including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, TNF-?, and IL-6; reduced paracellular permeability; and increased expression of VE-cadherin. These data demonstrate that MSCs modified to overexpress the ACE2 gene can produce biologically active ACE2 protein over a sustained period of time and have an enhanced ability to promote endothelial repair after LPS challenge.These results encourage further testing of the beneficial effects of ACE2-modified MSCs in an ALI animal model. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Malposition of peripherally inserted central catheter: experience from 3012 cancer patients.
Int J Nurs Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The objectives of the study are to observe and analyze the causes of 237 patients' malposition peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) from 3012 patients in clinical practice and to further explore the methods of its prevention and remedies, which can help to improve the skills of placing tubes, to efficiently avoid and reduce the occurrence of complications, and to alleviate the pains and cost of patients. From August 2000 to March 2012, 3012 cases receiving PICC were reviewed. The locations of the tube tips were recorded by chest X ray and summarized for analysis. Malposition was observed in 237 cases (7.87%). The most frequently occurring site was in the jugular vein followed by the axillary vein. By taking different remedies, all the malpositioned PICCs were relocated in the superior vena cava or subclavian vein. In order to secure the safety usage of PICC, the strict rules of handling, the skill and experience of operator, and cooperation patients are necessary.
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Apelin-13 decreases lipid storage in hypertrophic adipocytes in vitro through the upregulation of AQP7 expression by the PI3K signaling pathway.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Adipocyte-secreted apelin contributes to decreased adiposity and to improved insulin resistance, but the mechanisms remain unknown. The present study aimed to assess if apelin-13 is an upstream signal regulation factor of aquaporin 7 (AQP7), a water-glycerol transporter present in the plasma membrane of adipocytes that plays a key role in the regulation of lipid accumulation.
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Anxiolytic effects of ketamine in animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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This study investigated the effectiveness of ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in alleviating the enhanced anxiety and fear response in both a mouse model of PTSD induced by inescapable electric foot shocks and a rat model of PTSD induced by a time-dependent sensitization (TDS) procedure. First, we evaluated the effect of ketamine on behavioral deficits in a mouse model of PTSD that consisted of foot shocks followed by three situational reminders. Our results showed that the aversive procedure induced several behavioral deficiencies, such as increased freezing behavior and anxiety, as well as reduced time spent in an aversive-like context, which were reversed by repeated treatment with ketamine. The effect of ketamine on behavioral changes after exposure to TDS was also investigated, and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured. The results revealed that after TDS, the rats showed a significant increase in contextual freezing and a decrease in the percentage of time spent in and numbers of entries into open arms in the elevated plus maze test. As a positive control drug, sertraline (Ser, 15 mg/kg, i.g.), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) ameliorated these behavioral deficits. These behavioral effects were mimicked by chronic ketamine treatment. Furthermore, ketamine normalized the decreased BDNF level in the hippocampus in post-TDS rats. Taken together, these results suggest that ketamine exerts a therapeutic effect on PTSD that might be at least partially mediated by an influence on BDNF signaling in the hippocampus.
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Detection of microvesicle miRNA expression in ALL subtypes and analysis of their functional roles.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Microvesicles (MVs) are the heterogeneous mixtures of vesicles. MVs released by leukemia cells constitute an important part of the leukemia microenvironment. MVs might act as important reservoirs of microRNAs (miRNAs). It is worth evaluating whether MVs possess some unique miRNA contents that are valuable in understanding the pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the miRNA expression patterns of Nalm-6-derived MVs, Jurkat-derived MVs and normal cell-derived MVs using miRNA microarrays. The potential target genes regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs were also predicted and analyzed. Results demonstrated that 182 miRNAs and 166 miRNAs were differentially expressed in Nalm-6-MVs and Jurkat-MVs, respectively. Many oncogenes, tumor suppressors and signal pathway genes were targeted by these aberrantly expressed miRNAs, which might contribute to the development of B-ALL or T-ALL. Our findings expanded the potential diagnostic markers of ALL and provided useful information for ALL pathogenesis.
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[Establishment and identification of a H-2 completely mismatched microtransplantation model of leukemia mouse].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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This study was purposed to establish and identify a H-2 completely mismatched microtransplantation model of leukemia mouse. The recipients were female BALB/c mice, while donors were male C57BL/6J mice. Recipients were inoculated intravenously with 1×10(6) of WEHI-3 cells, a cell line of myelomonocytic leukemia. Donors received 100 µg/kg G-CSF mobilization through hypodermic injection, every 12 hours, and it last 5 days. Chemotherapy regimens was MA (mitoxantrone+cytarabine), and it last 4 days. Recipients were given chemotherapy conditioning without GVHD prophylaxis after inoculation of leukemic cells for 2 days, and within 8 hours after last chemotherapy received donor mobilized spleen mononuclear cells (sMNC). The number of sMNC was (3, 6, 12) ×10(7), respectively. The early death rate, recovery level of WBC in peripheral blood and leukemia load were compared between chemotherapy and microtransplantation groups. The donor chimerism was detected by RT-PCR. From the clinical manifestation and pathological features, the GVHD in recipients was evaluated. The results showed that the early mortality in chemothearpy group was 25%, meanwhile those in the (3, 6, 12)×10(7) groups were 16.67%, 8.33%, 8.33%, respectively. The(3, 6)×10(7) groups has a stronger hematopoietic recovery capability than that in chemotherapy and 12×10(7) groups (P < 0.05) . There were more leukemic cells in chemotherapy mice than that in microtransplantation mice (P < 0.01) , and (12, 6)×10(7) groups had lower leukemia load than that in 3×10(7) group (P < 0.05) . No signs of GVHD were observed in microtransplantation mice. The donor microchimerism could be discovered at eraly 2 weeks after donor cell transfusion. It is concluded that a H-2 completely mismatched microtransplantation model of leukemia mouse has been successfully established, and it will provide a experimental base for studying microtransplantation in clinic.
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Caspase-1 inhibition alleviates acute renal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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To assess the effect of inhibition of caspase-1 on acute renal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).
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Production of novel "functional oil" rich in diglycerides and phytosterol esters with "one-pot" enzymatic transesterification.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Diglycerides and phytosterol esters are two important functional lipids. Phytosterol esters mixed with dietary diglyceride could not only influence body weight but also prevent or reverse insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. In this study, a kind of novel "functional oil" rich in both diglycerides and phytosterol esters was prepared with "one-pot" enzymatic transesterification. First, lipase AYS (Candida rugosa) was immobilized on the porous cross-linked polystyrene resin beads (NKA) via hydrophobic interaction. The resulting immobilized AYS showed much better transesterification activity and thermal stability to freeways. On the basis of the excellent biocatalyst prepared, a method for high-efficiency enzymatic esterification of phytosterols with different triglycerides to produce corresponding functional oils rich in both diglycerides and phytosterol esters was developed. Four functional oils rich in both diglycerides and phytosterol esters with conversions >92.1% and controllable fatty acid composition were obtained under the optimized conditions: 80 mmol/L phytosterols, 160 mmol/L triglycerides, and 25 mg/mL AYS@NKA at 180 rpm and 50 °C for 12 h in hexane. The prepared functional oil possessed low acid value (?1.0 mgKOH/g), peroxide value (?2.1 mmol/kg), and conjugated diene value (?1.96 mmol/kg) and high diglyceride and phytosterol ester contents (?10.4 and ?20.2%, respectively). All of the characteristics favored the wide application of the functional oil in different fields of functional food.
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LY294002 suppresses the malignant phenotype and sensitizes osteosarcoma cells to pirarubicin chemotherapy.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Pirarubicin is frequently used in chemotherapy against tumors. However, clinical use is severely limited by the development of progressive dose-dependent cardiomyopathy and acquired drug resistance. LY294002 is a commonly used pharmacologic inhibitor, which selectively inhibits the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT nexus. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined inhibitory effect of LY294002 and pirarubicin on human osteosarcoma (OS) cells in vitro. The inhibitory effect of LY294002 plus pirarubicin on U2-OS and MG-63 OS cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion was investigated by cell proliferation, wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. The results revealed that LY294002 and pirarubicin synergistically induced apoptosis, and inhibited the growth, migration and invasion of OS cells. This indicates that LY294002 enhanced the effects of pirarubicin on OS in vitro. LY294002 combined with pirarubicin may thus be a future therapeutic strategy in OS.
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Sarcocystis eothenomysi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the large oriental vole Eothenomys miletus (Thomas) (Cricetidae: Microtinae) from Anning, China.
Syst. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Fifty-six oriental voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas), were collected in Anning prefecture of Yunnan Province (China) between March 2012 and December 2013 and examined for the presence of sarcocysts. Sarcosysts of a new species, Sarcocystis eothenomysi n. sp., were found in 14 out of 56 E. miletus (25%); they possessed a striated cyst wall, c.1-2 ?m thick. Under transmission electron microscopy the cysts of S. eothenomysi exhibited numerous small, irregular protrusions, which may appear T-shaped in some sections. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene sequences indicated that S. eothenomysi shares closest affinity with those species of Sarcocystis Lankester, 1982, which use cobra or viperid snakes as definitive hosts. We therefore, hypothesise that a venomous snake may serve as the definitive host for S. eothenomysi. This is the first species of Sarcocystis reported from Eothenomys spp.
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[Risk factors analysis of cytomegalovirus infection after nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and CMV disease after nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(NST) and develop a rational strategy for the diagnosis, monitoring and preemptive treatment of CMV infection. The Clinical data of 80 patients undergoing NST from November 2009 to November 2012 in the hospital 307 were retrospectively analyzed. The cytomegalovirus load in peripheral blood of patients was detected by using RT-PCR. The results indicated that the incidence of CMV infection was 77.5% (62/80), and the median time for the positive CMV-DNA firstly detected by RT-PCR was day 35 (17-133) after NST. The total of 100-day cumulative incidence of CMV disease was 11.3%(9/80) after early preemptive therapy. Both univariate and multivariate analysis showed thymoglobulin (ATG) used in preconditioning regimen, other herpesvirus infection and fungal infection in medical history before NST were the risk factors of CMV infection after NST.Univariate analysis revealed that CMV viremia and ATG used in preconditioning regimen were the risk factors for CMV disease, while the same result was not found in the multivariate analysis.The incidence of CMV infection in patients with II-IV grade of aGVHD was 91.3%,while the incidence of CMV infection in patients with 0-1 grade of aGVHD was 71.9% (P = 0.06), it seems that II-IV grade of aGVHD was not the risk factor of CMV infection for NST. It is concluded that the ATG used in preconditioning regimen may increase the incidence of both CMV infection and CMV disease after NST. CMV infection easily accompanies by other herpesvirus infection and fungal infection.Therefore other herpesvirus infection and fungal infection should be attentively monitored and prevented after trans-plantation.
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The existence and role of microchimerism after microtransplantion.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To study microchimerism's role and function after microtransplantation and identify novel genetic markers for microchimerism detection.
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tassel-less1 encodes a boron channel protein required for inflorescence development in maize.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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tassel-less1 (tls1) is a classical maize (Zea mays) inflorescence mutant. Homozygous mutant plants have no tassels or very small tassels, and ear development is also impaired. Using a positional cloning approach, ZmNIP3;1 (a NOD26-like intrinsic protein) was identified as the candidate gene for tls1. The ZmNIP3;1 gene is completely deleted in the tls1 mutant genome. Two Mutator-insertional TUSC alleles of ZmNIP3;1 exhibited tls1-like phenotypes, and allelism tests confirmed that the tls1 gene encodes ZmNIP3;1. Transgenic plants with an RNA interference (RNAi) construct to down-regulate ZmNIP3;1 also showed tls1-like phenotypes, further demonstrating that TLS1 is ZmNIP3;1. Sequence analysis suggests that ZmNIP3;1 is a boron channel protein. Foliar application of boron could rescue the tls1 phenotypes and restore the normal tassel and ear development. Gene expression analysis indicated that in comparison with that of the wild type or tls1 plants treated with boron, the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase or the development of the floral meristem is impaired in the shoot apical meristem of the tls1 mutant plants. It is concluded that the tls1 mutant phenotypes are caused by impaired boron transport, and boron is essential for inflorescence development in maize.
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Decreased activated protein C levels are inversely associated with the urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Activated protein C (APC) plays a vital renoprotective role against diabetic nephropathy in STZ-induced diabetic mice by inhibiting endothelial cell and podocyte apoptosis. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the degree of albuminuria and APC levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Synthesis, crystal structure, spectra and quantum chemical study on 1-phenyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2-thienyl)-2-pyrazoline.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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1-Phenyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2-thienyl)-2-pyrazoline was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction. UV-Vis spectra and fluorescence spectra were measured. Density functional theory calculations on the structure of the title compound were performed at the B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory. NPA atomic charge distributions indicate that, although the S atom in the thienyl ring loses coordination capacity, the title compound still may be used as a potential multi-dentate ligand to coordinate with metallic ions. The calculation of the second order optical nonlinearity was carried out. Natural bond orbital analyses indicate that the electronic absorption bands are mainly derived from the contribution of n??* and ???* transitions. Fluorescence spectra determination shows that the title compound is a potential orange-light emitting material.
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Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion of macaques triggers a strong innate immune response.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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To investigate inflammatory injury in the intestinal mucosa after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR) with Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immunity.
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Stable genetic alterations of ?-catenin and ROR2 regulate the Wnt pathway, affect the fate of MSCs.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The Wnt pathways have been shown to be critical for the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro, but their roles in MSCs in vivo remain poorly characterized due to the lack of stable alterations in their signaling. In the present study, we constructed long-term and stable mMSCs lines with activated and inactivated ?-catenin (the key molecule of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway) or ROR2 (the key molecule of the noncanonical Wnt5a/ROR2 signaling pathway) modifications with lentiviral vectors. We found that the transduction efficiencies mediated by the lentiviral vectors were 92.61-97.04% and were maintained over 20 passages of mMSCs. Transfection by lentiviral vectors not only regulated the mRNA and protein expression of ?-catenin or ROR2 but also regulated nuclear ?-catenin accumulation or the Wnt5a/JNK and Wnt5a/PKC pathways belonging to the canonical Wnt and noncanonical Wnt5a/ROR2 pathways, respectively. ?-Catenin or ROR2 gene overexpression promoted mMSC proliferation, migration and differentiation into osteoblasts, while inhibiting the adipogenic differentiation of mMSCs. In contrast, inactivation of the ?-catenin or ROR2 genes resulted in the opposite effects. Therefore, these results confirm that lentiviral vector transduction can facilitate sustained and efficient gene modification of the Wnt pathway in mMSCs. This study provides a method to investigate the effects of the Wnt pathway on the fate of mMSCs in vivo and for the further improvement of MSC-based therapies.
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Simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin in Swertia mussotii Franch by capillary zone electrophoresis with running buffer modifier.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV detection was developed for the determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin. and then for the first time successfully applied to the analysis of four analytes in Swertia mussotii Franch and its preparations. Various factors affecting the CZE procedure were investigated and optimized, and the optimal conditions were: 50?×?10(-3) ?mol/L borate-phosphate buffer (pH?9.5) with 5.0?×?10(-3) ?mol/L ?-cyclodextrin, 15?kV separation voltage, 20?°C column temperature, 250?nm detection wavelength and 5?s electrokinetic injection time (voltage 20?psi). Under the conditions, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin could be determined within the test ranges with a good correlation coefficient (r(2) ?>?0.9991). The limits of detection for conditions, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin were 0.3415, 0.2003, 0.0062 and 0.2538?µg/mL, respectively, and the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were no more than 4.72%. This procedure provided a convenient, sensitive and accurate method for simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin in S. mussotii Franch. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Preparation, release and pharmacokinetics of a risperidone elementary osmotic pump system.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Abstract Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of risperidone elementary osmotic pump (RIS-EOP) formulations were investigated. A method for the preparation of RIS-EOP tablets was developed by modulating RIS solubility with citric acid. The influence of osmotic agents and the compositions of semipermeable membrane on drug release profiles was evaluated. The formulation of RIS-EOP was optimized by orthogonal design. The in vitro release profile of the optimum formulation achieved to deliver RIS at an approximate zero-order up to 12?h. The pharmacokinetic profiles of RIS-EOP were evaluated compared with immediate release tablets in beagle dogs. The mean tmax and mean residence time of RIS-EOP for RIS and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, were remarkably longer, compared with immediate release tablets. These results corroborated prolonged release of RIS from EOP formulations. Moreover, drug plasma levels with lower fluctuations could be achieved with RIS-EOP tablets. These results suggested that increasing drug solubility by adding or reacting with alkali/acid might be used for the preparation of EOP tablets of certain poorly water-soluble drugs.
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Increased expression of chymase in inflammatory polyps in elderly patients with functional bowel disorder.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Chymase, a chymotrypsin-like protease, is a non-angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) angiotensin II (Ang II)-generating enzyme. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chymase activity was increased in inflammatory polyps of elderly patients with functional bowel disorder (FBD). This study enrolled 45 elderly patients with FBD and 44 healthy control individuals. Expression of chymase in intestinal mucosa was assessed using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC showed an increased number of chymase-positive mast cells in inflammatory polyps than in healthy intestinal mucosa (P<0.05). Compared with healthy mucosa, expression of chymase at the mRNA and protein level was significantly higher in inflammatory polyps. The frequencies of the chymase GG genotype and the G allele type were higher in the intestinal mucosa of patients with FBD compared with healthy controls (66.67 versus 40.91%, 81.11 versus 63.63%, both P<0.05). The frequency of the G allele type in the intestinal mucosa of the C4 subgroup of FBD was higher than that in the control group. However, in other FBD subgroups, there was no difference between patients and controls. Based on the fact that enhanced chymase expression was observed in inflammatory polyps of elderly patients with FBD relative to those in healthy controls, it was concluded that chymase has a significant role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory polyps in elderly patients with FBD.
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Reinforcement of denture base PMMA with ZrO(2) nanotubes.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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In the research described, ZrO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization. The morphologies, crystal structure, etc. were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). ZrO2 nanotubes were pre-stirred with the denture base PMMA powder by a mechanical blender and mixed with MMA liquid to fabricate reinforced composites. The composites were tested by an electromechanical universal testing machine to study the influences of contents and surface-treatment effect on the reinforcement. The ZrO2 nanoparticles were also investigated for comparative purposes. Results indicated that ZrO2 nanotubes had a better reinforcement effect than ZrO2 nanoparticles, and surface-treatment would lower the reinforcement effect of the ZrO2 nanotubes which itself was significantly different from that of the ZrO2 nanoparticles. The flexural strength of the composite was maximised when 2.0wt% untreated ZrO2 nanotubes were added.
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Preparation, characterization, and pharmacodynamics of thermosensitive liposomes containing docetaxel.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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A novel thermosensitive liposome (TL) containing docetaxel (DTX) was designed to enhance DTX-targeted delivery and antitumor effect. TL loading DTX (DTX-TL) were prepared by thin film hydration. The mean particle size of the liposomes was about 100 nm, and the drug entrapment efficiency was more than 95%. The phase transition temperature of liposomes was about 42 °C. In vitro drug release showed that drug released at 37 °C was obviously less than that at 42 °C. For in vivo experiments, the human breast tumor model was established by subcutaneous xenotransplantation on nude mice; liposomes and injection containing DTX were injected i.v. in nude mice, followed by exposure of the tumors to hyperthermia (HT) for 30 min after administration. The tumor inhibition ratio of DTX-TL group was significantly higher than the normal injection group. Combining TL with HT enhanced the delivery of DTX and thereby its antitumor effects. The liposomes reported in this paper could potentially produce viable clinical strategies for improved targeting and delivery of DTX for the treatment of breast cancer.
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Phylogeny and divergence times of gymnosperms inferred from single-copy nuclear genes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Phylogenetic reconstruction is fundamental to study evolutionary biology and historical biogeography. However, there was not a molecular phylogeny of gymnosperms represented by extensive sampling at the genus level, and most published phylogenies of this group were constructed based on cytoplasmic DNA markers and/or the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal DNA. In this study, we use LFY and NLY, two single-copy nuclear genes that originated from an ancient gene duplication in the ancestor of seed plants, to reconstruct the phylogeny and estimate divergence times of gymnosperms based on a complete sampling of extant genera. The results indicate that the combined LFY and NLY coding sequences can resolve interfamilial relationships of gymnosperms and intergeneric relationships of most families. Moreover, the addition of intron sequences can improve the resolution in Podocarpaceae but not in cycads, although divergence times of the cycad genera are similar to or longer than those of the Podocarpaceae genera. Our study strongly supports cycads as the basal-most lineage of gymnosperms rather than sister to Ginkgoaceae, and a sister relationship between Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae and between Cephalotaxaceae-Taxaceae and Cupressaceae. In addition, intergeneric relationships of some families that were controversial, and the relationships between Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae and between conifers and Gnetales are discussed based on the nuclear gene evidence. The molecular dating analysis suggests that drastic extinctions occurred in the early evolution of gymnosperms, and extant coniferous genera in the Northern Hemisphere are older than those in the Southern Hemisphere on average. This study provides an evolutionary framework for future studies on gymnosperms.
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Let-7g reverses malignant phenotype of osteosarcoma cells by targeting Aurora-B.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Accumulating studies revealed that the expression levels of several miRNAs are up or down-regulated in osteosarcoma (OS). The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance and molecular of the let-7g in OS cells. The expression levels of let-7g was significantly down-regulated in OS cell lines U2-OS and HOS cell compared to osteoblast cell lines HOB cell. Moreover, bioinformatic prediction suggested that Aurora-B, which is overexpressed and functions as an oncogene in OS cells, is a putative target gene of let-7g. Using mRNA and protein expression analysis and luciferase assays, we further identified let-7g directly regulated Aurora-B expression in OS cells. Functional investigation revealed both restoration of let-7g and silencing Aurora-B induce cell apoptosis and suppressed cell viability, migratory and invasive ability in OS cells. Finally, we found that silencing Aurora-B in OS cells could partly dampen anti-let-7g mediated tumor promotion. Thus, our findings suggested that let-7g inhibits OS cell malignant phenotype at least partly through targeting Aurora-B. Targeting of let-7g and Aurora-B may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating OS.
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High expression of neuro-oncological ventral antigen 1 correlates with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Neuro-oncological ventral antigen 1 (Nova1) is a neuron-specific RNA-binding protein in human paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia accompanying with malignant tumors, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. In this study, we found that overexpressed intratumoral Nova1 was associated with poor survival rate and increased recurrence rate of HCC, especially early recurrence, and was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival rate and tumor recurrence. HCC cell lines over-expressing Nova1 exhibited greater potentials in cell proliferation, invasion and migration, while knockdown of Nova1 had the opposite effects. All these findings indicate that Nova1 may act as a prognostic marker for poor outcome and high recurrence in HCC.
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[Effects of gastric versus small bowel feeding on hospital acquired pneumonia in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To explore whether or not small bowel feeding can reduce the incidence of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP).
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[Clinical investigation of refractory lymphoma with HLA-mismatched stem-cell microtransplantation].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To explore the efficacy and safety of HLA-mismatched stem-cell microtransplantation in patients with refractory lymphoma.
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[The study of interfering of endogenous VEGF-C genes and the protein expression gastric cancer cell with siRNA technique].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To explore the interfering effects of siRNA on endogenous VEGF-C genes and the protein expression in gastric cancer cells.
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Maize ARGOS1 (ZAR1) transgenic alleles increase hybrid maize yield.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Crop improvement for yield and drought tolerance is challenging due to the complex genetic nature of these traits and environmental dependencies. This study reports that transgenic over-expression of Zea mays AR GOS1 (ZAR1) enhanced maize organ growth, grain yield, and drought-stress tolerance. The ZAR1 transgene exhibited environmental interactions, with yield increase under Temperate Dry and yield reduction under Temperate Humid or High Latitude environments. Native ZAR1 allele variation associated with drought-stress tolerance. Two founder alleles identified in the mid-maturity germplasm of North America now predominate in Pioneers modern breeding programme, and have distinct proteins, promoters and expression patterns. These two major alleles show heterotic group partitioning, with one predominant in Pioneers female and the other in the male heterotic groups, respectively. These two alleles also associate with favourable crop performance when heterozygous. Allele-specific transgene testing showed that, of the two alleles discussed here, each allele differed in their impact on yield and environmental interactions. Moreover, when transgenically stacked together the allelic pair showed yield and environmental performance advantages over either single allele, resembling heterosis effects. This work demonstrates differences in transgenic efficacy of native alleles and the differences reflect their association with hybrid breeding performance.
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[Assessment of bioaccessibility of PAHs in microbial degradation process using solid phase micro extraction and solid phase extraction].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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In order to demonstrate the variation of bioaccessibility of PAHIs in microbial degradation process, PAH contaminated coking plant soil was remediated using microbial agent, and the bioaccessibility of PAHs was assessed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and solid phase extraction (SPE), difference and correlation between PAH degradation and PAH bioaccessbility variation were also analyzed. Results showed that the dominant PAHs in the coking plant soil and its pore water were low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, and 68.3% of total PAH was degraded by the microbial agent, which was mainly due to the LMW PAH degradation. Decrease of PAH concentration in soil pore water was also contributed by LMW PAHs, however, individual PAH reductions in soil pore water were lower than those PAH degradations. Fast desorption fraction was calculated from Tenax-TA extraction, and those fractions for LMW PAHs decreased, while those for high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs did not change significantly. Strong correlation between PAH degraded and PAH concentration in soil pore water or fast desorption fraction of Tenax-TA extraction was observed. The results above demonstrated that PAH concentration in soil pore water and fast desorption fraction of Tenax-TA extraction can be used to predict PAH degradation in soil, which provided some theoretical basis for the remediation of PAH contaminated soil from coking plant.
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[Inhibitory effects of gamma secretase inhibitor on human multiple myeloma xenograft mouse model].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To explore the tumor growth inhibition of gamma secretase inhibitor MRK003 on human multiple myeloma xenograft mice by inhibition of AKT and Notch1 expression.
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A novel subcutaneous infusion delivery system based on osmotic pump: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Abstract An economical, convenient portable drug delivery system combining osmotic pump with subcutaneous infusion was developed, which was composed of three primary components: water chamber, osmotic pump chamber and support base. Ceftriaxone sodium (CRO) was selected as the model drug and osmotic pump tablets were prepared. The influence of osmotic agents on drug release profiles was evaluated. As the adjustment made by the osmotic agents was limited, the compositions of semipermeable membrane were investigated to determine significant associations of factors based on orthogonal design. The in vitro release profiles of the optimum formulation achieved to the predetermined value (15?±?3?min for the initial release time Ti and 5.75?±?0.25?h for the extent release time Te). The pharmacokinetic profiles of this drug delivery system were evaluated in Beagle dogs. In vivo results demonstrated that the osmotic pump subcutaneous infusion administration was equivalent to intravenous injection administration in terms of bioavailability. Moreover, constant drug plasma levels with minimized fluctuations could be achieved with this osmotic pump subcutaneous infusion system, compared with intravenous injection.
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Lapatinib alters the malignant phenotype of osteosarcoma cells via downregulation of the activity of the HER2-PI3K/AKT-FASN axis in vitro.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Lapatinib, an inhibitor of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) phosphorylation, has been reported to inhibit several types of tumors such as HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. However, the effect of lapatinib on the malignant phenotype of human osteosarcoma (OS) cells and the potential molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the effect of lapatinib on OS, two OS cell lines, U2-OS and MG-63, were utilized in the present study. Various concentrations of lapatinib were used to treat OS cells for different time durations. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Wound healing and Transwell invasion assays were performed to examine the migratory and invasive abilities of the cells. To investigate the possible molecular mechanisms involved, the expression of p-HER2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-AKT, AKT and fatty acid synthase (FASN) protein was detected by western blotting. MTT assays showed that lapatinib inhibited the proliferation of U2-OS and MG-63 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the rate of colony formation of the lapatinib-treated cells was significantly lower when compared to those cells not treated with lapatinib in both cell lines. FCM assay revealed a significantly higher apoptotic rate in the lapatinib-treated OS cells. Wound healing and Transwell invasion assays revealed that the migratory and invasive abilities of OS cells were significantly inhibited by lapatinib (P<0.05). Western blotting showed that lapatinib suppressed the activity of HER2-PI3K/AKT-FASN in U2-OS and MG-63 cells in vitro. These results suggest that lapatinib may alter the malignant phenotype of OS cells via downregulation of the activity of the HER2-PI3K/AKT-FASN signaling pathway in vitro. Thus, lapatinib may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
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Interaction between 14-3-3? and PrP influences the dimerization of 14-3-3 and fibrillization of PrP106-126.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Proteins of the 14-3-3 family are universal participate in multiple cellular processes. However, their exact role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases remains unclear. In this study, we proposed that human PrP was able to form molecular complex with 14-3-3?. The domains responsible for the interactions between PrP and 14-3-3? were mapped at the segments of amino acid (aa) residues 106-126 within PrP and aa 1-38 within 14-3-3?. Homology modeling revealed that the key aa residues for molecular interaction were D22 and D23 in 14-3-3? as well as K110 in PrP. Mutations in these aa residues inhibited the interaction between the two proteins in vitro. Our results also showed that recombinant PrP encouraged 14-3-3? dimer formation, whereas PrP106-126 peptide inhibited it. Recombinant 14-3-3? disaggregated the mature PrP106-126 fibrils in vitro. Moreover, the PrP-14-3-3 protein complexes were observed in the brain tissues of normal and scrapie agent 263K infected hamsters. Colocalization of PrP and 14-3-3 was seen in the cytoplasm of human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, as well as human cervical cancer cell line HeLa transiently expressing full-length human PrP. Our current data suggest the neuroprotection of PrPC and neuron damage caused by PrPSc may be associated with their functions of 14-3-3 dimerization regulation.
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Positive end expiratory pressure titrated by transpulmonary pressure improved oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with intra-abdominal hypertension.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is common in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and when resulting in decrease of chest wall compliance will weaken the effect of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). We investigated the effect of PEEP titrated by transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) on oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in ARDS patients with IAH compared with PEEP titrated by ARDSnet protocol.
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Simultaneous determination of phenylethanoid glycosides and aglycones by capillary zone electrophoresis with running buffer modifier.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Although the separation efficiency of capillary electrophoresis (CE) is much higher than that of other chromatographic methods, it is sometimes difficult to adequately separate the complex ingredients in biological samples. This article describes how one effective and simple way to develop the separation efficiency in CE is to add some modifiers to the running buffer. The suitable running buffer modifier ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) was explored to fast and completely separate four phenylethanoid glycosides and aglycones (homovanillyl alcohol, hydroxytyrosol, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, and caffeic acid) in Lamiophlomis rotata (Lr) and Cistanche by capillary zone electrophoresis with ultraviolet (UV) detection. It was found that when ?-CD was used as running buffer modifier, a baseline separation of the four analytes could be accomplished in less than 20min and the detection limits were as low as 10(-3)mgL(-1). Other factors affecting the CE separation, such as working potential, pH value and ionic strength of running buffer, separation voltage, and sample injection time, were investigated extensively. Under the optimal conditions, a successful practical application on the determination of Lr and Cistanche samples confirmed the validity and practicability of this method.
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4-Phenylbutyric acid attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in diabetes mellitus (DM), but the association between DM and ERS is unknown. We have previously shown that streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats is characterized by increased levels of ERS markers. Here, we tested whether the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) ameliorated ERS-associated apoptosis in pancreatic ?-cells in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control group, DM group, and DM model plus 4-PBA treatment group (4-PBA group). DM model rats were induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, and 4-PBA was administered daily by gavage at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight for 20 days. ?-cell apoptosis was higher in the DM group than in the control group. Moreover, the expression of caspase-3, Bax, and the ERS indicators Bip and CHOP was markedly elevated in the pancreas of rats in the DM group, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 was lower in these rats (P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration in diabetic rats gradually decreased with 4-PBA treatment but remained higher at the end of the experiment compared to the concentration in control rats. Consistent with this, 4-PBA raised the fasting insulin level in diabetic rats; it also suppressed the expression of caspase-3, Bax, and ERS indicators but enhanced the expression of Bcl-2. In conclusion, 4-PBA protects pancreatic ?-cells from apoptosis in STZ-induced diabetes by attenuating the severity of ERS.
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Positive feedback regulation between Akt phosphorylation and fatty acid synthase expression in osteosarcoma.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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The activation of PI3K/Akt and the overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) are frequently observed in human osteosarcoma (OS). In the present study, in order to investigate the possible association between the phosphorylation of Akt and FASN expression, immunohistochemical staining was conducted on 24 OS specimens from patients with pulmonary metastasis, which revealed a significant positive correlation between phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and the expression of FASN (R=0.469, P=0.04). To investigate the association between p-Akt and FASN in vitro, human U2-OS OS cells were treated with FASN-specific RNAi plasmid or LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3k/Akt). The mRNA levels of Akt and FASN were measured by real-time PCR. Western blot analysis was also performed to detect the protein experession of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt and FASN. The results demonstrated that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway modulates FASN expression; the inhibition of FASN resulted in the downregulation of p-Akt in the U2-OS cells. Furthermore, the effects induced by the inhibition of the activity of p-Akt or FASN on the malignant phenotype of U2-OS cells were investigated, demonstrating that the malignant phenotype was inhibited by suppressing the activity of PI3K/Akt or FASN in the U2-OS cells. The findings from our study suggest the existence of a positive feedback regulation between Akt phosphorylation and FASN expression and that this loop may play an important role in the malignant phenotype of OS cells.
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Severe acute radiation syndrome: treatment of a lethally 60Co-source irradiated accident victim in China with HLA-mismatched peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and mesenchymal stem cells.
J. Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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This is a case report of a 32-year-old man exposed to a total body dose of 14.5 Gy ?-radiation in a lethal (60)Co-source irradiation accident in 2008 in China. Frequent nausea, vomiting and marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were observed from 30 min to 45 h after exposure. HLA-mismatched peripheral blood stem cell transplantation combined with infusion of mesenchymal stem cells was used at Day 7. Rapid hematopoietic recovery, stable donor engraftment and healing of radioactive skin ulceration were achieved during Days 18-36. The patient finally developed intestinal obstruction and died of multi-organ failure on Day 62, although intestinal obstruction was successfully released by emergency bowel resection.
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[The value of nitrogen washout/washin method in assessing alveolar recruitment volume in acute lung injury patients].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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To evaluate the precision and feasibility of nitrogen washout/washin method in assessing lung recruitment of acute lung injury (ALI) patients.
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Changes in arterial blood pressure induced by passive leg raising predict hypotension during the induction of sedation in critically ill patients without severe cardiac dysfunction.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Hypotension due to the induction of sedation with dexmedetomidine infusion may be harmful in critically ill patients. Changes in pulse pressure induced by the passive leg raising test (PLR-?PP) as marker of fluid responsiveness, assessed prior to sedation, may predict hemodynamic changes. The present study was to investigate the power of the PLR test in critically ill patients in predicting hypotension induced by the induction of dexmedetomidine sedation.
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[Different changes of serum cytokines following HLA-identical and HLA haploidentical non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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This study was aimed to investigate the expression difference of serum cytokines in 20 patients receiving HLA-identical nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (iNAHSCT) and HLA-haploidentical nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hiNAHSCT). IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, ?-IFN and IL-17 were detected by flow cytometric bead array before and on week 1, 2, 4 after transplantation respectively. The results showed that the IL-2 level was found to be up-regulated at week 1 and 2 after transplantation in iNAHSCT group and in hiNAHSCT group respectively, but there was no difference between these two groups (P > 0.05). The ?-IFN levels was up-regulated at week 4 after transplantation in above-mentioned two groups, but no difference was found between these two groups. The IL-4 level increased at week 2 and 1 after transplantation in iNAHSCT and hiNAHCT groups respectively, but the IL-4 level in iNAHSCT group was higher than that in hiNAHSCT group. The IL-6 level rose at week 1 and 2 after transplant in above mentioned groups respectively, and reached to peak level at week 4 after transplantation, but IL-6 level in hiNAHSCT was higher than that in iNAHSCT group (P < 0.02). The IL-10 level was up-regulated at week 1 and 2 in iNAHSCT and hiNAHSCT groups respectively, but the IL-10 level in iNAHSC was higher than that in hiNAHSCT group. The TNF-? level was up-regulated at week 1 in hiNAHSCT group, but at week 2 in iNAHSCT group after transplantation. The TNF-? level in hiNHASCT group was higher than that in iNAHSCT group (P < 0.01). The IL-17 level was up-regulated at week 1 and week 4 after transplantation in hiNAHSCT and iNAHSCT groups respectively, the IL-17 level in hiNAHSCT group was high as compared with that in iNAHSCT group. It is concluded that the serum cytokine levels are obviously up-regulated in iNAHSCT and hiNHASCT groups, and reach to peak level at week 4 after transplantation. The IL-6, TNF-? and IL-17 level up-regulated significantly in hiNAHSCT group, but the IL-4 and IL-10 level up-regulated significantly in iNAHSCT.
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[Haploidentical nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for treatment of refractory or relapsed leukemia: long-term follow-up].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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To observe the therapeutic effect and major complications of haploidentical nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (NST) for refractory or relapsed leukemia.
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[Clinical research of timing of application of antibiotics in septic shock of pediatric patients].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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To investigate the value of timing of antibiotics in pediatric septic shock.
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[Changes of Th1/Th2/Th17 in patients received non-myeloablative haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation detected by flow cytometric bead array].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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This study was purposed to investigate the changes of Th1/Th2/Th17 in patients received non-myeloblastic haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (NAHSCT). The levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-? and IFN-?, as well as IL-17 level were determined by flow cytometric bead array (CBA) in samples from 18 patients underwent allo-peripheral NAHSCT at different time points before and after transplantation. The results showed that all cytokines changed obviously after transplantation, and their serum levels were higher than that before transplantation. The expression levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-17 changed early, and their obviously up-regulation was found after transplantation. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-? changed significantly, and were high as compared with that before transplantation. The change of INF-? serum level was observed late, its rising occurred at week 4 after transplantation. The expression of all cytokines kept increasing during 4 weeks after transplantation and peaked at week 4. It is concluded that the serum levels of all cytokines from the patients after NAHSCT increased significantly, in which the levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-17 increased early, but the level of INF-? changed late. The detection of cytokines is helpful for deep understanding the pathophysiologic mechanism of transplant-related complications.
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[Abnormality of blood coagulation indexes in patients with de novo acute leukemia and its clinical significance].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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To explore hemorrhage risk and the clinical significance of abnormal change of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen (FIB), plasma thrombin time (TT) and d-dimer (D-D) in de novo acute leukemia (except for APL), the different bleeding manifestations of 114 cases of de novo acute leukemia with different coagulation indexes were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between these blood coagulation indexes and the possible correlative clinical characteristics were analysed, including age, sex, type of acute leukemia, initial white blood cell(WBC) and platelet(Plt) count, the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow and cytogenetic abnormality of patients at diagnosis. The results indicated that the incidence of abnormal blood coagulation was as high as 78.1% for de novo AL patients. These patients with 5 normal blood coagulation indexes may have mild bleeding manifestation, but the more abnormal indexes, the more severe bleeding. Both PT and D-D were sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Incidence of abnormal blood coagulation significantly correlates with the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow (?(2) = 4.184, OR = 1.021, P < 0.05) and more with D-D (P < 0.01), while age, sex, type of AL, WBC count, Plt count and abnormality of cytogenetics did not correlate with abnormal blood coagulation. It is concluded that the coagulation and fibrinolysis are abnormal in most patients with de novo acute leukemia. More abnormal indexes indicate more severe bleeding, and both PT and D-D are sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Higher proportion of blast cells in bone marrow predicts higher incidence of abnormal blood clotting. Acute leukemia with elderly age, high white blood cell count and adverse cytogenetics do not predict severer abnormal blood clotting. Detection of PT, APTT, TT, FIB, and D-D may help to judge whether the patients are in a state of hypercoagulability or disseminated intravenous coagulation, which will provide experiment evidences for early intervention and medication.
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Activation of canonical wnt pathway promotes differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs into type II alveolar epithelial cells, confers resistance to oxidative stress, and promotes their migration to injured lung tissue in vitro.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into type II alveolar epithelial (AT II) cells in vivo and in vitro, is critical for reepithelization and recovery in acute lung injury (ALI), but the mechanisms responsible for differentiation are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the canonical wnt pathway in the differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (mMSCs) into AT II cells. Using a modified co-culture system with murine lung epithelial-12 (MLE-12) cells and small airway growth media (SAGM) to efficiently drive mMSCs differentiation, we found that GSK 3? and ?-catenin in the canonical wnt pathway were up-regulated during differentiation. The levels of surfactant protein (SP) C, SPB, and SPD, the specific markers of AT II cells, correspondingly increased in mMSCs when Wnt3a or LiCl was added to the co-culture system to activate wnt/?-catenin signaling. The expression of these factors was depressed to some extent by inhibiting the pathway with the addition of DKK 1. The differentiation rate of mMSCs also depends on their abilities to accumulate and survive in inflammatory tissue. Our results suggested that the activation of wnt/?-catenin signaling promoted mMSCs migration towards ALI mouse-derived lung tissue in a Transwell assay, and ameliorated the cell death and the reduction of Bcl-2/Bax induced by H(2) O(2), which simultaneously caused reduced GSK 3? and ?-catenin in mMSCs. These data supports a potential mechanism for the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells involving canonical wnt pathway activation, which may be significant to their application in ALI.
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Differential expression of two novel odorant receptors in the locust (Locusta migratoria).
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Olfaction in animals is important for host localization, mating and reproduction in heterogeneous chemical environments. Studying the molecular basis of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) systems can elucidate the evolution of olfaction and associated behaviours. Odorant receptors (ORs) in insects have been identified, particularly in the holometabolous model Drosophila, and some of them have been functionally studied. However, ORs in the locust-a hemimetabolous model insect and the most important insect crop pest-have not yet been identified, hindering our understanding of locust olfaction. Here, we report for the first time four putative ORs in Locusta migratoria: LmigOR1, LmigOR2, LmigOR3 and LmigOR4.
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The role of Homer 1a in increasing locomotor activity and non-selective attention, and impairing learning and memory abilities.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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The current study aimed to investigate the possible role of Homer 1a in the etiology and pathogenesis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We divided 32 rats into four groups. The rats in the RNAi-MPH group were given the lentiviral vector containing Homer 1a-specific miRNA (Homer 1a-RNAi-LV) by intracerebroventricular injection, and 7 days later they were given three daily doses of methylphenidate (MPH) by intragastric gavage. The RNAi-SAL group was given Homer 1a-RNAi-LV and saline later. The NC-MPH group was given the negative control lentiviral vector (NC-LV) and MPH later. The NC-SAL group was given NC-LV and saline later. Rats that were given Homer 1a RNAi exhibited increased locomotor activity and non-selective attention, and impaired learning and memory abilities, which is in line with the behavioral findings of animal models of ADHD. However, MPH ameliorated these abnormal behaviors. All findings indicated that Homer 1a may play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of ADHD.
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miR-22 is down-regulated in gastric cancer, and its overexpression inhibits cell migration and invasion via targeting transcription factor Sp1.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Accumulating evidence has shown that microRNAs are involved in multiple processes in cancer development and progression. Recently, miR-22 has been identified as a tumor-suppressing microRNA in many human cancers. However, the specific function of miR-22 in gastric cancer is unclear at this point. In this study, we first measured miR-22 expression level in 30 pairs of gastric cancer and matched normal tissues, two normal and six gastric cancer cell lines by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. We found that the expression of miR-22 in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines was much lower than that in normal control, respectively. Transfection of miR-22 expression plasmid could significantly inhibit the cell migration and invasion in SGC-7901 and NCL-N87 gastric cancer cell lines. Moreover, we also showed that Sp1 was negatively regulated by miR-22 at the posttranscriptional level, via a specific target site within the 3UTR by luciferase reporter assay. The expression of Sp1 was inversely correlated with miR-22 expression in gastric cancer tissues, and knockdown of Sp1 by siRNA inhibited cell malignant behaviors. Thus, our findings suggest that miR-22 acts as tumor suppressor by targeting the Sp1 gene and inhibiting gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. The findings of this study contribute to current understanding of the functions of miR-22 in gastric cancer.
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Osteopromotive activity of a novel pyrazole carboxamide derivative.
Future Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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To investigate the effect of 1-(4-(tert-butyl)benzyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (Pyr-C) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.
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Cellular mechanism underlying formaldehyde-stimulated Cl- secretion in rat airway epithelium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Recent studies suggest that formaldehyde (FA) could be synthesized endogeneously and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel might be the sensor of FA. However, the physiological significance is still unclear.
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Characterization of information-based learning benefits with submovement dynamics and muscular rhythmicity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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For skill advancement, motor variability must be optimized based on target information during practice sessions. This study investigated structural changes in kinematic variability by characterizing submovement dynamics and muscular oscillations after practice with visuomotor tracking under different target conditions. Thirty-six participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups (simple, complex, and random). Each group practiced tracking visual targets with trajectories of varying complexity. The velocity trajectory of tracking was decomposed into 1) a primary contraction spectrally identical to the target rate and 2) an intermittent submovement profile. The learning benefits and submovement dynamics were conditional upon experimental manipulation of the target information. Only the simple and complex groups improved their skills with practice. The size of the submovements was most greatly reduced by practice with the least target information (simple > complex > random). Submovement complexity changed in parallel with learning benefits, with the most remarkable increase in practice under a moderate amount of target information (complex > simple > random). In the simple and complex protocols, skill improvements were associated with a significant decline in alpha (8-12 Hz) muscular oscillation but a potentiation of gamma (35-50 Hz) muscular oscillation. However, the random group showed no significant change in tracking skill or submovement dynamics, except that alpha muscular oscillation was reduced. In conclusion, submovement and gamma muscular oscillation are biological markers of learning benefits. Effective learning with an appropriate amount of target information reduces the size of submovements. In accordance with the challenge point hypothesis, changes in submovement complexity in response to target information had an inverted-U function, pertaining to an abundant trajectory-tuning strategy with target exactness.
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Differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis: comparison of diffusion-weighted MRI with PET/CT.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Prospectively assess the performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis.
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Completion of the life cycle of Sarcocystis zuoi , a parasite from the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus.
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Transmission experiments were performed to elucidate the life cycle of Sarcocystis zuoi found in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in China. Two king rat snakes ( Elaphe carinata ) fed sarcocysts from the muscles of 4 naturally infected Norway rats shed sporocysts measuring 10.8 ± 0.7 × 8.0 ± 0.7 µm, with a prepatent period of 8-9 days. Sporocysts from the intestine of 2 experimentally infected king rat snakes were given to the laboratory Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats ( R. norvegicus ) and Kunming (KM) mice ( Mus musculus ). Microscopic sarcocysts developed in the skeletal muscles of SD rats. No sarcocysts were observed in KM mice. Characters of ultrastructure and molecule of sarcocysts from SD rats were confirmed as S. zuoi . Our results indicate that king rat snake is the definitive host of S. zuoi .
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[Determination of o-methylflavinantine in a Tibetan medicine Meconopsis quintuplinervia by HPLC].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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To develop an HPLC method for the determination of a Tibetan medicine Meconopsis quintuplinervia.
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[A 2-year follow-up results of knee arthroscopic synovectomy plus disease modifying antirheumatic drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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To evaluate the clinical efficacy of knee arthroscopic synovectomy plus disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.
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[Effects of statins on mortality in patients with infection: a systematic review].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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To review systematically the literatures regarding the effect of statins on mortality in patients with infection.
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[Study on extraction process of available components of tea].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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To investigate the optimum ethanol extraction process conditions for the available components in the tea - Catechines (CT) including Epigallo catechin gallate (EGCG) and Caffeine (CF).
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Enucleation of human erythroblasts involves non-muscle myosin IIB.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Mammalian erythroblasts undergo enucleation, a process thought to be similar to cytokinesis. Although an assemblage of actin, non-muscle myosin II, and several other proteins is crucial for proper cytokinesis, the role of non-muscle myosin II in enucleation remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of various cell-division inhibitors on cytokinesis and enucleation. For this purpose, we used human colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) and mature erythroblasts generated from purified CD34(+) cells as target cells for cytokinesis and enucleation assay, respectively. Here we show that the inhibition of myosin by blebbistatin, an inhibitor of non-muscle myosin II ATPase, blocks both cell division and enucleation, which suggests that non-muscle myosin II plays an essential role not only in cytokinesis but also in enucleation. When the function of non-muscle myosin heavy chain (NMHC) IIA or IIB was inhibited by an exogenous expression of myosin rod fragment, myosin IIA or IIB, each rod fragment blocked the proliferation of CFU-E but only the rod fragment for IIB inhibited the enucleation of mature erythroblasts. These data indicate that NMHC IIB among the isoforms is involved in the enucleation of human erythroblasts.
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[Effect of G-CSF on murine thymocyte emigration and cell cycle alteration after a sublethal dose of irradiation].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor(G-CSF) on murine thymocyte emigration and cell cycle alteration after a sublethal dose of gamma-irradiation. Female BALB/c mice were given 6.0 Gy ?-ray total body irradiation and then randomly divided into G-CSF and control groups. Mice in the G-CSF group were injected recombinant human G-CSF 100 µg/(kg·d) subcutaneously once daily for 14 consecutive days and mice in the control group were given the same volume of phosphate buffered solution. Thymocyte cycle alteration and the proportion of apoptosis cells were detected by flow cytometry within 72 hours after irradiation. Real-time PCR was used for detection and quantitation of murine T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjTREC) of the thymic cells at 30 and 60 day after the irradiation. The results showed that at 6 hour after irradiation G-CSF could significantly increase the thymic cells in G(0)/G(1) phase, G-CSF vs control: (82.0 ± 5.0)% vs (75.9 ± 2.8)% (p < 0.05), and decrease the thymic cells in S phase, G-CSF vs control: (10.2 ± 4.8)% vs (15.7 ± 2.3)% (p < 0.05), but G-CSF seemed have no evident effects on the percentage of thymic cells in G(2)/M phase. G-CSF could also protect thymocytes from apoptosis at 6 hour and 12 hour after irradiation the percentages of apoptosis cells in G-CSF group were (11.5 ± 2.4)% and (15.5 ± 3.3)%, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of the control group (16.5 ± 2.2)% and (22.6 ± 0.7)%, respectively (p < 0.05). The sjTREC copy amount was conspicuously higher in G-CSF group than that in the control at 30 day after irradiation (p < 0.01), but the preponderance disappeared 60 days later. It is concluded that G-CSF has a positive effect on the thymic cell cycle alteration to protect thymocytes from apoptosis and enhance the recent thymocyte emigration, which may contribute to the central immune reconstitution after irradiation.
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5-tert-Butyl 3-ethyl 1-isopropyl-4,5,6,7-tetra-hydro-1H-pyrazolo-[4,3-c]pyridine-3,5-dicarboxyl-ate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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In the title compound, C(17)H(27)N(3)O(4), the six-membered ring adopts a half-chair conformation with the N atom and the adjacent methyl-ene C atom displaced by -0.391?(2) and 0.358?(2)?Å, respectively, from the plane of the other four atoms. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H?O inter-actions.
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[Retrospective analysis of 39 child cases of paragonimiasis].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Clinical data of 39 children with paragonimiasis treated in Chongqing Three Gorges Central Hospital during 2008-2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The cases aged from 3 to 10 years old, with 25 cases of polyserositis (64.1%), 14 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis (35.9%). Among the cases of polyserositis, all showed dyspnea,tachypnea and diminished respiration (100%). Other symptoms or signs included purulent pleurisy, orthopnea, restricted activity, distant heart sounds, purulent pericarditis, abdominal distension, and hepatomegaly. In the 14 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis, 10 cases (71.4%) complained headache, 8 cases (57.1%) with vomiting, and other symptoms such as seizures, limb rigidity associated with conscious disturbance. Eight patients were treated with surgery and praziquantel, while others with praziquantel alone. After treatment 25 cases (64.1%) were cured, 13 cases (33.3%) improved, and 1 case (2.6%) showed no change.
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[Effect of conservative fluid management strategy on the outcomes in patients with acute lung injury: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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To evaluate the effect of conservative fluid management on the outcomes in patients with acute lung injury (ALI).
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Immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase on hydrophobic/strong cation-exchange functional silica particles for biocatalytic synthesis of phytosterol esters.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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In this work, mixed-mode silica particles functionalized with octyl and sulfonic acid groups was conveniently prepared by co-bonding a mixture of n-octyltriethoxysilane and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane and then oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was immobilized on the mixed-mode silica particles via hydrophobic and strong cation-exchange interaction. The resulting immobilized CRL increased remarkably its stability at high temperature in comparison to free CRL. The immobilized CRL was used as biocatalysts for enzymatic esterification of phytosterols with free fatty acids (FFAs) to produce phytosterol esters. The phytosterols linolenate esterification degree of 95.3% was obtained under the optimized condition. Phytosterols esters could also been converted in high yields to the corresponding long-chain acyl esters via transesterification with methyl esters of fatty acids (80.5%) or triacylglycerols (above 95.5%) using mixed-mode silica particles immobilized CRL as biocatalyst. Furthermore, the immobilized CRL by absorption retained 78.6% of their initial activity after 7 recycles.
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A synthetic double-stranded RNA, poly I:C, induces a rapid apoptosis of human CD34(+) cells.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), retinoic acid-inducible gene I, and melanoma differentiation-associated antigen 5 (RIG-I/MDA-5) helicases are known to sense double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus and initiate antiviral responses, such as production of type-I interferons (IFNs). Recognition of dsRNA by TLR3 or RIG-I/MDA-5 is cell-type-dependent and recent studies have shown a direct link between TLRs and hematopoiesis. We hypothesized that viral dsRNA recognized by either TLR3 or RIG-I/MDA-5, affects the growth of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Here we show that polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)-mediated very rapid apoptosis occurs within 1 hour in CD34(+) cells in a dose-dependent manner. Polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid, another synthetic dsRNA that signals only through TLR3, had no effect. Poly I:C-LMW/LyoVec, a complex between low molecular-weight poly I:C and the transfection reagent LyoVec, which signals only through RIG-I/MDA-5, induces apoptosis of CD34(+) cells. A strong and sustained upregulation of messenger RNA and protein levels of Noxa, a proapoptotic BH3-only protein that can be induced by RIG-I/MDA-5 pathway, is found in CD34(+) cells treated by poly I:C. Although poly I:C upregulates type-I IFNs in CD34(+) cells, neither exogenous IFN-? nor IFN-? induces rapid apoptosis in CD34(+) cells and neutralization or blocking of type-I IFN receptor does not rescue CD34(+) cells, whereas Z-VAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, rescues the cells from apoptosis. These results suggest that RIG-I/MDA-5, but not TLR3, signaling triggers poly I:C-induced rapid apoptosis of human CD34(+) cells, which will provide an insight into the mechanisms of dsRNA virus-mediated hematopoietic disorders.
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Losartan inhibits conventional dendritic cell maturation and Th1 and Th17 polarization responses: ?ovel mechanisms of preventive effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Acute lung injury (ALI) remains one of major causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care medicine. The lack of efficient pharmacological interventions contributes to the high mortality rate of ALI. Losartan, an antagonist of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor, is a potent therapeutic drug for ALI. Recent reports suggest that losartan inhibits the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), impairs T-helper (Th) 1 immune response and ultimately attenuates in?ammation in several Ang II-mediated inflammatory diseases. However, the possible protective mechanisms of losartan in ALI remain poorly understood. This study was aimed to de?ne the effect of losartan on the frequency and phenotype of respiratory conventional DCs (cDCs) and Th cells polarization in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice. Results demonstrate that early after induction of LPS-induced ALI, cDCs expressing modest amounts of CD80 rapidly accumulated in the lungs. In addition, polarized Th1 and Th17 responses were markedly increased in LPS-induced ALI mice at 24 and 48 h. Of note, losartan led to inhibition of respiratory cDCs maturation at 6 h and suppressed Th1 and Th17 polarization responses compared with ALI mice at 24 and 48 h. Collectively, our findings may provide a novel and, at least, partial explanation for the protective effects by which losartan inhibits lung cDCs maturation and suppresses Th1 and Th17 immune responses.
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