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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Production of Water-Soluble Few-Layer Graphene Mesosheets by Dry Milling with Hydrophobic Drug.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A novel, fast and easy mechano-chemistry-based (dry milling) method has been developed to exfoliate graphene with hydrophobic drugs generating few layer graphene mesosheets (< 10 nm in thickness and ~ 1 µm in width). The electronic properties of the graphitic structure were partially preserved after the milling treatment compared to Graphene Oxide (GO) prepared by Hummers' method. Several characterization techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Electron Microscopy (EM) and molecular dynamics simulation were used to characterize this material. The drug-exfoliated mesosheets were pharmacologically inactive offering a new approach for making water-soluble few-layer graphene mesosheets upon dry milling with hydrophobic drugs, mainly used as exfoliating agents.
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Examining the Risks of Cardiac Arrhythmia and Mortality among New-Generation Macrolides, Fluoroquinolones, and Beta-Lactam/Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor: A Nationwide Study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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?Previous studies have demonstrated increased cardiovascular mortality related to azithromycin and levofloxacin. Risks associated with alternative drugs in the same class, including clarithromycin and moxifloxacin, were unknown. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database to perform a nationwide, population-based study that compares the risks of ventricular arrhythmia and cardiovascular death among these antibiotics.
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Tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate- induces autophagy of rat spermatogonial stem cells.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Tri-ortho -cresyl phosphate (TOCP) has been widely used as plasticizers, plastic softeners, and flame-retardants in industry and reported to have a deleterious effect on the male reproductive system in animals besides delayed neurotoxicity. Our preliminary results found that TOCP could disrupt the seminiferous epithelium in the testis and inhibit spermatogenesis, but the precise mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The present study shows that TOCP inhibited viability of rat spermatogonial stem cells in a dose-dependent manner. TOCP couldn't lead to cell cycle arrest in the cells; the mRNA levels of p21, p27, p53 and cyclin D1 in the cells were also not affected by TOCP. Meanwhile, TOCP didn't induce apoptosis of rat spermatogonial stem cells. After treatment with TOCP, however, both LC3-II and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I were markedly increased; autophagy proteins atg5 and Beclin 1 were also increased after treated with TOCP, indicating TOCP could induce autophagy in the cells. Ultrastructural observation under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that autophagic vesicles in the cytoplasm containing extensively degraded organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum increased significantly after the cells were treated with TOCP. In summary, we have shown that TOCP can inhibit viability of rat spermatogonial stem cells and induce autophagy of the cells, without affecting cell cycle and apoptosis.
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[Construction of beta-catenin miRNA-expressing vectors and test of silencing effect in adipose-derived stem cells from Sprague-Dawley rats].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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OBEJECTIVE: To construct miRNA-expressing plasmid vector for interfering the expression of beta-catenin in adipose-derived stem cells from Sprague-Dawley rats.
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Dysregulation of genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in abnormal cloned piglets.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Epigenetic modifications (especially altered DNA methylation) resulting in altered gene expression may be one reason for development failure or abnormalities in cloned animals, but the underlying mechanism of the abnormal phenotype in cloned piglets remains unknown. Some cloned piglets in our study showed abnormal phenotypes such as large tongue (longer and thicker), weak muscles, and exomphalos. Here we conducted DNA methylation (DNAm) immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of muscle tissues of cloned piglets to investigate the relationship of abnormal DNAm with gene dysregulation and the unusual phenotypes in cloned piglets.
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Central alarin ameliorated insulin resistance of adipocytes in type 2 diabetic rats.
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Alarin, a regulatory peptide, belongs to the galanin family and plays the same regulatory roles as galanin in orexigenic activity and energy metabolism. Our previous studies had found that galanin might facilitate insulin sensitivity via activation of its central receptors. To date, little is known about whether central alarin may exert similar effects on insulin sensitivity. In order to investigate this, alarin and its specific antagonist, alarin 6-25Cys, were administered into the cerebral ventricles of type 2 diabetic rats (T2DR) to evaluate the changes in insulin resistance. The results indicated that central treatment with alarin significantly increased the body weight of animals, the 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose uptake, the plasma adiponectin levels, the glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, the vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 as well as glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 (SLC2A4)) protein and mRNA levels, and the ratios of GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in adipocytes, but reduced blood glucose and plasma retinol-binding protein 4 levels. These effects of alarin may be inhibited by pretreatment with alarin 6-25Cys. The above-mentioned results suggest that the central alarin projective system may facilitate insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake via the increase in GLUT4 content and GLUT4 translocation from intracellular pools to plasma membranes in T2DR.
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A depth estimation method based on geometric transformation for stereo light microscope.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Stereo light microscopes (SLM) with narrow vision and shallow depth of field are widely used in micro-domain research. In this paper, we propose a depth estimation method of micro objects based on geometric transformation. By analyzing the optical imaging geometry, the definition of geometric transformation distance is given and the depth-distance relation express is obtained. The parameters of geometric transformation and express are calibrated with calibration board images captured in aid of precise motorized stage. The depth of micro object can be estimated by calculating the geometric transformation distance. The proposed depth-distance relation express is verified using an experiment in which the depth map of an Olanzapine tablet surface is reconstructed.
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Disease activity affects all domains of quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and is modified by disease duration.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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This study was conducted to determine how disease activity affects quality of life (QOL) and its interaction with functional impairments, and disease duration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Expression and roles of syndecan-4 in dental epithelial cell differentiation.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Syndecan-4 (SDC4), a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan, acts as a signal transducer. It affects the growth and differentiation of a number of tissues and organs. However, the specific mechanisms through which SDC4 regulates the differentiation of dental epithelial cells (amelogenesis) and tooth development remains largely unknown. In the present study, to identify the SDC4-regulated processes in dental epithelial cells, the SDC4 expression pattern was examined in mouse molar and postnatal incisor tooth germs during the late bell stage of development. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was designed for this study and used to downregulate SDC4 expression in the rat dental epithelial cell line, HAT-7. The results revealed that SDC4 was mainly present in the oral epithelium, the dental epithelial cells of enamel organs in the molars and the cervical loops in the incisors. When the inner enamel epithelial cells gave rise to ameloblasts, however, the loss of SDC4 expression was evident. SDC4 was also expressed in stratum intermedium (SI) cells in the incisors and in dental mesenchymal cells adjacent to the cervical loops in molars (E18) and postnatal incisors. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) promoted proliferation and slightly decreased cell differentiation. The knockdown of SDC4 using specific siRNA led to a decrease in cell proliferation and a highly significant increase in amelogenin, ameloblastin, kallikrein 4 and matrix metalloproteinase 20 expression, molecules that are known to participate in the formation of enamel. These effects were attenuated by FGF10, which upregulated SDC4 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that SDC4 participates in amelogenesis, and FGF10 may modulate dental epithelial cell behaviors through the regulation of SDC4 expression.
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Dispersed, porous nanoislands landing on stretchable nanocrack gold films: maintenance of stretchability and controllable impedance.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Stretchable electronic devices have great potential for serving as bioelectrical interfaces due to their better deformability and modulus match with biological organs. However, surface modification, which is usually applied to enhance the capability of sensing and stimulating, as well as biocompatibility, may cause problems since their stretchability highly depends on the surface structure. In this work, stretchable nanocrack gold (SNCG) electrodes were fabricated, which can be stretched by a maximum 120% uniaxial strain while maintaining their electrical conductivity. We found that the electrodes lost their stretchability after surface modification of an additional continuous platinum layer, which was found to selectively weld or fully cover the nanocracks, consequently eliminating its crack structure. To address this issue, we designed a complex structure of dispersed, porous nanoislands landing on the SNCG film, which was further demonstrated as capable of maintaining the stretchability of electrodes while allowing the reshaping of cracks. Moreover, stretchable microelectrode arrays were then developed with this complex structure. Animal experiments demonstrated their capability of conformally wrapping on a rat brain cortex and effectively monitoring an intracranial electroencephalogram under deformation. In addition, their impedance can be precisely controlled by modulating the dispersity, diameter, and aspect ratio of individual nanoislands. This complex structure has great potential for developing highly stretchable, multiplexing sensors, allowing stiff materials to land on a stretchable conducting surface with maintenance of stretchability and controllable functional area.
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No increased venous thromboembolism risk in Asian breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Tamoxifen is an effective endocrine treatment for early breast cancer (EBC) but increases the risk of venous thromboembolism. Whether Asian EBC patients (pts) bear the same risk when treated with adjuvant tamoxifen is uncertain. EBC pts diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 were selected from a population database in Taiwan. The pts were followed up from the index date to December 31, 2011 to collect events of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Cumulative incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were used to compare the risk between pts treated with and without tamoxifen. In addition, comorbidities were included in an adjusted model of the risk of DVT and PE. A total of 28,029 EBC pts, including 17,843 (63.8 %) in the tamoxifen group and 10,155 (36.2 %) in the nontamoxifen group, were analyzed. The 7-year cumulative incidence rates for DVT and PE were 2.58 and 0.32 % in the tamoxifen group and 2.51 and 0.32 % in the nontamoxifen group (P = 0.92 for DVT, P = 0. 65 for PE), respectively. The HR for the nonadjusted and adjusted models showed no differences in DVT and PE risks between the tamoxifen and nontamoxifen groups. The uterine cancer risk was significantly increased in the pts receiving tamoxifen (adjusted HR = 2.79, P < 0.001), suggesting tamoxifen compliance. The risks of developing DVT and PE are not increased in Asian EBC pts receiving adjuvant tamoxifen. Ethnicity differences should be considered when discussing optimal endocrine treatments with EBC pts.
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The inflammation-related gene S100A12 is positively regulated by C/EBP? and AP-1 in pigs.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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S100A12 is involved in the inflammatory response and is considered an important marker for many inflammatory diseases in humans. Our previous studies indicated that the S100A12 gene was abundant in the immune tissues of pigs and was significantly upregulated during infection with Haemophilus parasuis (HPS) or porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). In this study, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of S100A12 was investigated in pigs. Our results showed that S100A12, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBP?) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) genes were up-regulated in PK-15 (ATCC, CCL-33) cells when treated with LPS or Poly I: C. Additionally, the promoter activity and expression level of the S100A12 gene were significantly upregulated when C/EBP? or AP-1 were overexpressed. We utilized electromobility shift assays (EMSA) to confirm that C/EBP? and AP-1 could directly bind the S100A12 gene promoter. We also found that the transcriptional activity and expression levels of C/EBP? and AP-1 could positively regulate each other. Furthermore, the promoter activity of the S100A12 gene was higher when C/EBP? and AP-1 were cotransfected than when they were transfected individually. We concluded that the S100A12 gene was cooperatively and positively regulated by C/EBP? and AP-1 in pigs. Our study offers new insight into the transcriptional regulation of the S100A12 gene.
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The potential of dental stem cells differentiating into neurogenic cell lineage after cultivation in different modes in vitro.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Trauma or degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) cause the loss of neurons or glial cells. Stem cell transplantation has become a vital strategy for CNS regeneration. It is necessary to effectively induce nonneurogenic stem cells to differentiate into neurogenic cell lineages because of the limited source of neurogenic stem cells, relatively difficult cultivation, and ethical issues. Previous studies have found that dental stem cells can be used for transplantation therapy. The aim of this study was to explore a better inductive mode and time point for dental stem cells to differentiate into neural-like cells and evaluate a better candidate cell. In this study, dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), dental papilla stem cells (DPSCs), and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) were cultivated in five different modes. The proliferation ability, morphology, and expression of neural marker genes were analyzed. Results showed that DFSCs showed a higher proliferation potential. The proliferation was decreased after cultivation in chemical inductive medium as cultivation modes 3 and 5. The cells could present neural-like cell morphology after cultivation with human epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-basic (bFGF) as cultivation modes 4 and 5. The vast majority of DFSCs gene expression levels in mode 4 on the third day was upregulated significantly. In conclusion, our data suggested that different dental stem cells exhibited different neural differentiation potentials. DFSCs might be the better candidate cell type. Furthermore, cultivation mode 4 and timing of the third day may promote differentiation into neurogenic cell lineages more effectively before transplantation to treat neurological diseases.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased mortality in Chinese patients receiving curative surgery for colon cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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We investigated the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the prognosis of patients with early colon cancer who had undergone curative surgery.
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A simple quality assessment index for stereoscopic images based on 3D gradient magnitude.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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We present a simple quality assessment index for stereoscopic images based on 3D gradient magnitude. To be more specific, we construct 3D volume from the stereoscopic images across different disparity spaces and calculate pointwise 3D gradient magnitude similarity (3D-GMS) along three horizontal, vertical, and viewpoint directions. Then, the quality score is obtained by averaging the 3D-GMS scores of all points in the 3D volume. Experimental results on four publicly available 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that, in comparison with the most related existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistency alignment with subjective assessment.
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An update of the goat genome assembly using dense radiation hybrid maps allows detailed analysis of evolutionary rearrangements in Bovidae.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The domestic goat (Capra hircus), an important livestock species, belongs to a clade of Ruminantia, Bovidae, together with cattle, buffalo and sheep. The history of genome evolution and chromosomal rearrangements on a small scale in ruminants remain speculative. Recently completed goat genome sequence was released but is still in a draft stage. The draft sequence used a variety of assembly packages, as well as a radiation hybrid (RH) map of chromosome 1 as part of its validation.
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Expression of Nfic during root formation in first mandibular molar of rat.
J. Mol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The transcription factor Nfic is a key regulator during tooth development. Nfic deficient mice exhibit short and abnormal molar roots and severely deformed incisors. Dental epithelial cells, known as Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS), participate in root formation. However, whether Nfic is involved in HERS-mesenchyme interaction remains unclear. In this study, the detail temporal and spatial expression pattern of Nfic during rat molar development was examined using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Nfic was detected in ameloblasts, dental follicle cells (DFCs) and dental papilla cells (DPCs), especially the DPCs close to dentin, from postnatal day 5 to day 16. Nfic expression in DPCs, DFCs and HERS cells was also examined by western blot and RT-PCR. Nfic was detected in DPCs and DFCs, but not in HERS cells. Co-culture experiment further indicated that Nfic mRNA expression in DPCs was elevated by the presence of HERS cells. Our results revealed that Nfic could be a marker gene for root odontoblasts differentiation initiation and its expression might be regulated through epithelial-mesenchymal interaction.
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Sex- and age-specific prevalence and incidence rates of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in Taiwan.
JAMA Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is high in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Published estimates for sight-threatening DR (STDR) prevalence range widely. There is a need for precise contemporary estimates of the prevalence and incidence of STDR for providing optimal strategies of clinical management in Taiwan.
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Distinct clinicopathological features and prognosis of emerging young-female breast cancer in an East Asian country: a nationwide cancer registry-based study.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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A rapid surge of young-female breast cancer (YFBC) has been observed in Taiwan and other East Asian countries. We recently reported that these cases of YFBC, in contrast to their Western counterparts, are predominantly luminal A subtype. YFBC in Asia may have distinct clinicopathological features and outcomes.
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Predicting high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration isolate infection among patients with community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with an elevated vancomycin MIC ?2 mg/L have been increasingly identified in many countries. We aimed to develop a clinical score to predict vancomycin MIC ?2 mg/L in patients with community-onset MRSA bacteraemia.
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Identification of differentially expressed miRNAs between white and black hair follicles by RNA-sequencing in the goat (Capra hircus).
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in many biological processes by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A number of miRNAs have been identified from livestock species. However, compared with other animals, such as pigs and cows, the number of miRNAs identified in goats is quite low, particularly in hair follicles. In this study, to investigate the functional roles of miRNAs in goat hair follicles of goats with different coat colors, we sequenced miRNAs from two hair follicles samples (white and black) using Solexa sequencing. A total of 35,604,016 reads were obtained, which included 30,878,637 clean reads (86.73%). MiRDeep2 software identified 214 miRNAs. Among them, 205 were conserved among species and nine were novel miRNAs. Furthermore, DESeq software identified six differentially expressed miRNAs. Quantitative PCR confirmed differential expression of two miRNAs, miR-10b and miR-211. KEGG pathways were analyzed using the DAVID website for the predicted target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs. Several signaling pathways including Notch and MAPK pathways may affect the process of coat color formation. Our study showed that the identified miRNAs might play an essential role in black and white follicle formation in goats.
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Biomechanical analysis and comparison of 12 dental implant systems using 3D finite element study.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Finite element analysis plays an important role in dental implant design. The objective of this study was to show the effect of the overall geometry of dental implants on their biomechanics after implantation. In this study, 12 dental implants, with the same length, diameter and screw design, were simulated from different implant systems. Numerical model of right mandibular incisor bone segment was generated from CT data. The von-Mises stress distributions and the total deformation distributions under vertical/lateral load were compared for each implant by scores ranking method. The implants with cylindrical shapes had highest scores. Results indicated that cylindrical shape represented better geometry over taper implant. This study is helpful in choosing the optimal dental implant for clinical application and also contributes to individual implant design. Our study could also provide reference for choice and modification of dental implant in any other insertion sites and bone qualities.
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Effectiveness and safety of extracranial carotid stent placement: A nationwide self-controlled case-series study.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Carotid angioplasty and stent (CAS) placement has emerged as an attractive revascularization strategy for patients with internal carotid artery stenosis. However, the effectiveness and safety of CAS were not fully evaluated, mainly because of methodological difficulties in finding an appropriate comparison group.
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Different angiotensin receptor blockers and incidence of diabetes: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to exert various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) binding activities and insulin-sensitizing effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different ARBs with new-onset diabetes mellitus.
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A model measuring therapeutic inertia and the associated factors among diabetes patients: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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This article presents an analysis conducted on the patterns related to therapeutic inertia with the aim of uncovering how variables at the patient level and the healthcare provider level influence the intensification of therapy when it is clinically indicated. A cohort study was conducted on 899,135 HbA1c results from 168,876 adult diabetes patients with poorly controlled HbA1c levels. HbA1c results were used to identify variations in the prescription of hypoglycemic drugs. Logistic regression and hierarchical linear models (HLMs) were used to determine how differences among healthcare providers and patient characteristics influence therapeutic inertia. We estimated that 38.5% of the patients in this study were subject to therapeutic inertia. The odds ratio of cardiologists choosing to intensify therapy was 0.708 times that of endocrinologists. Furthermore, patients in medical centers were shown to be 1.077 times more likely to be prescribed intensified treatment than patients in primary clinics. The HLMs presented results similar to those of the logistic model. Overall, we determined that 88.92% of the variation in the application of intensified treatment was at the within-physician level. Reducing therapeutic inertia will likely require educational initiatives aimed at ensuring adherence to clinical practice guidelines in the care of diabetes patients.
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Cryopreserved dentin matrix as a scaffold material for dentin-pulp tissue regeneration.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Cryopreservation has been identified as an efficient approach to preserve tissue engineered products for a long term. Our prior studies have suggested that the treated dentin matrix (TDM) could be an ideal bioactive scaffold for dental tissue regeneration. In this study, we hypothesize that the cryopreservation could effectively maintain the survival and viability of dentinogenesis-related proteins of TDM and the cryopreserved dentin matrix (CDM) would provide the suitable biological scaffold and inductive microenvironment for the regeneration of dentin-pulp like tissue. CDM-3 and CDM-6 were prepared by cryopreserving TDM in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) with cryoprotectant for 3 months and 6 months, respectively. Various biological characteristics of CDM, including mechanical properties, cell proliferation, and odontogenesis ability, were investigated. To further evaluate the inductive capacity of CDM, human dental follicle cells were encapsulated within CDM, and implanted the scaffold into a mouse model for 8 weeks, and the grafts were harvested and assessed histologically. The CDM showed superior mechanical properties than TDM. Compared to TDM, CDM can release more dentinogenesis-related proteins due to the larger pore diameter. Cell proliferation with the addition of CDM extract liquid was similar to that of TDM in the first five days. Human dental follicle cells, under the effect of CDM extract liquid, highly expressed bone sialoprotein, collagen-1, alkaline phosphatase, indicating that CDM, regarded as the inductive microenvironment, plays an important role in odontogenesis. Most importantly, in vivo, CDM could induce dental follicle cells to regenerate new dentin-pulp like tissues, such as dentinal tubules, predentin, collagen fibers, nerves, and blood vessels which were positive for dentin sialophosphoprotein, dental matrix protein-1, Tubulin, and collagen-1. In conclusion, CDM is an ideal biological scaffold material for human dentin-pulp like tissue regeneration. These findings indicated that TDM could be preserved as the tissue engineering scaffold that is readily available for patient treatments. Furthermore, the success of cryopreservation of TDM may also provide an insight into preserving other bioactive scaffold materials of tissue engineering.
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Hertwig's epithelial root sheath cells regulate osteogenic differentiation of dental follicle cells through the Wnt pathway.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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The development of periodontal ligament-cementum complex (PLCC) originates from the interaction between epithelial cells of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and mesenchymal cells of the dental follicle. While previous studies have suggested that the Wnt pathway is involved in osteogenic differentiation of dental follicle cells (DFCs) during tooth root development, its involvement in the interaction between DFCs and HERS cells (HERSCs) in tooth root mineralization remains unclear. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that HERSCs control osteogenic differentiation of DFCs via the Wnt pathway. We found that during co-culture with HERSCs, DFCs exhibited a greater tendency to form mineralized nodules. Moreover, under these conditions, DFCs expressed high levels of cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation-related markers, such as bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN), the periodontal ligament phenotype-related gene type I collagen (COL1), and ?-catenin (CTNNB1), a core player in the canonical Wnt pathway. In contrast, expression in DFCs of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was greatly decreased in the presence of HERSCs. Expression of CTNNB1 in DFCs was stimulated by Wnt3a, a representative canonical member of the Wnt family of ligands, but suppressed by Dickkopf1 (DKK1), a Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling inhibitor. Furthermore, in the presence of treated dentin matrix (TDM), differentiation of DFCs was enhanced by Wnt3a when they were in direct contact with HERSCs, but was curtailed by DKK1. Taken together, these results indicate that during tooth root formation, HERSCs induce osteogenic differentiation of DFCs in a process involving the Wnt pathway and the dentin matrix. Our study not only contributes to our understanding of tooth root development and diseases of tooth root mineralization, but also proffers a novel potential strategy for controlling mineralization during tooth root regeneration.
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Examining the association of olmesartan and other angiotensin receptor blockers with overall and cause-specific mortality.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Concerns about an increased cardiovascular risk with the angiotensin receptor blocker, olmesartan, prompted the current study to examine associations between olmesartan and other angiotensin receptor blockers with overall and cause-specific mortalities. We collected patients who started to use losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, candesartan, telmisartan, and olmesartan between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009, from Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database. Prescribed drug types, dosage, and other clinical information were collected. Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality were ascertained through linkages with Taiwan's National Death Registry. Two follow-up analyses, labeled intention-to-treat and as-treated, were conducted. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using losartan as the reference group. A total of 690 463 subjects were included, with a mean follow-up ranging from a low of 2.8 years for olmesartan to a high of 4.1 years for irbesartan. Subjects who began with valsartan had a modest but significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06) compared with losartan. Irbesartan (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), candesartan (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99), telmisartan (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.96), and olmesartan (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.97) were associated with a slightly lower overall mortality risk than losartan. The analysis indicates that the differences in mortality risk among individual angiotensin receptor blockers were only marginal and thus less likely to be clinically important. Although uncontrolled confounding might still exist, olmesartan does not seem to increase cardiovascular risk compared with losartan.
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Use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD and the risk of TB and influenza: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Background: The use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in patients with COPD. However, the risks of other respiratory infections, such as TB and influenza, remain unclear.Methods: Through a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to July 2013, we identified randomized controlled trials of ICS therapy lasting at least 6 months. We conducted meta-analyses by the Peto, Mantel-Haenszel, and Bayesian approaches to generate summary estimates comparing ICS with non-ICS treatment on the risk of TB and influenza.Results: Twenty-fi ve trials (22,898 subjects) for TB and 26 trials (23,616 subjects) for influenza were included. Compared with non-ICS treatment, ICS treatment was associated with a significantly higher risk of TB (Peto OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.04-5.03) but not influenza (Peto OR, 1.24;95% CI, 0.94-1.63). Results were similar with each meta-analytic approach. Furthermore, the number needed to harm to cause one additional TB event was lower for patients with COPD treated with ICSs in endemic areas than for those in nonendemic areas (909 vs 1,667, respectively).Conclusions: This study raises safety concerns about the risk of TB and influenza associated with ICS use in patients with COPD, which deserve further investigation.
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Long-term antidepressant use and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based, nested case-control study in Taiwan.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Antidepressant drugs might induce weight gain and increase diabetes risk. We examined the diabetes risk with long-term antidepressant use in a general population.
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Long-acting insulin analogues and diabetic retinopathy: a retrospective cohort study.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to facilitate consistent glycemic control without excessive hypoglycemia. However, structural modifications of the insulin molecule can alter biological responses and binding characteristics with specific receptors. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) associated with treatment using long-acting insulin analogues compared with intermediate-acting insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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Infection, antibiotic therapy and risk of colorectal cancer: a nationwide nested case-control study in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The objective of our study was to examine the inter-relationship among infection sites, systemic antibiotic use and risk of CRC among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. From a diabetic cohort from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database, we identified 3,593 incident colon cancer cases, 1,979 rectal cancer cases and 22,288 controls and conducted a nested case-control study to examine the association between antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) between infection sites, antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Patients with intra-abdominal infection were significantly associated with increased risk for colon cancer (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73-2.35) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.26-2.00). Any antianaerobic antibiotic use was associated with a higher risk of colon cancer (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 2.12-2.52) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.50-1.90) but without an obvious dose-response relationship for cumulative use. Antianaerobic antibiotics also increased the risks for those with nonintra-abdominal infection. No association was found between antiaerobic agent use and the CRC risk. The results suggest intra-abdominal infections and antianaerobic antibiotic use may be a marker for precancerous lesions or early CRC, although the possibility of antianaerobic antibiotics playing an additional role cannot be excluded. Further research examining the relationship between intra-abdominal infection, antianaerobic antibiotics use and possible change of microbiota leading to colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.
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Effect of radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation on morbidity and mortality: a nationwide cohort study and propensity score analysis.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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This study examined the effect of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) on reducing morbidity and mortality among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
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Continuation of statin therapy and a decreased risk of atrial fibrillation/flutter in patients with and without chronic kidney disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To contain cost, Taiwan's previous National Health Insurance Reimbursement Policy requested that physicians discontinue their patients' statin therapy once the serum cholesterol had reached appropriate levels. This allowed us to evaluate the association between statin continuation and the occurrence of atrial fibrillation/flutter and whether it was modified by chronic kidney disease (CKD) status.
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Increased risk of diabetes mellitus in relation to the severity of psoriasis, concomitant medication, and comorbidity: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The association between psoriasis and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been explored previously. However, no studies have been reported regarding the severity of psoriasis, comorbidities, and concomitant medications on the risks of DM in patients with psoriasis.
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Discerning Fragmentation Dynamics of Tropical Forest and Wetland during Reforestation, Urban Sprawl, and Policy Shifts.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940-2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr-1 in 1977-1991 versus 2.17% yr-1 in 1991-2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in land planning to reduce future fragmentation.
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Upregulation of micro-ribonucleic acid-128 cooperating with downregulation of PTEN confers metastatic potential and unfavorable prognosis in patients with primary osteosarcoma.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Abnormal expression of micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA [miR])-128 has been observed in various human cancer types, and its validated target genes are implicated in cancer-related cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Especially, it has been demonstrated that miR-128 may play an important role in the proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells in vitro by directly inhibiting PTEN, which functions as a tumor suppressor in this malignancy. In the current study, we investigated the involvement of miR-128 and its target gene PTEN in tumor progression and prognosis in patients with primary osteosarcoma.
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Association of adjuvant antiviral therapy with risk of cancer progression and deaths in patients with hepatitis-B-virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma following curative treatment: a nationwide cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Limited information about tumor status and the time at which antiviral therapy was initiated may have influenced effect estimation in previous research. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antiviral therapies on HBV-related HCC progression and deaths in patients receiving curative treatment based on clear clinical-pathological cancer status and the association of start time of adjuvant antiviral therapy initiation and outcomes.
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Antihypertensive agents and risk of Parkinson's disease: a nationwide cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hypertension has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), but data on antihypertensive drugs and PD are inconclusive. We aim to evaluate antihypertensive drugs for an association with PD in hypertensive patients.
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Metabolic profiling of dividing cells in live rodent brain by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) and LCModel analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dividing cells can be detected in the live brain by positron emission tomography or optical imaging. Here we apply proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) and a widely used spectral fitting algorithm to characterize the effect of increased neurogenesis after electroconvulsive shock in the live rodent brain via spectral signatures representing mobile lipids resonating at ?1.30 ppm. In addition, we also apply the same 1HMRS methodology to metabolically profile glioblastomas with actively dividing cells growing in RCAS-PDGF mice.
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A novel macroblock level rate control method for stereo video coding.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To compress stereo video effectively, this paper proposes a novel macroblock (MB) level rate control method based on binocular perception. A binocular just-notification difference (BJND) model based on the parallax matching is first used to describe binocular perception. Then, the proposed rate control method is performed in stereo video coding with four levels, namely, view level, group-of-pictures (GOP) level, frame level, and MB level. In the view level, different proportions of bitrates are allocated for the left and right views of stereo video according to the prestatistical rate allocation proportion. In the GOP level, the total number of bitrates allocated to each GOP is computed and the initial quantization parameter of each GOP is set. In the frame level, the target bits allocated to each frame are computed. In the MB level, visual perception factor, which is measured by the BJND value of MB, is used to adjust the MB level bit allocation, so that the rate control results in line with the human visual characteristics. Experimental results show that the proposed method can control the bitrate more accurately and get better subjective quality of stereo video, compared with other methods.
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Diabetes and risk of tuberculosis relapse: nationwide nested case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) relapse using the nationwide TB registry in Taiwan. We conducted a case-control study nested within a nationwide cohort of all incident cases of pulmonary TB that were notified during 2006-2007 and had completed anti-TB treatment. The relapse of TB was confirmed by bacteriological or pathological findings. For each relapse case, one control was selected from the study cohort matching by time since treatment completion. DM status was ascertained by medical chart review and cross-matching with the National Health Insurance claims database. A total of 305 cases of relapse were identified after a median follow-up of 3 years (relapse rate: 488 per 100,000 person-year; 95% confidence interval (CI): 434-546). Presence of DM during previous anti-TB treatment was 34.0% and 22.7% in cases and controls, respectively. After adjusting for other potential confounders, DM was associated with increased risk of TB relapse (adjusted odds ratio: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.22-3.15). Only one-third of the DM-TB patients in our study received glycaemic monitoring using HbA1c during anti-TB treatment. Presence of DM was independently associated with risk of TB relapse. TB programs should seriously consider rigorous glucose control in DM-TB patients.
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B cell tolerance regulates production of antibodies causing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Immune complexes consisting of heparin, platelet factor 4 (PF4) and PF4/heparin-reactive antibodies are central to the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). It is as yet unclear what triggers the initial induction of pathogenic antibodies. We identified B cells in peripheral blood of healthy adults that produce PF4/heparin-specific antibodies following in vitro stimulation with pro-inflammatory molecules containing deoxycytosine-deoxyguanosine (CpG). Similarly, B cells from non-manipulated wild-type mice produced PF4/heparin-specific antibodies following in vitro or in vivo CpG stimulation. Thus, both healthy humans and mice possess pre-existing, inactive/tolerant PF4/heparin-specific B cells. The findings suggest that breakdown of tolerance leads to PF4/heparin-specific B-cell activation and antibody production in patients developing HIT. Consistent with this concept, mice lacking protein kinase C? (PKC?) that are prone to breakdown of B-cell tolerance produced anti-PF4/heparin antibodies spontaneously. Therefore, breakdown of tolerance can lead to PF4/heparin-specific antibody production and B-cell tolerance may play an important role in HIT pathogenesis.
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Predictive performance of universal termination of resuscitation rules in an Asian community: are they accurate enough?
Emerg Med J
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Prehospital termination of resuscitation (TOR) rules have not been widely validated outside of Western countries. This study evaluated the performance of TOR rules in an Asian metropolitan with a mixed-tier emergency medical service (EMS).
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[Pregnant rate and pregnancy-relating factors of patients with early endometrial carcinoma and severe atypical hyperplasia of endometrium after fertility-preserving treatment by progestin].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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To summarize the pregnant rate of patients with early endometrial carcinoma and severe atypical hyperplasia after fertility-preserving treatment and analyze their pregnancy-relating factors.
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Parkin overexpression ameliorates hippocampal long-term potentiation and ?-amyloid load in an Alzheimers disease mouse model.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Alzheimers disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a severe decline of memory performance. A widely studied AD mouse model is the APPswe/PSEN1?E9 (APP/PS1) strain, as mice exhibit amyloid plaques as well as impaired memory capacities. To test whether restoring synaptic plasticity and decreasing ?-amyloid load by Parkin could represent a potential therapeutic target for AD, we crossed APP/PS1 transgenic mice with transgenic mice overexpressing the ubiquitin ligase Parkin and analyzed offspring properties. Overexpression of Parkin in APP/PS1 transgenic mice restored activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and rescued behavioral abnormalities. Moreover, overexpression of Parkin was associated with down-regulation of APP protein expression, decreased ?-amyloid load and reduced inflammation. Our data suggest that Parkin could be a promising target for AD therapy.
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Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants on cerebrovascular events: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Depression is a common disorder worldwide and is strongly associated with stroke. Use of antidepressants could potentially decrease the risk of stroke in patients with depression. However, the role of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the most frequently prescribed antidepressant in this era, in the risk of stroke showed inconsistent results. We aimed to assess the association between the use of different types of antidepressants, SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and the risk of cerebrovascular events in patients with depression or anxiety. A nationwide population-based cohort study was retrospectively conducted in patients with depression or anxiety who started to take SSRIs and TCAs identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database (2001-2009). We examined the association between the 2 types of antidepressants and incidence of stroke using a proportional hazard model adjusted for stroke risk factors. Among the 24,662 SSRI and 14,736 TCA initiators, the crude incidence rate for stroke was 10.03 and 13.77 per 100 person-years, respectively. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use was not associated with risk of stroke as compared with TCAs in the time-fixed analysis. After adjusting for baseline propensity scores in the time-varying analysis, SSRI use significantly reduced risk of stroke as compared with TCAs with the adjusted hazard ratio of 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.96). The effect persisted even after considering the antidepressant dosage (hazard ratio, 0.65 [0.42 to 0.99]). In summary, use of SSRIs was associated with a reduced risk for stroke, as compared with TCAs, in this specific disease population.
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[Influence of fetal bovine serum protein concentration in adipose tissue extract on adipogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To observe whether fetal bovine serum (FBS) will affect the adipogenic ability of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) induced by adipose tissue extract (ATE), and to explore the effects of different FBS protein concentrations in ATE on adipogenic ability, cell proliferation and migration of ADSCs.
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Secretory Factors From Rat Adipose Tissue Explants Promote Adipogenesis and Angiogenesis.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is known to be affected by many promoting and inhibiting factors, and correlated with surrounding cells and extracellular matrix. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of secreted biological molecules from adipose tissue explants on the growth of ASCs. In this study, ASCs were isolated and the secretory factors from adipose tissue explants (SFAE) were prepared from adipose tissue explants. The multilineage differentiation potential of ASCs was determined using different inductive media. The influence of SFAE on the colony formation and proliferation of ASCs was determined using colony-forming efficiency assay and Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were performed to analyze the beneficial effect of SFAE on the adipogenesis and angiogenesis of ASCs. Utilizing gelatin scaffold, the influence of SFAE on ASCs was investigated in vivo. Subsequently, cell/gelatin constructs were cultured in a subcutaneous pocket on a rat dorsum for 2 and 9 weeks, and the resultant samples were histologically evaluated. Results showed that ASCs derived from adipose explants can differentiate along multiple lineages in vitro. Utilizing SFAE, the proliferation and colony-forming efficiency of ASCs were inhibited, while the expression of adipogenesis markers such as C/EBP?, PPAR?2, and LPL, as well as angiogenesis factor VEGF-A were promoted. Moreover, the beneficial effect of SFAE on adipogenesis was revealed in vivo. In conclusion, our results suggested that SFAE has beneficial influence on adipogenesis and angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.
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Method-specific performance of vancomycin MIC susceptibility tests in predicting mortality of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Emerging evidence shows that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections caused by isolates with higher vancomycin MICs within the susceptibility range are associated with adverse outcomes. No study, however, has examined different susceptibility tests in predicting treatment outcomes of MRSA infections.
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National antiviral treatment program and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and associated mortality in Taiwan: a preliminary report.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Taiwans Bureau of National Health Insurance launched the National Antiviral Treatment Program (NATP) in 2003 to reimburse patients for antiviral drugs and interferons for chronic hepatitis B and C. The objective was to examine the impact of the NATP on the incidence and mortality due to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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In vitro efficacy of approved and experimental antivirals against novel genotype 3 hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicons.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Infection with genotype 3 hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common throughout the world, however no direct-acting antiviral (DAA) has been approved to treat this genotype. We therefore attempted to develop novel genotype 3 replicons to facilitate the discovery and development of new HCV therapies. A novel Huh-7-derived cell line 1C but not Lunet cells enabled the selection of a few stable colonies of a genotype 3a subgenomic replicon (strain S52). Genotypic analysis revealed a mutation of P89L in the viral NS3 protease domain, which was confirmed to enhance genotype 3a RNA replication and enable the establishment of highly replicating luciferase-encoding replicons. Secondary adaptive mutations that further enhanced RNA replication were identified in the viral NS3 and NS4A proteins. In addition, cell lines that were cured of genotype 3a replicons demonstrated higher permissiveness specifically to genotype 3a HCV replication. These novel replicons and cell lines were then used to study the activity of approved and experimental HCV inhibitors. NS3 protease and non-nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitors often demonstrated substantially less antiviral activity against genotype 3a compared to genotype 1b. In contrast, nucleoside analog NS5B inhibitors and host-targeting HCV inhibitors showed comparable antiviral activity between genotypes 3a and 1b. Overall, the establishment of this novel genotype 3a replicon system, in conjunction with those derived from other genotypes, will aid the development of treatment regimens for all genotypes of HCV.
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Risk of severe dysglycemia among diabetic patients receiving levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, or moxifloxacin in Taiwan.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Observational studies and fatal case reports raise concern about the safety of severe dysglycemia associated with fluoroquinolone use. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of severe dysglycemia among diabetic patients who received different fluoroquinolones.
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Molecular characterization and genome-wide mutations in porcine anal atresia candidate gene GLI2.
Mamm. Genome
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Anal atresia (i.e., anorectal malformations) is a severe disorder that occurs during the development of the distal hindgut in infants, swine, and many other mammals and has an unclear genetic background. Recently, the Shh-responsive transcription factor GLI2 has been shown as essential to the normal development of the hindgut, and QTL studies in pigs revealed that this gene may be an important candidate for anal atresia (AA). We used the pig as the model to study the contribution of GLI2 to AA. We revealed the genomic structure of the porcine GLI2 gene with 14 exons and obtained the porcine GLI2 mRNA sequence with a 4,656-bp ORF coding a 1,551-amino acid protein. We further scanned the genome-wide mutations in this gene by direct sequencing using three genomic DNA pools from the AA pigs, full-sibs of AA pigs, and unaffected pigs, respectively. Finally, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one intronic 9-nucleotide (nt) deletion were identified. Of these SNPs, 23 are intronic, 6 are synonymous, and 1 (446 G>A) in exon 8 is nonsynonymous (365Met >Ile). NCOI-RFLP of the 446 G>A polymorphism suggested that the predominant genotypes were all GG and AG in the three pig groups. In addition, there was no significant difference among the three groups in allele frequencies, which demonstrated that this locus was not associated with AA in pigs. However, the 12 SNPs encompassing exon 4 to exon 8 showed strong linkage disequilibrium in the AA pigs, which indicated that the mutations somewhere in this region may contribute to AA in pigs. Therefore, further investigation in this region is needed to elucidate the underlying mutations involved in the porcine AA.
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Pneumonia risk and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Recent studies have shown that use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may decrease pneumonia risk in various populations. We investigated the effect of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on pneumonia hospitalization in the general population of Taiwan.
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Endogenous peptides as risk markers to assess the development of insulin resistance.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Insulin resistance, the reciprocal of insulin sensitivity, is known to be a characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and is regarded as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis. The hallmark of insulin resistance is a gradual break-down of insulin-regulative glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissues in subjects. Insulin resistance is increasingly estimated in various disease conditions to examine and assess their etiology, pathogenesis and consequences. Although our understanding of insulin resistance has tremendously been improved in recent years, certain aspects of its estimation and etiology still remain elusive to clinicians and researchers. There are numerous factors involved in pathogenesis and mechanisms of insulin resistance. Recent studies have provided compelling clues about some peptides and proteins, including galanin, galanin-like peptide, ghrelin, adiponectin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and CRP, which may be used to simplify and to improve the determination of insulin resistance. And alterations of these peptide levels may be recognized as risk markers of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review examines the updated information for these peptides, highlighting the relations between these peptide levels and insulin resistance. The plasma high ghrelin, RBP4 and CRP as well as low galanin, GALP and adiponectin levels may be taken as the markers of deteriorating insulin resistance. An increase in the knowledge of these marker proteins and peptides will help us correctly diagnose and alleviate insulin resistance in clinic and study.
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Discontinuation of statin therapy associates with Parkinson disease: a population-based study.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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To evaluate the effect of discontinuing statin therapy on incidence of Parkinson disease (PD) in statin users.
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In vitro three-dimensional development of mouse molar tooth germs in a rotary cell culture system.
Int J Paediatr Dent
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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In vitro tooth germ cultivation is an effective method to explore the mechanism of odontogenesis. The three-dimensional rotary cell culture system (RCCS) is typically used to culture simulated organs such as cartilage, skin, and bone. In this study, we established an in vitro tooth germ culture model using RCCS to investigate whether RCCS could provide an appropriate environment for tooth germ development in vitro.
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The neuropeptide galanin benefits insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Curr. Protein Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Impaired insulin sensitivity, namely insulin resistance, is a metabolic and functional disorder that is often associated with the type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Recent studies have provided compelling clues that the neuropeptide galanin is closely related to insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of rats. This peptide may regulate glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism in peripheral tissues, as well as accelerate the translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the plasma membrane of various insulin-sensitive cells to reduce insulin resistance. Galanin plays a crucial role in inhibiting insulin secretion from pancreatic ? cells to prevent hyperinsulinemia, which is a characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review provides a comprehensive aggregation of the current literature available, bringing together data gleaned from our recent studies highlighting the role of galanin in regulating insulin sensitivity. This comprehensive role played by galanin and its relative agents in regulating insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity provides a new insight into the influence of this neuropeptides on the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Office-based potassium titanyl phosphate laser-assisted endoscopic vocal polypectomy.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Vocal polyps are common exophytic laryngeal lesions that usually necessitate microscopic laryngeal surgery under general anesthesia. Office-based indirect laryngoscopic procedures provide an alternative management option and can be performed comfortably under flexible endoscopic guidance. Combining angiolytic potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser treatment and flexible endoscopic polypectomy should alleviate the risks of surgery under general anesthesia and expedite lesion regression.
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Bystander-initiated CPR in an Asian metropolitan: Does the socioeconomic status matter?
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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To determine the association of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) with bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and patient outcomes of out of hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in an Asian metropolitan area.
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Statin use and cataract surgery: a nationwide retrospective cohort study in elderly ethnic Chinese patients.
Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Since a report of lenticular opacities in dogs treated with high dosages of statins, the debate on the relationship between statin therapy and cataracts has not reached a conclusion.
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Treatment of patients with dual hepatitis C and B by peginterferon ? and ribavirin reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Whether peginterferon ? and ribavirin combination therapy reduces risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or improves survival in patients dual-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is unknown. Since it is ethically impossible to conduct a randomised trial to learn the long-term efficacy, we rely upon the large database to explore the effectiveness of combination therapy among dual-infected patients. DESIGN: Data for this population-based retrospective cohort study were obtained from the treatment programme, Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance and death certification. We examined the risk of HCC, mortality and adverse events in 1096 treated and 18 988 untreated HCV-HBV dually-infected patients. Outcomes were analysed using the bias corrected inverse probability weighting (IPW) by propensity scores. Outcomes of HCV-HBV dually-infected and HCV mono-infected patients receiving the same treatment were compared using new user design with IPW estimators to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: After adjustment, combination therapy significantly reduced the risk of HCC (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.97), liver-related mortality (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.6) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.52). Nevertheless, the underlying HBV infection was still a risk factor for HCC and mortality after treatment. Treatment was associated with an increase in the incidence of thyroid dysfunction (HR 1.9, p<0.001) and mood disorders (HR 1.81, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first evidence showing that combination therapy decreased the risk of HCC and improved survival in HCV-HBV dually-infected patients despite a slight increase in the incidence of thyroid and mood disorders.
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Impacts of drug reimbursement reductions on utilization and expenditures of oral antidiabetic medications in Taiwan: An interrupted time series study.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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To control increasing pharmaceutical expenditures, Taiwans National Health Insurance has implemented a series of drug reimbursement price reductions since 2000. This study examined changes in use and expenditures of oral antidiabetic medications following the price regulation in November 2006.
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Comparison of benign lesion regression following vocal fold steroid injection and vocal hygiene education.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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This study intends to objectively quantify and compare the regression rates of vocal lesions in patients receiving either vocal fold steroid injection (VFSI) or vocal hygiene education (VHE). Potential influence of occupational vocal demands on the treatment outcome was also investigated.
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Trends in incidence and survival outcome of epithelial ovarian cancer: 30-year national population-based registry in Taiwan.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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To investigate the changes of incidence and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer in thirty years in Taiwan.
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Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose 256-slice multi-detector coronary CT angiography using iterative reconstruction in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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To evaluate the accuracy of low-dose coronary CTA with iterative reconstruction (IR) in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with suspected CAD.
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Examining the association between statins and lung cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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The relationship between statin use and lung cancer remains unclear. Patients with diabetes mellitus, who are at higher risks for both cancer and atherosclerosis, are usually indicated for statin use. The objective was to explore the relationship between statins, lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and lung adenocarcinoma incidence in diabetic patients.
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Microalbuminuria screening for detecting chronic kidney disease in the general population: a systematic review.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Microalbuminuria screening is widely used in high-risk populations but seldom used in the general population for detecting chronic kidney disease (CKD). Systematic reviews focused on screening for CKD are rare, and the issues about microalbuminuria screening in the general population have never been reviewed. We systematically reviewed studies regarding microalbuminuria screening and evaluated the benefits and harms of this screening method in the general population.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.