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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Azvudine, a novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor showed good drug combination features and better inhibition on drug-resistant strains than lamivudine in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Azvudine is a novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with antiviral activity on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Here we reported the in vitro activity of azvudine against HIV-1 and HIV-2 when used alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs and its drug resistance features. Azvudine exerted highly potent inhibition on HIV-1 (EC(50)s ranging from 0.03 to 6.92 nM) and HIV-2 (EC(50)s ranging from 0.018 to 0.025 nM). It also showed synergism in combination with six approved anti-HIV drugs on both C8166 and PBMC. In combination assay, the concentrations of azvudine used were 1000 or 500 fold lower than other drugs. Azvudine also showed potent inhibition on NRTI-resistant strains (L74V and T69N). Although M184V caused 250 fold reduction in susceptibility, azvudine remained active at nanomolar range. In in vitro induced resistant assay, the frequency of M184I mutation increased with induction time which suggests M184I as the key mutation in azvudine treatment. As control, lamivudine treatment resulted in a higher frequency of M184I/V given the same induction time and higher occurrence of M184V was found. Molecular modeling analysis suggests that steric hindrance is more pronounced in mutant M184I than M184V due to the azido group of azvudine. The present data demonstrates the potential of azvudine as a complementary drug to current anti-HIV drugs. M184I should be the key mutation, however, azvudine still remains active on HIV-1LAI-M184V at nanomolar range.
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Cullin1 regulates proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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This study was designed to explore the role of Cullin1 (Cul1) in the pathogenesis of human glioma and to investigate the role of Cul1 in the growth, migration and invasion of glioma cells. Expression of Cul1 in 191 glioma tissues, 8 normal brain tissues and 8 tumor adjacent normal brain tissues was analyzed by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Cul1 expression in human glioblastoma cells was knocked down by specific siRNA to study the effect of down-regulation of Cul1 on proliferation, invasion and migration of glioma cells. Our results showed that Cul1 expression increased significantly in tissues from the benign tumor and malignant tumor in comparison with those from the tumor-adjacent normal brain (P<0.05 for both). We did not find any correlation between Cul1 expression and clinicopathological parameters. In addition, we found that knockdown of Cul1 by RNA interference markedly inhibited cell proliferation and caused cessation of cell cycle. This reduced cell proliferation was due to G1 phase arrest as cyclinA, cyclinD1 and cyclinE were diminished, whereas p21 and p27 were up-regulated. We further demonstrated that silencing of Cul1 in glioma cells inhibited the cell migration and invasion abilities, and down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression greatly contributed to the reduced cell invasion and migration abilities. Our data indicated that Cul1 expression significantly increased in human glioma, and it may be involved in proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells.
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Identification of two dominant linear epitopes on the GP3 protein of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV).
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Glycosylated protein 3 (GP3) of PRRSV is variable between different PRRSV strains, so it is helpful for subtype classifying by using distinct epitopes. In this study, two dominant linear GP3 epitopes that were recognized by highly dilute serum in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were identified. Sequence alignments of 36 North American (NA) PRRSV isolates revealed that the epitope H(87)DELGFMV(94) is well conserved, whereas the epitope T(59)RQAAAEILE(68) differs in other low-virulence NA-type strains, which have at least one amino acid mutation in this region. A mutational analysis revealed that none of these mutations could be recognized by the purified antibodies directed against the corresponding epitope, indicating that the genetic variations altered the antigenicity of the antigenic region. Using ELISA, we also found that antibodies directed against the two epitopes were present in more than 45 of 50 HP-PRRS-positive pig sera, suggesting that their antigenicity is excellent in vivo.
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[Fixed orthodontic treatment combined with surgical fenestration in the treatment of impacted mandibular first molars].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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To investigate the treatment of impacted mandibular first molars by straight wire appliance technique, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.
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Therapeutic effect and mechanism of electroacupuncture at Zusanli on plasticity of interstitial cells of Cajal: a study of rat ileum.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Electroacupuncture (EA) is one of the techniques of acupuncture and is believed to be an effective alternative and complementary treatment in many disorders. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects and mechanisms of EA at acupoint Zusanli (ST36) on the plasticity of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in partial bowel obstruction.
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Chemerin plays a protective role by regulating human umbilical vein endothelial cell-induced nitric oxide signaling in preeclampsia.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine chemerin levels in preeclampsia and to assess the effects of this anti-inflammatory factor on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nuclear factor (NF)-?B, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Serum chemerin and eNOS levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while chemerin mRNA and protein levels were measured by fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined with a colorimetric method. Akt and eNOS phosphorylation were assessed by Western blotting. We also tested the effects of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME. NF-?B p65 and VCAM-1 phosphorylation were assessed by Western blotting to investigate the role of chemerin in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced HUVEC injury. Serum chemerin levels were increased in preeclampsia, while eNOS was decreased. Chemerin mRNA and protein were both increased in placentae from patients with preeclampsia. Furthermore, chemerin serum level positively correlated with blood pressure, body mass index, and serum insulin and was negatively correlated with serum eNOS. Chemerin dose-dependently increased NO concentrations in supernatants. Chemerin can increase eNOS and Akt levels in HUVECs, and these results could be partly blocked by LY294002 and L-NAME. Chemerin significantly decreased TNF-?-induced NF-?B and VCAM-1 in HUVECs, and these changes were partly inhibited by LY294002 and L-NAME. Chemerin may play a protective role by regulating NO signaling. Future studies should assess the role of chemerin in preeclampsia and other vascular diseases.
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Homopiperazine grafted mesoporous silicas from rice husk ash for CO2 adsorption.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Chloro-functionalized mesoporous MCM-41, SBA-15, MCM-48 and KIT-6 were synthesized by co-condensation of 3-chloropropyl-trimethoxy-silane (CPTMS) and rice husk ash sodium silicate solution, which is subsequently grafted with a heterocyclic amine, homopiperazine (HPZ). X-ray powder diffraction and BET analysis of the chloro-functionalized mesoporous silicas confirmed the similarity between their structural properties and those obtained from conventional silica sources. CO2 adsorption studies of all HPZ-grafted mesoporous silicas exhibited 8-10 wt% of adsorption capacity and are found to be selective, recyclable and thermally stable. Here, the CO2 adsorption reaction is via the traditional carbamate mechanism. The presence of both secondary and tertiary amine in HPZ influences the high CO2 adsorption capacity. Hence, these HPZ-grafted mesoporous silicas could contribute to CO2 capture as a green, tunable, selective and efficient sorbent.
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A dysmorphic newborn with petechiae and a 'Big Heart'.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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A male fetus was noted to have an isolated pericardial effusion. At birth, he had dysmorphic features of Down syndrome and extensive petechiae. He was diagnosed to have transient myeloproliferative disorder. The large pericardial effusion and TMD spontaneously resolved. At 4 years of age, he was diagnosed with acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia, underwent chemotherapy and achieved complete remission.
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The role of visfatin on the regulation of inflammation and apoptosis in the spleen of LPS-treated rats.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The purpose of the present study is to determine if visfatin is involved in inflammation or apoptosis induced by LPS in rat. Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: saline group, LPS group, visfatin group and Visfatin?+?LPS co-stimulated group. Spleen samples from each group of rats were collected for study. The spleen structure was examined by histological imaging. Apoptosis was evaluated with TUNEL reaction. Caspase-3 was detected with immunohistochemistry and western blot. The apoptosis-related genes were detected by qPCR and inflammatory cytokines were tested by ELISA. Our main findings were as follows. (1) Macrophages were markedly increased in the visfatin group compared with the saline group. This finding was confirmed when spleen samples were examined with western blot using CD68 antibody. (2) Visfatin promoted the expression of CD68 and caspase-3 in rat spleen, whereas visfatin could inhibit the expression of CD68 and activated caspase-3 in spleen of LPS-induced acute inflammation. (3) Visfatin had a pro-apoptotic effect on normal rat spleen, whereas it exerted an anti-apoptotic effect during LPS-induced lymphocytes apoptosis in rat spleen. Moreover, the effect of visfatin on cell apoptosis was mediated by the mitochondrial pathway. (4) Visfatin could modulate both the anti-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat spleen, such as IL-10, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-? and IL-1?. Taken together, we demonstrate that visfatin could participate in the inflammatory process in rat spleen by modulating the macrophages and inflammatory cytokines. Also, visfatin plays a dual role in the apoptosis in rat spleen, which is mediated by the mitochondrial pathway.
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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of dihydroartemisinin-fluoroquinolone conjugates as a novel type of potential antitubercular agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Tuberculosis remains a global public health problem in recent years. To develop novel type of potential antitubercular agents, twelve novel dihydroartemisinin-fluoroquinolone (DHA-FQ) conjugates (three types of molecules) were gradually designed and conveniently synthesized. All the newly synthesized conjugates were well characterized and evaluated against different Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in vitro. The screening results showed that five DHA-FQ conjugates were active toward M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and compound 3a exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity (MIC=0.0625 ?g/mL), which was comparable to the positive control Moxifloxacin and even stronger than Ofloxacin. Conjugates 2a and 3a also displayed comparable activities against various clinically isolated sensitive and resistant M. tuberculosis strains (MIC=0.125-16 ?g/mL) to Moxifloxacin. All target compounds possessed selective anti-M. tuberculosis ability. Preliminary structure-activity relationship demonstrated that short linker between DHA and FQ was favorable for strong antitubercular activity. This study provides a new clue for the development of novel antitubercular lead molecules.
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Role of Nogo?A in the regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC?7721 cell apoptosis.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Nogo-A has been identified as an inhibitor of neurite outgrowth specific to the central nervous system. However, little is known about the role of Nogo-A in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary malignant tumor with a high mortality rate. This study aimed to investigate the role of endogenous Nogo-A in human liver cancer cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of Nogo-A in four liver cancer cell lines. A lentivirus vector was then constructed to mediate RNA interference (RNAi) targeting of Nogo?A (LV?Nogo-A?siRNA) and was confirmed to successfully suppress the expression of the Nogo-A gene in SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, Nogo-A was observed to be highly expressed in liver cancer cell lines. RNAi of Nogo-A using the LV?Nogo-A?siRNA construct significantly decreased Nogo-A protein expression and specifically inhibited the growth of SMMC-7721 cells. This growth inhibitory effect may be attributed to an increase in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells containing Nogo-A?siRNA. The results of this study demonstrate that Nogo-A may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of liver cancer, in addition to its potent roles in neural systems.
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Characterization of two newly emerged isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from Northeast China in 2013.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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A newly emerged porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that has caused severe reproductive losses in sows appeared in some regions of China in 2013. To explore the biology of this new PRRSV and understand more fully genetic diversity in PRRSV isolates from China, the complete genome of the two 2013 Chinese isolates, designated HLJA1 and HLJB1, were analyzed. Genomic sequence analysis showed that HLJA1 and HLJB1 shared 88.6-98.3% nucleotide identity with genotype 2 (North American type, NA-type) isolates, but only 61.1% with the genotype 1 (European type, EU-type) isolate of Lelystad virus, indicating that both these isolates belong to the NA-type PRRSV genotype. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the NA-type PRRSV isolates formed three subgroups (1, 2 and 3); representatives of these subgroups are VR-2332, CH-1a and HUN4, respectively. HLJA1 and HLJB1 belong to subgroup 2. Analysis of NSP2 revealed that HLJA1 has a 48-amino acid deletion at positions 473-480 and 482-521, unlike other HP-PRRSV isolates, while HLJB1 has only a 1-amino acid deletion at position 481 compared with CH-1a. Interestingly, HLJA1 replicated in PAM cells but not in MARC-145 cells, whereas HLJB1 replicated in both cell types. The neutralizing antibody titer of pig hyperimmune sera against HUN4 was significantly higher than that of HLJA1 or HLJB1. Additionally, genetic variability in GP5 and GP3 proteins and in the novel ORF5a protein was evident. In addition to elucidating the genetic relationships between PRRSV isolates, our results suggest that Chinese PRRSV will remain a pandemic virus.
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Synthesis and bioactive evaluation of a novel series of coumarinazoles.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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A series of novel coumarinazoles were designed, synthesized, and characterized by IR, NMR, MS and HRMS spectra. The bioactive assay for the newly prepared compounds against six bacteria and five fungi manifested that most new compounds exhibited good or even stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities in comparison with reference drugs Chloromycin, Norfloxacin and Fluconazole. Bis-azole alcohols 7a and 7d-e showed better anti-Candida utilis activity than mono-azole derivatives 4a and 4d-e at the tested concentrations, and they were more potent than the clinical Fluconazole. While triazole alcohol 7a gave comparable anti-Candida albicans and anti-Candida mycoderma activity to Fluconazole and better anti-MRSA activity than mono-triazole one 4a and clinical Norfloxacin. 1H-Benzoimidazol-2-ylthio coumarin derivatives 4e and 7e gave the strongest anti-Escherichia coli JM109 efficacy. Oxiran-2-ylmethoxy moiety was found to be a beneficial fragment to improve antibacterial and antifungal activity to some extent.
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TLR4 is constitutively expressed in chick thymic epithelial cells.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been suggested to play a regulatory role in immune cell development; however, studies regarding the role of TLR4 in the development of the chick thymus are scarce. In this study, we investigated the distribution and expression pattern of TLR4 in normal chick thymi at different stages of development, in order to better understand the role of TLR4 in chick thymus development. We studied the thymi from 15 chicks, collected at days 7, 21 and 35 of age. The relative change in TLR4 mRNA expression in the chick thymus at different ages was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and changes in protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Furthermore, the distribution of TLR4 in the chick thymus was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and compared with the distribution of TLR4 expression in juvenile female pigs (gilts). Our results indicated that TLR4 was constitutively expressed in the chick thymus. TLR4 was primarily expressed in the thymic cortico-medullary junction and the medulla, particularly in the epithelial cells of Hassall's corpuscles. The mRNA and protein expression level of TLR4 increased in the thymus with increasing age (p<0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that TLR4 is constitutively expressed by epithelial cells in the chick thymus, suggesting it may participate in thymic development by inducing factors affecting its development.
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A four actin-binding protein signature model for poor prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure with actin-binding proteins (ABPs) playing an essential role in the regulation of migration, differentiation and signal transduction in all eukaryotic cells. We examined the relationship between altered expression of four ABPs and clinical parameters in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). To this end, we analyzed 152 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded esophageal curative resection specimens by immunohistochemistry for tensin, profilin-1, villin-1 and talin. A molecular predictor model, based on the combined expression of the four proteins, was developed to correlate the expression pattern of the four ABPs with clinical factors and prognosis of ESCC. According to the results, weak significance was found for tensin in lymph node metastasis (P=0.033), and profilin-1 in pTNM stage (P=0.031). However, our four-protein model showed strong correlation with the 5-year overall survival rate (P=0.002). Similarly, Kendall's tau-b test also showed the relationship between the collective expression pattern of the four ABPs with lymph node metastasis (P=0.005) and pTNM stage (P=0.001). Our results demonstrate that the collective protein expression pattern of four actin-binding proteins could be a biomarker to estimate the prognosis of ESCC patients.
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Fitting Psychometric Functions Using a Fixed-Slope Parameter: An Advanced Alternative for Estimating Odor Thresholds With Data Generated by ASTM E679.
Chem. Senses
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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Psychometric functions are predominately used for estimating detection thresholds in vision and audition. However, the requirement of large data quantities for fitting psychometric functions (>30 replications) reduces their suitability in olfactory studies because olfactory response data are often limited (<4 replications) due to the susceptibility of human olfactory receptors to fatigue and adaptation. This article introduces a new method for fitting individual-judge psychometric functions to olfactory data obtained using the current standard protocol-American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E679. The slope parameter of the individual-judge psychometric function is fixed to be the same as that of the group function; the same-shaped symmetrical sigmoid function is fitted only using the intercept. This study evaluated the proposed method by comparing it with 2 available methods. Comparison to conventional psychometric functions (fitted slope and intercept) indicated that the assumption of a fixed slope did not compromise precision of the threshold estimates. No systematic difference was obtained between the proposed method and the ASTM method in terms of group threshold estimates or threshold distributions, but there were changes in the rank, by threshold, of judges in the group. Overall, the fixed-slope psychometric function is recommended for obtaining relatively reliable individual threshold estimates when the quantity of data is limited.
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Antinociceptive Effect of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in a Rat Model of Cancer-induced Bone Pain.
Pain Physician
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe chronic pain that is less than adequately controlled by conventional analgesics. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) has been considered as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer and its transmembrane isoform has been reported to play an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, it remains unknown whether it has an analgesic effect on CIBP and what are the underlying mechanisms.
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Pseudorabies virus variant in Bartha-K61-vaccinated pigs, China, 2012.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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The widely used pseudorabies virus (PRV) Bartha-K61 vaccine has played a key role in the eradication of PRV. Since late 2011, however, a disease characterized by neurologic symptoms and a high number of deaths among newborn piglets has occurred among Bartha-K61-vaccinated pigs on many farms in China. Clinical samples from pigs on 15 farms in 6 provinces were examined. The PRV gE gene was detectable by PCR in all samples, and sequence analysis of the gE gene showed that all isolates belonged to a relatively independent cluster and contained 2 amino acid insertions. A PRV (named HeN1) was isolated and caused transitional fever in pigs. In protection assays, Bartha-K61 vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal challenge with SC (a classical PRV) but only 50% protection against 4 challenges with strain HeN1. The findings suggest that Bartha-K61 vaccine does not provide effective protection against PRV HeN1 infection.
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Depressing Interleukin-1? Contributed to the Synergistic Effects of Tramadol and Minocycline on Spinal Nerve Ligation-Induced Neuropathic Pain.
Neurosignals
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Our previous study indicated that coadministration of tramadol and minocycline exerted synergistic effects on spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic mechanical allodynia. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent reports indicated that spinal proinflammatory factor interleukin-1? (IL-1?) contributed to the development of neuropathic pain and the positive feedback communication between neuron and glia. Therefore, the present research is to confirm whether spinal IL-1?-related pathway response contributes to the synergistic effects of tramadol and minocycline on SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated IL-1? up-expression in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn 3 days after lesion, which could be significantly decreased by tramadol and minocycline coadministration. Immunofluorescence and Western blot indicated that SNL-induced microglial phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) upregulation was also inhibited by tramadol and minocycline coapplication. Meanwhile, intrathecal administration of p38 inhibitor SB203580 markedly alleviated mechanical allodynia whilst reducing IL-1? and Fos expression induced by SNL. Moreover, intrathecal neutralized antibody of IL-1? could depress SNL-induced mechanical allodynia and Fos expression. These results suggest that depressing SNL-induced aberrant activation of the spinal dorsal horn IL-1?-related pathway contributes to the underlying mechanism of the synergistic effects of tramadol and minocycline coadministration on SNL-induced neuropathic mechanical allodynia. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphism and protein expression in the pathogenesis of pterygium.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression has been linked to cancer progression. Here we hypothesise that the polymorphism and protein expression of VEGF are correlated with the pathogenesis and therapy response of pterygium.
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Telephone monitoring of adverse events during an MF59(®)-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccination campaign in Taiwan.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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This study was conducted to explore a telephone-based approach for identifying and quantifying the occurrence of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) during an MF59(®)-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccination program in Taiwan. From March to August 2011, each H5N1 vaccine recipient who voluntarily registered as participants within 72 h of vaccination was phone interviewed at postvaccination 7-10 and 21-24 d. Among the 292 participants, 270 and 263 interviews were completed at 7-10 and 21-24 d. Overall, 127 (48%) respondents reported local and 86 (33%) reported systemic reactions. Females (odds ratio [OR] 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-3.63), nonelderly adults aged 18-59 y (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.11-9.45), and first-dose recipients (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.22-3.86) were independently associated with having an AEFI within the first 7-10 d. None of the AEFIs reported were serious adverse events. In conclusion, most AEFIs to H5N1 vaccine were anticipated but varied with sex, age, and vaccine dose number. The use of modern information technologies will be a scalable alternative to efficiently enroll and monitor recipients with possible AEFIs in large campaigns involving influenza or other emerging vaccines. Further studies should compare the detection of AEFIs using telephone monitoring and standard pharmacovigilance reporting.
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Recent developments in azole compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents.
Curr Top Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Azole compounds are an important class of nitrogen heterocycles with electron-rich property. This special structure endows azole-based derivatives easily bind with the enzymes and receptors in organisms through noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, coordination bonds, ion-dipole, cation-?,?-? stacking and hydrophobic effect as well as van der Waals force etc., thereby possessing various applications in medicinal chemistry, especially their protrudent effects such as imidazoles and triazoles against fungal strains. The design, synthesis and antimicrobial activity of azole derivatives have been extensively investigated and have become one of the highly active highlights in recent years, and the progress is quite rapid. In particular, a large number of azole-based antibacterial and antifungal agents have been penetratingly studied as candidates and even some of them have been used in clinic, which have shown the great potential and development value of azole compounds. Based on our researches on azole compounds and referring to other literature, this work scientifically reviewed the researches and developments of azole-based compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents, including oxazole, imidazole, benzimidazole, triazole, benzotriazole, pyrazole, thiazole, carbazole as well as tetrazole in recent three years. It is hopeful that azole compounds may continue to serve as an important direction for the exploitation of azole-based antibacterial and antifungal drugs with better curative effect, lower toxicity, less side effects, especially fewer resistances and so on.
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[Comparison of I Care rebound tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometer after Descemets stripping with automated endothelium keratoplasty].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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To evaluate the influence of corneal thickness (CT) on the intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, the agreement of IOP readings with I Care rebound tonometer (RBT) and Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), and the agreement of central and peripheral IOP values obtained by RBT.
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Expression of short peptide by an improved isocaudamer tandem repeat strategy.
Protein Pept. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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An improved isocaudamer tandem repeat strategy for the production of short functional peptide was demonstrated in the study. The coding sequence of short peptide was codon optimized, and two isocaudamers were induced into the end of coding sequence. By re-cutting with isocaudamers and re-ligating, the coding sequence of short peptide in the expression vector was increased in a multiple manner (21, 22, 23, 24, 25 …….). In the present study, an 8 amino-acidresidue peptide of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was effectively expressed in 8 copies and 16 copies by this approach, then the proteins in 8 copies and 16 copies were used to generate antibody against this epitope in rabbits. The results showed that PRRSVs were well recognized by the antibody in indirect immunofluorescence assay. The technology using isocaudamer to insert multiple tandem repeats in the vector provides an important approach for the studies of small molecule peptides.
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Glycolipid metabolic status of overweight/obese adolescents aged 9- to 15-year-old and the BMI-SDS/BMI cut-off value of predicting dyslipidemiain boys, Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The prevalence of adolescents obesity and overweight has dramatically elevated in China. Obese children were likely to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which are risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. However there was no cut-off point of anthropometric values to predict the risk factors in Chinese adolescents. The present study was to investigate glycolipid metabolism status of adolescents in Shanghai and to explore the correlations between body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and metabolic indices, determine the best cut-off value of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia.
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1,2,3-Triazole-derived naphthalimides as a novel type of potential antimicrobial agents: Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, interaction with calf thymus DNA and human serum albumin.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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A series of 1,2,3-triazole-derived naphthalimides as a novel type of potential antimicrobial agents were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and HRMS spectra. All the new compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against four Gram-positive bacteria, four Gram-negative bacteria and three fungi. Bioactive assay manifested that 3,4-dichlorobenzyl compound 9e and its corresponding hydrochloride 11e showed better anti-Escherichia coli activity than Norfloxacin and Chloromycin. Preliminary research revealed that compound 9e could effectively intercalate into calf thymus DNA to form compound 9e-DNA complex which might block DNA replication and thus exert antimicrobial activities. Human serum albumin could effectively store and carry compound 9e by electrostatic interaction.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of ?-triazolyl chalcones as a new type of potential antimicrobial agents and their interaction with calf thymus DNA and human serum albumin.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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A series of ?-triazolyl chalcones were efficiently synthesized. Most of the prepared compounds showed effective antibacterial and antifungal activities. Noticeably, ?-triazolyl derivative 9a exhibited low MIC value of 4 ?g/mL against MRSA and Micrococcus luteus, which was comparable or even superior to reference drugs. The further research revealed that compound 9a could effectively intercalate into Calf Thymus DNA to form 9a-DNA complex which might block DNA replication to exert their powerful antimicrobial activities. Competitive interactions between 9a and metal ions to Human Serum Albumin (HSA) suggested the participation of Fe(3+), K(+) and Mg(2+) ions in 9a-HSA system could increase the concentration of free 9a, shorten its storage time and half-life in the blood, thus improving its antimicrobial efficacy.
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Comprehensive Review in Current Developments of Imidazole-Based Medicinal Chemistry.
Med Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Imidazole ring is an important five-membered aromatic heterocycle widely present in natural products and synthetic molecules. The unique structural feature of imidazole ring with desirable electron-rich characteristic is beneficial for imidazole derivatives to readily bind with a variety of enzymes and receptors in biological systems through diverse weak interactions, thereby exhibiting broad bioactivities. The related research and developments of imidazole-based medicinal chemistry have become a rapidly developing and increasingly active topic. Particularly, numerous imidazole-based compounds as clinical drugs have been extensively used in the clinic to treat various types of diseases with high therapeutic potency, which have shown the enormous development value. This work systematically gives a comprehensive review in current developments of imidazole-based compounds in the whole range of medicinal chemistry as anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, antineuropathic, antihypertensive, antihistaminic, antiparasitic, antiobesity, antiviral, and other medicinal agents, together with their potential applications in diagnostics and pathology. It is hoped that this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic imidazole-based medicinal drugs, as well as more effective diagnostic agents and pathologic probes.
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Identification of regions associated with variation in sensitivity to food-related odors in the human genome.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Humans vary in their ability to smell numerous odors [1-3], including those associated with food [4-6]. Odor sensitivity is heritable [7-11], with examples linking genetic variation for sensitivity to specific odors typically located near olfactory receptor (OR) genes [12-16]. However, with thousands of aromas and few deorphaned ORs [17, 18], there has been little progress toward linking variation at OR loci to odor sensitivity [19, 20]. We hypothesized that OR genes contain the variation that explains much of the differences in sensitivity for odors, paralleling the genetics of taste [21, 22], which affect the flavor experience of foods [23-25]. We employed a genome-wide association approach for ten food-related odors and identified genetic associations to sensitivity for 2-heptanone (p = 5.1 × 10(-8)), isobutyraldehyde (p = 6.4 × 10(-10)), ?-damascenone (p = 1.6 × 10(-7)), and ?-ionone (p = 1.4 × 10(-31)). Each locus is located in/near distinct clusters of OR genes. These findings increase the number of olfactory sensitivity loci to nine and demonstrate the importance of OR-associated variation in sensory acuity for food-related odors. Analysis of genotype frequencies across human populations implies that variation in sensitivity for these odors is widespread. Furthermore, each participant possessed one of many possible combinations of sensitivities for these odors, supporting the notion that everyone experiences their own unique "flavor world."
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MiR-29c inhibits glioma cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Previous studies reported that miR-29c is significantly downregulated in several tumors. However, little is known about the effect and molecular mechanisms of action of miR-29c in human glioma. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that miR-29c was significantly downregulated in glioma cell lines and human primary glioma tissues, compared to normal human astrocytes and matched non-tumor associated tissues (P < 0.05, ?(2) test). Overexpression of miR-29c dramatically reduced the proliferation and caused cessation of cell cycle. The reduced cell proliferation is due to G1 phase arrest as cyclin D1 and cyclin E are diminished whereas p27 and p21 are upregulated. We further demonstrated that miR-29c overexpression suppressed the glioma cell migration and invasion abilities by targeting MMP-2. In addition, we also found that overexpression of miR-29c sharply inhibited angiogenesis, which correlated with down-regulation of VEGF. The data indicate that miR-29c may be a tumor suppressor involved in the progression of glioma.
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Short-term microbiological effects of scaling and root planing and essential-oils mouthwash in Chinese adults.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To assess the short-term effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) and essential-oils mouthwash on the levels of specific bacteria in Chinese adults.
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Deletion Xq27.3q28 in female patient with global developmental delays and skewed X-inactivation.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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BACKGROUND: Global developmental delay and mental retardation are associated with X-linked disorders including Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) and Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Single nucleotide mutations in the iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) gene at Xq28 most commonly cause Hunter syndrome while a CGG expansion in the FMR1 gene at Xq27.3 is associated with Fragile X syndrome. Gene deletions of the Xq27-28 region are less frequently found in either condition with rare reports in females. Additionally, an association between Xq27-28 deletions and skewed X-inactivation of the normal X chromosome observed in previous studies suggested a primary role of the Xq27-28 region in X-inactivation. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the clinical, molecular and biochemical evaluations of a four year-old female patient with global developmental delay and a hemizygous deletion of Xq27.3q28 (144,270,614-154,845,961 bp), a 10.6 Mb region that contains >100 genes including IDS and FMR1. A literature review revealed rare cases with similar deletions that included IDS and FMR1 in females with developmental delay, variable features of Hunter syndrome, and skewed X-inactivation of the normal X chromosome. In contrast, our patient exhibited skewed X-inactivation of the deleted X chromosome and tested negative for Hunter syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This is a report of a female with a 10.6 Mb Xq27-28 deletion with skewed inactivation of the deleted X chromosome. Contrary to previous reports, our observations do not support a primary role of the Xq27-28 region in X-inactivation. A review of the genes in the deletion region revealed several potential genes that may contribute to the patients developmental delays, and sequencing of the active X chromosome may provide insight into the etiology of this clinical presentation.
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A mendelian trait for olfactory sensitivity affects odor experience and food selection.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Humans vary in acuity to many odors [1-4], with variation within olfactory receptor (OR) genes contributing to these differences [5-9]. How such variation also affects odor experience and food selection remains uncertain [10], given that such effects occur for taste [11-15]. Here we investigate ?-ionone, which shows extreme sensitivity differences [4, 16, 17]. ?-ionone is a key aroma in foods and beverages [18-21] and is added to products in order to give a pleasant floral note [22, 23]. Genome-wide and in vitro assays demonstrate rs6591536 as the causal variant for ?-ionone odor sensitivity. rs6591536 encodes a N183D substitution in the second extracellular loop of OR5A1 and explains >96% of the observed phenotypic variation, resembling a monogenic Mendelian trait. Individuals carrying genotypes for ?-ionone sensitivity can more easily differentiate between food and beverage stimuli with and without added ?-ionone. Sensitive individuals typically describe ?-ionone in foods and beverages as "fragrant" and "floral," whereas less-sensitive individuals describe these stimuli differently. rs6591536 genotype also influences emotional associations and explains differences in food and product choices. These studies demonstrate that an OR variant that influences olfactory sensitivity can affect how people experience and respond to foods, beverages, and other products.
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The effects of exercise program on burnout and metabolic syndrome components in banking and insurance workers.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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To explore the effectiveness of exercise program for banking and insurance workers and clarify the association between exercise, burnout, and metabolic syndrome components. In the process of the study, a practicable worksite exercise program was developed for bank and insurance enterprises. A three-month (12-wk) exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. Levels of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed after exercise intervention. After intervention, the indicators of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were significantly improved in both low and high intensity groups, and the improvement were expressed in reduction of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, person burnout and work-related burnout. A dose-response of burnouts and metabolic syndrome components with exercise intensity are shown (p<0.05). Metabolic syndrome components were independently associated with burnout and exercise intensity in the crude model. After adjustment for potential confounders, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure differences showed significant associations with exercise intensity (p<0.05). This study demonstrated an effective approach to worksite exercise intervention and exercise intensity played an important role to alleviate damage between burnouts and metabolic syndrome components.
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Myopization factors affecting urban elementary school students in Taiwan.
Optom Vis Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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To investigate factors that may contribute to the myopization of urban elementary school students in Taiwan.
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Effects of prenatal exposure to atypical antipsychotics on postnatal development and growth of infants: a case-controlled, prospective study.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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This study aims to investigate the developmental effects of atypical antipsychotics on infants who were born to mothers taking an atypical antipsychotic throughout pregnancy.
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Current developments of coumarin compounds in medicinal chemistry.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Coumarin compounds represent an important type of naturally occurring and synthetic oxygen-containing heterocycles with typical benzopyrone framework. This type of special benzopyrone structure enables its derivatives readily interact with a diversity of enzymes and receptors in organisms through weak bond interactions, thereby exhibit wide potentiality as medicinal drugs. So far, some coumarin-based drugs such as anticoagulant and antineurodegenerative agents have been extensively used in clinic. Coumarin-containing supramolecular medicinal agents as a new increasing expansion of supramolecular chemistry in pharmaceutical science have also been actively investigated in recent years. Coumarin-derived artificial ion receptors, fluorescent probes and biological stains are growing quickly and have a variety of potential applications in monitoring timely enzyme activity, complex biological events as well as accurate pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. This review provides a systematic summary and insight of the whole range of medicinal chemistry in the current developments of coumarin compounds as anticoagulant, antineurodegenerative, anticancer, antioxidative, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antiinflammatory and analgesic, antidiabetic, antidepressive and other bioactive agents as well as supramolecular medicinal drugs, diagnostic agents and pathologic probes, and biological stains. Some rational design strategies, structure-activity relationships and action mechanisms are discussed. The perspectives of the future development of coumarinbased medicinal chemistry are also presented.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of a class of quinolone triazoles as potential antimicrobial agents and their interactions with calf thymus DNA.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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A novel series of quinolone triazoles were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR, MS and HRMS spectra. All the newly prepared compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against seven bacteria and four fungi. Bioactive assay manifested that most of new compounds exhibited good or even stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains including multi-drug resistant MRSA in comparison with reference drugs Norfloxacin, Chloromycin and Fluconazole. The preliminary interactive investigations of compound 6b with calf thymus DNA by fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopic methods revealed that compound 6b could effectively intercalate DNA to form compound 6b-DNA complex which might block DNA replication and thus exert its antimicrobial activities.
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Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted synergistic effects on rat spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Neuropathic pain is an intractable clinical problem. Drug treatments such as tramadol have been reported to effectively decrease neuropathic pain by inhibiting the activity of nociceptive neurons. It has also been reported that modulating glial activation could also prevent or reverse neuropathic pain via the administration of a glial modulator or inhibitor, such as propentofylline. Thus far, there has been no clinical strategy incorporating both neuronal and glial participation for treating neuropathic pain. Therefore, the present research study was designed to assess whether coadministration of tramadol and propentofylline, as neuronal and glial activation inhibitors, respectively, would exert a synergistic effect on the reduction of rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. Rats underwent SNL surgery to induce neuropathic pain. Pain behavioral tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of drugs on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia with von-Frey hairs. Proinflammatory factor interleukin-1? (IL-1?) expression was also detected by Real-time RT-PCR. Intrathecal tramadol and propentofylline administered alone relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted a more potent effect in a synergistic and dose dependent manner than the intrathecal administration of either drug alone. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated IL-1? up-expression in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn after the lesion, which was significantly decreased by tramadol and propentofylline coadministration. Inhibiting proinflammatory factor IL-1? contributed to the synergistic effects of tramadol and propentofylline coadministration on rat peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Thus, our study provided a rationale for utilizing a novel strategy for treating neuropathic pain by blocking the proinflammatory factor related pathways in the central nervous system.
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Suture pull-through insertion techniques for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in Chinese phakic eyes: outcomes and complications.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To investigate the outcomes and complications of suture pull-through insertion techniques for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in Chinese phakic eyes.
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Secondary mutation (c.94_95delAG) in a -?3.7 allele associated with Hb H disease in two unrelated African American individuals homozygous for the -?(3.7) deletion (-?3.7/-?3.7T).
Hemoglobin
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Hb H disease is rarely seen in individuals of African descent although ?-thalassemia (?-thal) is common in this population. Usually ?-thal is due either to heterozygosity or homozygosity for the -?(3.7) deletion in this population. We report Hb H disease that is caused by a frameshift mutation on one -?(3.7) allele in two unrelated individuals homozygous for the -?(3.7) deletion. These two cases highlight the importance of further investigation by direct sequencing of the -?(3.7) allele when the thalassemic phenotype does not correlate with the genotype obtained by initial molecular testing.
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[Effect of transforming growth factor ?(1) and insulin-like growth factor-I on extracelluar matrix synthesis of self-assembled constructs of goat temporomandibular joint disc].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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To examine the effects of high and low concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF) ?(1) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the extracelluar matrix synthesis of the self-assembled constructs of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc.
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3a,11b-Dihy-droxy-3a,11b-dihydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline-2(3H)-thione.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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The title compound, C(13)H(10)N(4)O(2)S, was prepared through a cyclization reaction of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione and thio-urea. The dihedral angle between the pyridine rings is 8.22?(2)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected by N-H?O, O-H?N, N-H?S and O-H?S hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.
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Testing for variants in CYP2C19: population frequencies and testing experience in a clinical laboratory.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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We sought to determine the genotype frequencies for cytochrome p450 enzyme 2C19 variant alleles both in the US pan-ethnic population and various US ethnic groups and to establish the frequency of clinically actionable genotypes.
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Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Porcine teschovirus.
J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Loop-mediated isothermal ampli?cation (LAMP) is a sensitive method for DNA ampli?cation. In the present report, the development of a single-tube, one-step, real-time accelerated reverse transcription (RT)-LAMP for the detection of Porcine teschovirus (PTV) is described. Six designed primers amplified target gene sequences successfully at constant temperature (65 °C) within 1 hr, and the amplification results could be visualized directly by the naked eye. The sensitivity of the LAMP was 10 times higher than that of conventional polymerase chain reaction, and no cross-reactivity was found when the genomes of other common swine pathogens were subjected to the RT-LAMP system. When 43 clinical samples were tested by the RT-LAMP method, results indicated that the test is simple, rapid, accurate, and sensitive for the detection of PTV.
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[Inhalation of aerosolized perfluorocarbon combined with tetramethylpyrazine ameliorates hemodynamics and pulmonary histopathology in a porcine model of acute lung injury].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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To observe the effect of inhalation of aerosolized perfluorocarbon combined with tetramethylpyrazine on the hemodynamics and histopathology in a porcine model of acute lung injury.
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RUNX3 expression is lost in glioma and its restoration causes drastic suppression of tumor invasion and migration.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression of RUNX3 is related to the development of glioma, and the role of RUNX3 in glioma cells growth, invasion and migration.
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Pretreatment with berberine and yohimbine protects against LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction via inhibition of cardiac I-[kappa]B[alpha] phosphorylation and apoptosis in mice.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Myocardial dysfunction is a common complication in sepsis and significantly contributes to the mortality of patients with septic shock. Our previous study demonstrated that pretreatment with berberine (Ber) protected against the lethality induced by LPS, which was enhanced by yohimbine, an [alpha]2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, and Ber combined with yohimbine also improved survival in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture. However, no studies have examined whether Ber and yohimbine reduce LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction. Here, we report that pretreatment with Ber, Ber combined with yohimbine, or yohimbine significantly reduced LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction in mice. LPS-provoked cardiac apoptosis, I-[kappa]B[alpha] phosphorylation, IL-1[beta], TNF-[alpha], and NO production were attenuated by pretreatment with Ber and/or yohimbine, whereas cardiac Toll-like receptor 4 mRNA expression, malondialdehyde content, and superoxide dismutase activity were not affected. These data demonstrate for the first time that pretreatment with Ber and/or yohimbine prevents LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction in mice through inhibiting myocardial apoptosis, cardiac I-[kappa]B[alpha] phosphorylation, and TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], and NO production, suggesting that activation of [alpha]2-adrenergic receptor in vivo may be responsible at least in part for LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction, and Ber in combination with yohimbine may be a potential agent for preventing cardiac dysfunction during sepsis.
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The dangers of including nonclassical cystic fibrosis variants in population-based screening panels: p.L997F, further genotype/phenotype correlation data.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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: Recently, a major CLIA-certified commercial laboratory began offering an extended cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening panel containing 103 variants including p.L997F. Our laboratory has already received two invasive prenatal diagnostic samples where one parent carries a classic CF mutation and the other carries p.L997F. One fetus inherited both variants.
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[Status quo and factors influencing smoking cessation in cigarette smoking patients with coronary artery disease].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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To investigate the status quo of smoking cessation and analyze factors influencing smoking cessation in cigarette smoking patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
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[Stereological study of the placenta in parturients with different prophylactic measures for hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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To explore the optimal approach to the prevention of hypotension during cesarean section for the benefits of both the parturients and the newborns.
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[Study on 31 cases with cesarean scar pregnancy treated by transvaginal surgery].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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To study clinical efficacy on cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) treated by transvaginal surgery.
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[Effect of hypervolemic hemodilution on C-reactive protein level in patients receiving spinal surgery].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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To investigate the changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels following acute hypervolemic hemodilution (AHH) in patients undergoing spinal surgery and assess the safety of AHH in terms of postoperative infection.
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[Variation of maternal milk adiponectin and its correlation with infant growth].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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To investigate the variation of human breast milk adiponectin (APN) concentration during lactation, analyze the relationship of APN concentrations in human breast milk with APN in infant serum, determine the association between maternal milk APN and infant body proportionality in the first year of life, and the period of greatest human milk exposure.
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Distribution and expression characteristics of triterpenoids and OSC genes in white birch (Betula platyphylla suk.).
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Betulin and oleanolic acids (pentacyclic triterpenoid secondary metabolites) have broad pharmacological activities and can be potentially used for the development of anti-cancer and anti-AIDS drugs. In this study, we detected the accumulation and the distribution characteristics of betulin and oleanolic acid in various organs of white birch at different ages. We also determined the expression of 4 OSC genes (LUS, ?-AS, CAS1 and CAS2) involved in the triterpenoid synthesis pathways by real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the 1-year old birch can synthesize betulin and oleanolic acid. In addition, betulin and oleanolic acids were mainly distributed in the bark, while the content in the root skin and leaf was very low. The content of betulin and oleanolic acid in birch varied in different seasons. The content of betulin and oleanolic acid and their corresponding LUS and ?-AS gene expression were very low in 1-year old birch. With increasing age of birch, betulin content was increased, while oleanolic acid was decreased. Similar changes were also observed for their corresponding synthesis genes LUS and ?-AS. In the leaf of 1-year old plant, the highest expression of CAS1 and CAS2 occurred at end of September, while expression of LUS and the ?-AS was low from June to October. In the stem skin,high expression of ?-AS and the LUS genes occurred from the end of July to September. In the root, high expression of the ?-AS gene was observed at the end of October. These results indicated that triterpenoid gene expression was similar to the triterpene accumulation. Expression of LUS gene and ?-AS gene in birch with different ages were corresponding to the betulinic and oleanolic acid accumulation. Expression of CAS1 and CAS2 genes were elevated with increasing age of birch. This study provides molecular mechanisms of triterpenes synthesis in birch plants.
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Genetic association and identification of a functional SNP at GSK3? for schizophrenia susceptibility.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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GSK3? is a key gene in neurodevelopment, and also an important target of antipsychotics. Several lines of evidence including association and gene expression studies have suggested GSK3? as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, but the underlying genetic mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we test whether the genetic variants in GSK3? contribute to the risk of schizophrenia in Chinese population.
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Cystic fibrosis testing 8 years on: lessons learned from carrier screening and sequencing analysis.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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This study reviews data from our cystic fibrosis testing program to evaluate the performance of population-based carrier screening and compare observed detection rates with predicted results of the American College of Medical Genetics/American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended panel of 23 mutations.
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Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and in vivo.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Although human amniotic fluid is an attractive source of multipotent stem cells, the potential of amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) to differentiate into hepatic cells has not been extensively evaluated. In this study, we examined whether human AFSCs can differentiate into a hepatic cell lineage in vitro and in vivo. After being treated with cytokines (fibroblast growth factor 4, basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and oncostatin), AFSCs developed a morphology similar to that of hepatocytes. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis showed that the treated AFSCs expressed the hepatocyte-specific markers albumin, cytokeratin 18, and alpha-fetoprotein. The differentiated cells also developed hepatocyte-specific functions, i.e., they secreted albumin, absorbed indocyanine green, and stored glycogen. When transplanted into CCl(4)-injured immunodeficient mice, undifferentiated AFSCs were integrated into the liver tissue, and they expressed markers characteristic of mature human hepatocytes. Although integration of AFSCs into the liver was limited (0.1-0.3% of hepatocytes), histological analysis showed that the recipient mice recovered more rapidly from CCl(4) injury than CCl(4)-injured mice that did not receive AFSCs. AFSCs can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and in vivo and can represent an easily accessible source of progenitor cells for hepatocyte regeneration and liver cell transplantation.
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[Study of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene 3-UTR 6235T-C polymorphism and susceptibility to breast cancer with Uighur medicine].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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To explore the association between polymorphism of cytochrome P450 1A1 Gene 3-UTR (3-untranslated region) 6235T-C and breast cancer with abnormal Hilit in Chinese Han population of Xinjiang.
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[The effect of descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty combined with phacoemulsification cataract surgery or lens exchange].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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To evaluate the effect and explore the complications of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) combined with phacoemulsification cataract surgery or lens exchange in corneal endothelial dysfunction eyes with lens disorders.
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Neuronal NR2B-containing NMDA receptor mediates spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Spinal N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) plays a pivotal role in nerve injury-induced central sensitization. Recent studies suggest that NMDAR also contributes to neuron-astrocyte signaling. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is persistently and specifically activated (indicated by phosphorylation) in spinal cord astrocytes after nerve injury and thus it is considered as a dependable indicator of pain-related astrocytic activation. NMDAR-mediated JNK activation in spinal dorsal horn might be an important form of neuron-astrocyte signaling in neuropathic pain. In the present study, we observed that intrathecal injection of MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, or Ro25-6981 and ifenprodil, which are selective antagonists of NR2B-containing NMDAR each significantly reduced nerve injury-induced JNK activation. Double immunostaining showed that NR2B was highly expressed in neurons, indicating the effect of NMDAR antagonists on JNK activation was indirect. We further observed that intrathecal injection of NMDA (twice a day for 3 days) significantly increased spinal JNK phosphorylation. Besides, NMDAR-related JNK activation could be blocked by a neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) selective inhibitor (7-nitroindazole sodium salt) but not by a nNOS sensitive guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one). Finally, real-time RT-PCR and immunostaining showed that nerve injury-induced interleukin-1beta expression was dependent on astrocytic JNK activation. Treatments targeting NMDAR-nNOS pathway also influenced interleukin-1beta expression, which further confirmed our hypothesis. Taken together, our results suggest that neuronal NMDAR-nNOS pathway could activate astrocytic JNK pathway. Excitatory neuronal transmission initiates astrocytic activation-induced neuroinflammation in this way, which contributes to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain.
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An effective physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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The aim of this study is to develop a practicable worksite physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Community-based intervention consisting of a three-month exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. A self-administrated structured questionnaire and physical fitness examination were designed to compare the difference between pre and post intervention. A total of 133 SME workers completed the lifestyle/exercise course and filled out the questionnaire, but 16 were excluded from the exercise group due to health reasons. After the intervention, health indicators such as weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate, waistline, BMI, front and back trunk flexibility, abdominal muscle durability and back muscle strength were significantly improved, and improvements in musculoskeletal disorders were seen in reduced neck pain (18.8%), wrist pain (17.4%), and upper/lower back pain (8.7% and 21.7%, respectively). Cardiovascular risk factors (BMI and resting heart rate) showed a significant improvement related to frequent participation in the program (p=0.02), and the exercise group reported a significant difference in overall health (p=0.02). This study has demonstrated an effective approach to community-based fitness intervention through SMEs.
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Histologic distribution, fragment cloning, and sequence analysis of g protein couple receptor 30 in rat submaxillary gland.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Recent studies indicated that G protein couple receptor 30 (GPR30), a nongenomic estrogen receptor, is widely expressed in many organ systems inducing many quick reaction of estrogen. However, there was rare report about the expression of GPR30 in the salivary gland. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of GPR30 in rat submaxillary gland by means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. GPR30 core sequences were amplified by RT-PCR with total RNA extracted from rat submaxillary gland and were analyzed by sequencing with Sangers method. The results showed that the epithelial cells of serous alveoli and granular convoluted duct in rat submaxillary gland displayed GPR30-immunoreactivity on the plasma membrane and cytoplasm. Moreover, GPR30 mRNA hybridization signals were also detected in the cytoplasm of the above cells. GPR30 cDNA sequence cloned from rat submaxillary gland is identical to that of GPR30 from rat paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus. In conclusion, the expression of GPR30 in the serous and granular epithelial cells of submaxillary gland indicates that submaxillary gland could also be a target organ rapidly responding to estrogen stimulus, and estrogen may be involved in the functional regulation of submaxillary gland.
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Simultaneous Determination of Furostanol, Pennogenyl, and Diosgenyl Glycosides in Taiwanese Rhizoma Paridis ( Paris formosana Hayata) by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed to simultaneously determine 10 steroidal saponins, including 3 furostanol glycosides, 3 pennogenyl glycosides, and 4 diosgenyl glycosides in Taiwanese rhizoma paridis ( Paris formosana Hayata). The condition was a Cosmosil C18 column kept at 35 °C and a step-gradient solvent system consisting of acetonitrile and water (25:75, v/v) in the first 30 min, 45:55 (v/v) from 31 to 45 min, and 50:50 (v/v) from 45 to 65 min, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The separation factors (?) and resolutions (Rs) were better than 1, and the limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01-0.27 and 0.04-0.90 ?g, respectively, for these saponins. Moreover, 203 nm UV detection was also used for comparison. The saponins in P. formosana Hayata gathered from various areas of Taiwan were determined by applying the established method.
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Neuronal degeneration in autonomic nervous system of Dystonia musculorum mice.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Dystonia musculorum (dt) is an autosomal recessive hereditary neuropathy with a characteristic uncoordinated movement and is caused by a defect in the bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1) gene. The neural isoform of BPAG1 is expressed in various neurons, including those in the central and peripheral nerve systems of mice. However, most previous studies on neuronal degeneration in BPAG1-deficient mice focused on peripheral sensory neurons and only limited investigation of the autonomic system has been conducted.
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Inhibition of spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation correlates with the analgesic effects of ketamine in neuropathic pain.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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We have previously reported that inhibition of astrocytic activation contributes to the analgesic effects of intrathecal ketamine on spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, has been reported to be critical for spinal astrocytic activation and neuropathic pain development after SNL. Ketamine can decrease lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylated JNK (pJNK) expression and could thus exert its anti-inflammatory effect. We hypothesized that inhibition of astrocytic JNK activation might be involved in the suppressive effect of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocytic activation.
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Post-injury administration of minocycline: an effective treatment for nerve-injury induced neuropathic pain.
Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Neuropathic pain is an intractable clinical problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. Preemptive administration of minocycline has been confirmed useful for treating neuropathic pain by inhibiting spinal microglia activation and consequently lowering proinflammatory cytokine expression. However, most patients with neuropathic pain have no chance to receive preemptive treatment and it remains unclear whether there is a therapeutic time window for post treatment with minocycline. The present study is to confirm the effect and the therapeutic time window of intrathecal minocycline on spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain after lesion. Behavioral test and immunohistochemistry are utilized to determine the variation of mechanical allodynia and microglia phosphorylated-p38 (p-p38) expression respectively after intrathecal minocycline. Results showed that post-injury intrathecal minocycline attenuated mechanical allodynia effectively together with inhibiting spinal microglia p-p38 expression on post operative day (POD) 1, POD 3 and POD 7. Additionally, results from POD 10 and POD 21 showed that intrathecal minocycline suppressed spinal microglia p-p38 expression but without any effects on reversing mechanical allodynia. It is concluded that post-injury intrathecal minocycline is an effective therapeutic intervention for treating SNL-induced neuropathic pain by inhibiting spinal microglia activation. Accordingly, there is indeed a therapeutic time window for post-injury intrathecal minocycline, which is the initiation stage of neuropathic pain development.
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Ketamine depresses toll-like receptor 3 signaling in spinal microglia in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
Neurosignals
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Reports suggest that microglia play a key role in spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain, and toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) has a substantial role in the activation of spinal microglia and the development of tactile allodynia after nerve injury. In addition, ketamine application could suppress microglial activation in vitro, and ketamine could inhibit proinflammatory gene expression possibly by suppressing TLR-mediated signal transduction. Therefore, the present study was designed to disclose whether intrathecal ketamine could suppress SNL-induced spinal microglial activation and exert some antiallodynic effects on neuropathic pain by suppressing TLR3 activation. Behavioral results showed that intrathecal ketamine attenuated SNL-induced mechanical allodynia, as well as spinal microglial activation, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Western blot analysis displayed that ketamine application downregulated SNL-induced phosphorylated-p38 (p-p38) expression, which was specifically expressed in spinal microglia but not in astrocytes or neurons. Besides, ketamine could reverse TLR3 agonist (polyinosine-polycytidylic acid)-induced mechanical allodynia and spinal microglia activation. It was concluded that intrathecal ketamine depresses TLR3-induced spinal microglial p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation after SNL, probably contributing to the antiallodynic effect of ketamine on SNL-induced neuropathic pain.
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Orthogonal test design for optimization of the extraction of flavonid from the Fructus Gardeniae.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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It is imperative to provide some consistent experimental results for the extraction of flavonid from Fructus Gardeniae.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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