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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines Using Phthalic Acid Chemical.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Phthalates are a class of plasticizers that have been characterized as endocrine disrupters, and are associated with genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity in the GeneOntology gene/protein database. In this study, we synthesized phthalic acid chemical probes and demonstrated differing protein-protein interactions between MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Phthalic acid chemical probes were synthesized using silicon dioxide particle carriers, which were modified using the silanized linker 3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane (APTES). Incubation with cell lysates from breast cancer cell lines revealed interactions between phthalic acid and cellular proteins in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Subsequent proteomics analyses indicated 22 phthalic acid-binding proteins in both cell types, including heat shock cognate 71-kDa protein, ATP synthase subunit beta, and heat shock protein HSP 90-beta. In addition, 21 MCF-7-specific and 32 MDA-MB-231 specific phthalic acid-binding proteins were identified, including related proteasome proteins, heat shock 70-kDa protein, and NADPH dehydrogenase and ribosomal correlated proteins, ras-related proteins, and members of the heat shock protein family, respectively.
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Protective effects of garcinol on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative, mainly isolated from Garcinia indica fruit rind, has been suggested to exhibit many biological benefits including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of garcinol on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. The administration of DMN for six consecutive weeks resulted in the decrease of body weights, the elevation of serum aminotransferases, as well as histological lesions in livers. However, oral administration of garcinol remarkably inhibited the elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and relieved liver damage induced by DMN. Furthermore, our results revealed that garcinol not only effectively reduced the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components but also inhibited the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in livers. The expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and the phosphorylation of Smad 2 and Smad 3 were also suppressed by garcinol supplementation. In conclusion, our current study suggested that garcinol exerted hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects against DMN-induced liver injury in rats.
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Zebrafish WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 (wnk1) affects angiogenesis associated with VEGF signaling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The WNK1 (WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1) protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase with emerging roles in cancer. WNK1 causes hypertension and hyperkalemia when overexpressed and cardiovascular defects when ablated in mice. In this study, the role of Wnk1 in angiogenesis was explored using the zebrafish model. There are two zebrafish wnk1 isoforms, wnk1a and wnk1b, and both contain all the functional domains found in the human WNK1 protein. Both isoforms are expressed in the embryo at the initiation of angiogenesis and in the posterior cardinal vein (PCV), similar to fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (flt4). Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides against wnk1a and wnk1b, we observed that wnk1 morphants have defects in angiogenesis in the head and trunk, similar to flk1/vegfr2 morphants. Furthermore, both wnk1a and wnk1b mRNA can partially rescue the defects in vascular formation caused by flk1/vegfr2 knockdown. Mutation of the kinase domain or the Akt/PI3K phosphorylation site within wnk1 destroys this rescue capability. The rescue experiments provide evidence that wnk1 is a downstream target for Vegfr2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2) and Akt/PI3K signaling and thereby affects angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (flk1/vegfr2) or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (flt4/vegfr3) results in a decrease in wnk1a expression, as assessed by in situ hybridization and q-RT-PCR analysis. Thus, the Vegf/Vegfr signaling pathway controls angiogenesis in zebrafish via Akt kinase-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Wnk1 as well as transcriptional regulation of wnk1 expression.
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Benzyl butyl phthalate induces migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells through nongenomic AhR/G-protein signaling.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The widespread use of phthalates as plasticizers has raised public health concerns regarding their adverse effects, including an association with cancer. Although animal investigations have suggested an association between phthalate exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma, the mechanisms are unknown.
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Flexible and transparent polyimide films containing two-dimensional alumina nanosheets templated by graphene oxide for improved barrier property.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Unique two-dimensional alumina nanosheets (Alns) using graphene oxide (GO) as templates are fabricated and successfully incorporated with organo-soluble polyimide (PI) to obtain highly transparent PI nanocomposite films with improved moisture barrier property. The effects of filler types and contents on water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and transparency of PI are systematically studied. The hydroxyl groups on GO react with aluminum isopropoxide via sol-gel process to obtain alumina coverd-GO (Al-GO), and then thermal decomposition is applied to obtain Alns. Alns are the most efficient fillers among others to restrict the diffusion of water vapor within PI matrix and simultaneously maintain the transparency of PI. XRD pattern, TEM, and AFM images confirm the sheet-like morphology of Alns with ultrahigh aspect ratio. With only 0.01 wt % of Alns, the PI nanocomposite film exhibits the most significant reduction of 95% in WVTR as compared to that of pure PI film. Most importantly, the resultant PI/Alns-0.01 film exhibits excellent optical transparency and high mechanical strength and great thermal stability.
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Flexible polyimide films hybrid with functionalized boron nitride and graphene oxide simultaneously to improve thermal conduction and dimensional stability.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Coupling agent-functionalized boron nitride (f-BN) and glycidyl methacrylate-grafted graphene (g-TrG) are simultaneously blended with polyimide (PI) to fabricate a flexible, electrically insulating and thermally conductive PI composite film. The silk-like g-TrG successfully fills in the gap between PI and f-BN to complete the thermal conduction network. In addition, the strong interaction between surface functional groups on f-BN and g-TrG contributes to the effective phonon transfer in the PI matrix. The thermal conductivity (TC) of the PI/f-BN composite films containing additional 1 wt % of g-TrG is at least doubled to the value of PI/f-BN and as high as 16 times to that of the pure PI. The hybrid film PI/f-BN-50/g-TrG-1 exhibits excellent flexibility, sufficient insulating property, the highest TC of 2.11 W/mK, and ultralow coefficient of thermal expansion of 11 ppm/K, which are perfect conditions for future flexible substrate materials requiring efficient heat dissipation.
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Nurse preceptor training needs assessment: views of preceptors and new graduate nurses.
J Contin Educ Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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In Taiwan, regulatory bodies mandate that preceptor training programs comprise six mandatory topics used by all teaching hospitals. These programs have little empirical justification. This study explores the training needs of preceptors from the viewpoints of both preceptors and preceptees.
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Can sit-to-stand lower limb muscle power predict fall status?
Gait Posture
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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Sit-to-stand (STS) movements are essential for daily activities. Failure to perform STS movements efficiently and smoothly may lead to falls. In this study, we developed a forceplate to analyze vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), STS duration and generated muscle power to investigate which parameters were fall status predictors. A total of 105 participants were included in this study and were grouped into those (1) aged between 20 and 30 years (Young), (2) aged above 65 years without a history of falling (Non-fallers) and (3) aged above 65 with a history of falling in the past 12 months (Fallers). The results indicated a significantly higher maximal lower limb muscle power (MP) for the Young (9.05 ± 3.66 W/kg), followed by Non-fallers (5.50 ± 2.02W/kg) and Fallers (3.66 ± 1.45 W/kg) as well as higher modified falls efficacy scale (MFES) scores for the Young (Young: 9.88 ± 0.10; Non-fallers: 6.27 ± 1.40; Fallers: 4.83 ± 0.89) and shorter times for the five times sit-to-stand test (FSTST) for the young (Young: 6.09 ± 2.20 s; Non-fallers: 15.65 ± 3.30s; Fallers: 19.82 ± 4.46 s). There was a significant difference between the Young group and the Non-fallers in the maximal vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) (138.79 ± 24.20 N/BW in Young, 117.51 ± 8.57 N/BW in old Non-fallers, p < 0.01), and there was a significant difference between the Non-fallers and the Fallers in the duration of the STS movement (2.74 ± 0.87 s for the Non-fallers, 4.27 ± 2.56 s for the Fallers, p < 0.01). The regression analysis results further indicated that only MP and the STS stabilization phase could differentiate individuals who had past fall events. Therefore, the equipment we developed could potentially be useful in the assessment and monitoring of balance and the risk of falling in older people.
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Cluster of differentiation 45 activation is crucial in interleukin-10-dependent tumor-associated dendritic cell differentiation.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Tumor-associated dendritic cells (TADCs) are important in tumor immune surveillance, and it has been reported that the secretion of interleukin (IL)-10 by cancer cells is a major factor involved in the induction of TADCs in the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, IL-10 was found to activate cluster of differentiation (CD)45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), inducing a TADC-like phenomenon. The PTPase inhibitor, phenylarsine oxide, and a CD45 inhibitor reversed the IL-10-induced impaired differentiation of the DCs, and also reversed the induction of the TADCs by A549, MDA-MB-231 and SW480 conditioned media, which thus represents a novel therapy to reduce immune surveillance in the tumor microenvironment. The present study is the first to identify that CD45 is involved in IL-10-activated signaling in myeloid lineage cells.
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Survey of trend and factors in perinatal maternal fatigue.
Nurs Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Few studies have investigated maternal fatigue, particularly fatigue throughout the duration of pregnancy and the postpartum period. The purpose of this study was to explore changes related to maternal fatigue from pregnancy to postpartum and the factors influencing fatigue. This prospective longitudinal study surveyed 197 pregnant women beyond 24 gestational weeks monthly until one month postpartum. The Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue scale and one question about fatigue were used. Women at late pregnancy experienced a significant increase in level of fatigue, which remained high after childbirth. Those who were not happy about the pregnancy or were multiparas experienced a higher level of prenatal fatigue than their counterparts. At postpartum, mothers who were unemployed, had no one to help with childcare, or felt that the baby's night-time sleep pattern was a serious problem had a higher level of fatigue. Interventions can be planned and implemented at early pregnancy to reduce the prevalence of fatigue. Encouraging pregnant women to share experiences and thoughts about pregnancy and being a mother is suggested. Further studies that evaluate culturally sensitive instruments for fatigue are needed.
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Risk for estrogen-dependent diseases in relation to phthalate exposure and polymorphisms of CYP17A1 and estrogen receptor genes.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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Evidence has shown that polymorphisms of various genes known to be involved in estrogen biosynthesis and function are associated with estrogen-dependent diseases (EDDs). These genes include CYP17A1, estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), and 2 (ESR2). Phthalates are considered estrogenic endocrine disruptors, and recent research has suggested that they may act as a risk factor for EDDs. However, extremely few studies have assessed the effects of gene-environment interaction on these diseases. We recruited 44 patients with endometriosis or adenomyosis, 36 patients with leiomyoma, and 69 healthy controls from a medical center in Taiwan between 2005 and 2007. Urine samples were collected and analyzed for seven phthalate metabolites using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Peripheral lymphocytes were used for DNA extraction to determine the genotype of CYP17A1, ESR1, and ESR2. Compared to controls, patients with leiomyoma had significantly higher levels of total urinary mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (?MEHP) (52.1 vs. 29.6 ?g/g creatinine, p?=?0.040), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) (75.4 vs. 51.3 ?g/g creatinine, p?=?0.019), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (103.7 vs. 59.3 ?g/g creatinine, p?=?0.031). In contrast, patients with endometriosis or adenomyosis showed a marginally increased level of urinary MEHP only. Subjects who were homozygous for both the ESR1 C allele (rs2234693) and CYP17A1 C allele (rs743572) showed a significantly increased risk for leiomyoma (OR?=?19.8; 95 % CI, 1.70; 231.5; p?=?0.017) relative to subjects with other genotypes of ESR1 and CYP17A1. These results were obtained after adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, MEHP level, GSTM1 genotype and other covariates. Our results suggested that both CYP17A1 and ESR1 polymorphisms may modulate the effects of phthalate exposure on the development of leiomyoma.
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[Nursing care of endovascular aneurysm repair patients].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The treatment of aortic disease previously used conventional open surgery to replace the aorta with artificial vascular prosthesis after resecting the lesioned segment. The recently developed technique of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) uses a stent graft to reinforce the diseased aortic wall while allowing blood flow continuity and preventing further aortic expansion, dissection and aortic rupture. Taiwan's National Health Insurance now covers payment for authorized EVAR procedures, making treatments safer for patients who are elderly, have congestive heart failure, have multiple comorbidities, or have other high-risk factors. EVAR is gradually replacing previous methods to become the primary treatment approach for aortic disease. This article discusses the development of EVAR, indications, operative procedures, complications, postoperative risk factors, and clinical nursing problems. We hope that this article provides new information on nursing care for patients undergoing endovascular aneurysm repair surgery.
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Garcinol suppresses inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Garcinol is a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative isolated from the fruit rind of Garcinia indica and has exhibited chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in mice. In this study, we investigated whether garcinol protects against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis/inflammation and azoxymethane/DSS-induced inflammation-related colon tumorigenesis in male ICR mice. We also aimed to delineate the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects.
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Myosin IIa activation is crucial in breast cancer derived galectin-1 mediated tolerogenic dendritic cell differentiation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) play important roles in immune tolerance, autoimmune disease, tissue transplantation, and the tumor micro-environment. Factors that induce tDCs have been reported, however the intracellular mechanisms involved are rarely discussed.
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Adenovirus-mediated prothymosin ? gene transfer inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Prothymosin ? (ProT) is involved in regulating expression of the oxidative stress-protective genes and it also exerts immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ProT gene transfer on atherosclerosis in endothelial cells and in ApoE-deficient mice. Adenoviruses encoding mouse ProT (AdProT) were used for the management of atherosclerosis. In vitro, the effects of ProT on antioxidant gene expressions and the protection effect against oxidant-mediated injury in endothelial cells were examined. In vivo, AdProT were administered intraventricularly into the heart of ApoE(-/-) mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical assessments of the aortic tissues were performed. Expressions of HO-1 and antioxidant genes in the aortic tissues were also determined. Our results demonstrated that ProT gene transfer increased antioxidant gene expressions, eNOS expression and NO release, as well as reduced the reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells. Intraventricular administration of AdProT reduced the lesion formation, increased expressions of HO-1 and SOD genes, and reduced infiltrating macrophages in the aorta of ApoE(-/-) mice. This study suggests that ProT gene transfer may have the therapeutic potential for the management of atherosclerosis via inducing antioxidant gene expressions, eNOS expression and NO release, reducing ROS production and macrophage infiltration in endothelium.
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Effectiveness of a heel cup with an arch support insole on the standing balance of the elderly.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The use of insoles may enhance postural stability and prevent falls. The aim of this study was to design a new insole and to explore the effectiveness of the insole on the standing balance of the healthy elderly.
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Suppression of adipogenesis and obesity in high-fat induced mouse model by hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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This study demonstrated that hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones (HPMFs) effectively and dose-dependently suppressed accumulation of lipid droplets in adipocytes by approximately 51-55%. Western blot analysis revealed that HPMFs markedly down-regulated adipogenesis-related transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c as well as downstream target fatty acid binding protein 2 (aP2), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, HPMFs also activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the early phase of adipogenesis, HPMF-treated preadipocytes displayed a delayed cell cycle entry into G2/M phase at 24 h (35.5% for DMI group and 4.8% for 20 ?g/mL HPMFs-treated group) after initiation of adipogenesis. Furthermore, administration of HPMFs (0.25 and 1%) decreased high-fat diet (HFD) induced weight gain (15.3 ± 3.9 g for HFD group, 10.3 ± 0.3 g and 7.9 ± 0.7 g for 0.25 and 1% HPMFs groups, respectively) and relative perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric fat weight in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of HPMFs reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (GOT), alanine aminotransferase (GPT), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (T-cho). The results suggested that HPMFs may have a potential benefit in preventing obesity.
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Chemoprevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by dietary natural compounds.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver disease that is not from excess alcohol consumption, but is often associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD pathogenesis is complicated and involves oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, insulin resistance, inflammation, and excessive dietary fat intake, which increase hepatic lipid influx and de novo lipogenesis and impair insulin signaling, thus promoting hepatic triglyceride accumulation and ultimately NAFLD. Overproduction of proinflammatory adipokines from adipose tissue also affects hepatic metabolic function. Current NAFLD therapies are limited; thus, much attention has been focused on identification of potential dietary substances from fruits, vegetables, and edible plants to provide a new strategy for NAFLD treatment. Dietary natural compounds, such as carotenoids, omega-3-PUFAs, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, terpenoids, curcumin, and resveratrol, act through a variety of mechanisms to prevent and improve NAFLD. Here, we summarize and briefly discuss the currently known targets and signaling pathways as well as the role of dietary natural compounds that interfere with NAFLD pathogenesis.
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The effectiveness of light/dark exposure to treat insomnia in female nurses undertaking shift work during the evening/night shift.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The present study investigated whether bright light exposure during the first half of the evening/night shift combined with light attenuation in the morning is effective in improving sleep problems in nurses undertaking rotating shift work who suffer from clinical insomnia.
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Serum Level of IL-10 Is Increased in Patients with Endometriosis, and IL-10 Promotes the Growth of Lesions in a Murine Model.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Immune dysregulation may be involved in the development of endometriosis. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 plays an important role in eliminating unwanted cells and cellular debris in a silent way. We investigated the modulatory role of IL-10 in the development of endometriosis. We observed that the serum level of IL-10 in patients with endometriosis was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects or in control subjects with other gynecological disease. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells acquired from male donors and subsequently conditioned with serum from women with endometriosis exhibited a tolerogenic phenotype, including increased IL-10 production, lower IL-12 secretion, and down-regulation of CD86 and HLA-DR molecules. Depletion of IL-10 activity in a C57BL/6 mouse model of surgically induced endometriosis significantly decreased the size of endometrial lesions. In contrast, IL-10 administration promoted the growth of endometrial lesions in this model. In addition, infiltrated plasmacytoid dendritic cells were the primary IL-10-secreting immune cells in endometrial lesions. Our findings suggest that IL-10 may suppress immunity against endometrial implants, contributing to development of endometriosis.
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Learning to listen: effects of using conversational transcripts to help medical students improve their use of open questions in soliciting patient problems.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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This study reports effects of a bottom-up pedagogy using doctor-patient conversation transcripts to improve medical students use of open questions in soliciting patient problems.
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Evidence of securin-mediated resistance to gefitinib-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), has been used to treat numerous cancers; however, evidence has shown that cancer cells can become resistant to gefitinib during therapy. Here, we report a human proto-oncogene, securin, which displays resistance to death in cancer cells. Gefitinib treatment decreases securin levels at the protein level by inducing protein instability but did not affect on the securin gene expression. Treatment with gefitinib induced cytotoxicity in various human cancer cell types, including RKO (colon cancer), A549 (lung cancer), BFTC905 (bladder cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer) and A375 (skin cancer). BFTC905 and A549 cells expressed relatively high levels of the phosphorylated and total EGFR proteins; however, A375, MCF7 and RKO cells did not markedly express these proteins. Moreover, following treatment with gefitinib, the securin-wild type cancer cells were more resistant to apoptotic induction than the securin-null cancer cells. Surprisingly, both the securin-wild type and securin-null cancer cells expressed the EGFR protein at similar levels. Treatment with gefitinib induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein cleavage, indicating that apoptosis occurred in these cancer cells. The transfection of a GPF-securin expression vector increased both the proliferation rates and resistance to gefitinib-induced death in these cancer cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the presence of securin promotes resistance to gefitinib-induced apoptosis via an EGFR-independent pathway in human cancer cells.
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P53 codon 72 polymorphism in Taiwanese breast cancer patients.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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There are clear discrepancies between ethnicity and geographic area regarding the peak age incidence and mortality of breast cancer. Underlying variances include genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. The wild-type p53 codon has two common polymorphic variants from a single-base-pair substitution at codon 72, where either C-C-C encodes proline (p53-p72) or C-G-C encodes arginine (p53-R72). We aim to study the p53 codon 72 genotypes of patients with breast cancer in Taiwan and make a comparison with the published data to ascertain whether any difference exists between Taiwanese and Western patients with breast cancer. We also evaluated the effect of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism on clinicopathologic features. We examined blood from 170 Taiwanese women with breast cancer with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the genotypes of p53 codon 72. For the p53 codon 72 polymorphism, there were 31 p53-P/P72 (18.2%), 93 p53-R/P72 (54.7%), and 46 p53-R/R72 (27.1%) with the allele frequencies 0.54 for the p53-R72 and 0.46 for p53-P72, respectively. Our results indicate that there was more p53-P72 (40.6% in Asians vs. 26.4% in Caucasians) and twice the incidence of p53-P/P72 homozygotes (18% in Asians vs. 8% in Caucasians) among the Asian population. Patients with the p53-R/R72 variant were more likely to have a t1 tumor size status (55.2%) compared with patients with the P53-P/R72 (30.9%) or P53-P/P72 variant (36%). Our results support the hypothesis that genetic factors may contribute to the difference between Taiwanese or Asian breast cancer and Western breast cancer patient populations.
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Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2c signaling is required for intestinal cell differentiation in zebrafish.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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There are four cell lineages derived from intestinal stem cells that are located at the crypt and villus in the mammalian intestine the non-secretory absorptive enterocytes, and the secretory cells, which include mucous-secreting goblet cells, regulatory peptide-secreting enteroendocrine cells and antimicrobial peptide-secreting Paneth cells. Although fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is important for cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, its role in intestinal differentiation is less well understood.
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Epitope-specific mechanisms of IGF1R inhibition by ganitumab.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Therapeutic antibodies targeting the IGF1R have shown diverse efficacy and safety signals in oncology clinical trials. The success of these agents as future human therapeutics depends on understanding the specific mechanisms by which these antibodies target IGF1R signaling.
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A microRNA-520 mirSNP at the MMP2 gene influences susceptibility to endometriosis in Chinese women.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The MMP2 gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We investigated the role and function of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of MMP2 in relation to endometriosis. First a case-control study was conducted and 17 SNPs were examined in 211 patients and 344 controls. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the genetic effect. We used reporter assay to validate the functional consequences of the significant SNP. Two SNPs (rs243832 and rs7201) had P-values <0.05 and they are in strong linkage disequilibrium (D=0.96 and r(2)=0.47). Further analysis showed that rs7201 but not rs246832 was an independent risk factor and the risk C allele of rs7201 had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.88 (P=0.004). SNP rs7201 is located at the 3-untranslated region and is predicted to be within the microRNA-520g binding site. The reporter assay for rs7201 showed that the risk C allele had a higher expression level than the A allele (P=0.027). Using microRNA-520g mimic and inhibitor, the results indicated that the A allele but not the risk C allele can be regulated by microRNA-520g. The C allele of SNP rs7201 increases a risk for endometriosis because of out of regulation by microRNA-520g.
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Arctigenin, a dietary phytoestrogen, induces apoptosis of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells through the ROS/p38 MAPK pathway and epigenetic regulation.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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This study investigates the anticancer effect of arctigenin (ATG), a natural lignan product of Arctium lappa L., in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Results indicate that ATG inhibits MDA-MB-231 cell growth by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. ATG triggers the mitochondrial caspase-independent pathways, as indicated by changes in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, resulting in AIF and EndoG nuclear translocation. ATG increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by increasing p22(phox)/NADPH oxidase 1 interaction and decreasing glutathione level. ATG clearly increases the activation of p38 MAPK, but not JNK and ERK1/2. Antioxidant EUK-8, a synthetic catalytic superoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenger, significantly decreases ATG-mediated p38 activation and apoptosis. Blocking p38 with a specific inhibitor suppresses ATG-mediated Bcl-2 downregulation and apoptosis. Moreover, ATG activates ATF-2, a transcription factor activated by p38, and then upregulates histone H3K9 trimethylation in the Bcl-2 gene promoter region, resulting in Bcl-2 downregulation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ATG induces apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells via the ROS/p38 MAPK pathway and epigenetic regulation of Bcl-2 by upregulation of histone H3K9 trimethylation.
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Phyto-power dietary supplement potently inhibits dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Curcumin has been extensively studied for its therapeutic effects in a variety of disorders. Fermented soy consumption is associated with a low incidence rate of chronic diseases in many Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms of the effect of a phyto-power dietary supplement on liver fibrosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with dimethylnitrosamine (DMN; 10 mg kg(-1)) three times a week for four consecutive weeks. A phyto-power dietary supplement (50 or 100 mg kg(-1)) was administered by oral gavage daily for four weeks. Liver morphology, function, and fibrotic status were examined in DMN induced hepatic fibrogenesis. However, a phyto-power dietary supplement alleviated liver damage as indicated by histopathological examination of the ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen I, accompanied by the concomitant reduction of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). These data indicate that the phyto-power dietary supplement may inhibit the TGF-?1/Smad signaling and relieve liver damage in experimental fibrosis.
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Functional regulation of Alu element of human angiotensin-converting enzyme gene in neuron cells.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) genotype and its protein activity have been widely implicated to be associated with Alzheimers disease (AD). However, whether the insertion sequence, Alu element, in intron 16 of the human ACE gene plays a functional role remains uncertain. To investigate the influence of the I/D polymorphism on ACE promoter, we recombined the I and D form fragments with the human ACE promoter sequence before the reporter gene in pSEAP-Basic2 vector. The effect of the Alu element on regulating the transcriptional activity of ACE promoter was examined using transient transfection in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that the I form fragment upregulated the transcriptional activity of ACE promoter by approximately 70% but that the D form fragment did not. Our study first reveals that Alu sequence in human ACE gene possesses a regulatory function on the ACE promoter activity in neuron. This novel finding bridges the gap between the association of ACE I/D genotype with AD, and suggests that Alu sequence is not merely a "junk" DNA in human ACE gene.
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Liver-specific expressions of HBx and src in the p53 mutant trigger hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process that starts from fatty liver and transitions to fibrosis and, finally, into cancer. Many etiological factors, including hepatitis B virus X antigen (HBx) and p53 mutations, have been implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, potential synergistic effects between these two factors and the underlying mechanisms by which they promote hepatocarcinogenesis are still unclear. In this report, we show that the synergistic action of HBx and p53 mutation triggers progressive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) formation via src activation in zebrafish. Liver-specific expression of HBx in wild-type zebrafish caused steatosis, fibrosis and glycogen accumulation. However, the induction of tumorigenesis by HBx was only observed in p53 mutant fish and occurred in association with the up-regulation and activation of the src tyrosine kinase pathway. Furthermore, the overexpression of src in p53 mutant zebrafish also caused hyperplasia, HCC, and sarcomatoid HCC, which were accompanied by increased levels of the signaling proteins p-erk, p-akt, myc, jnk1 and vegf. Increased expression levels of lipogenic factors and the genes involved in lipid metabolism and glycogen storage were detected during the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in the HBx and src transgenic zebrafish. The up-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, tumor progression and other molecular hallmarks of human liver cancer were found at later stages in both HBx and src transgenic, p53 mutant zebrafish. Together, our study demonstrates that HBx and src overexpression induced hepatocarcinogenesis in p53 mutant zebrafish. This phenomenon mimics human HCC formation and provides potential in vivo platforms for drug screening for therapies for human liver cancer.
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Environmental alkylphenols modulate cytokine expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Alkylphenols, such as nonylphenol (NP) and 4-octylphenol (4-OP), have the potential to disturb immune system due to their weak estrogen-like activity, an effect with potential serious public health impact due to the worldwide distribution of these substances. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) can secrete large amounts of type I IFNs and are critical in immune regulation. However, there has been limited study about the influence of alkylphenols on the function of pDCs.
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Online monitoring oxidative products and metabolites of nicotine by free radicals generation with Fenton reaction in tandem mass spectrometry.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In general, over 70% absorbed nicotine is metabolized to cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine by cytochrome oxidase P450, and nicotine is also a major addictive and the psychoactive component in cigarettes. As a xenobiotic metabolism, hydrophobic compounds are usually converted into more hydrophilic products through enzyme systems such as cytochrome oxidase P450, sulfotransferases, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases to deliver drug metabolites out of the cell during the drug metabolic process. In this study, an electrodeless electrochemical oxidation (EEO) reaction via Fenton reaction by producing free radical to react with nicotine to immediately monitor the oxidative products and metabolic derivatives of nicotine by tandem mass spectrometer (MS) is done. Fenton reaction generates free radicals via ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to oxidize DNA and to degrade proteins in cells. In the EEO method, the oxidative products of nicotine including cotinine, cotinine-N-oxide, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine, norcotinine, 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanoic acid, and nicotine-N-oxide were detected by tandem mass spectrometer to simulate the changes of nicotine and its derivatives in a time-dependent manner.
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Phthalates induce proliferation and invasiveness of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer through the AhR/HDAC6/c-Myc signaling pathway.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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The environmentally present group of chemical phthalates, or phthalate esters, has been recognized as a rising threat to public health, including cancer. While most studies have addressed the estrogenic effects of phthalates in malignancies of the breast and the prostate, little is known about their role in the etiology of hormone-independent cancer. Here we show that treatments with the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at 1 ?M induced proliferation (BBP, 3.2-fold; DBP, 3.2-fold), migration (BBP, 2.6-fold; DBP, 2.6-fold), invasion (BBP, 2.7-fold; DBP, 3.1-fold), and tumor formation (EC(50): BBP, 0.12 ?M; DBP, 0.22 ?M) in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). We further demonstrate that phthalates stimulated the cell surface aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and triggered the downstream cyclic AMP (cAMP)-PKA-CREB1 signaling cascade. The pathway led to increased expression of HDAC6, which facilitated nuclear assembly of the ?-catenin-LEF1/TCF4 transcriptional complex and transactivation of the c-Myc oncogene. This nongenomic pathway emanated from the phthalate-induced AhR promoted tumorigenesis of ER-negative breast cancer. Collectively, our findings revealed a novel oncogenic mechanism of phthalates in breast cancer independent from their estrogenic activities.
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Isolation and characterization of the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Group C TW3 from the tropical western Pacific Ocean.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2011
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A unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium strain of Group C, designated TW3, was isolated from the oligotrophic Kuroshio Current of the western Pacific Ocean. To our knowledge, this represents the first successful laboratory culture of a Group C unicellular diazotroph from oceanic water. TW3 cells are green rods, 2.5-3.0 µm in width and 4.0-6.0 µm in length. Phylogenetic analyses of both 16S rRNA and nifH gene fragments indicated that the TW3 sequences were over 98% identical to those of the previously isolated Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142 and Gloeocapsa sp., suggesting that TW3 is a member of the Group C unicellular diazotrophs. In addition, both TW3 and Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142 share morphological characteristics; both strains are sheathless and rod-shaped, display binary fission in a single plane, and possess dispersed thylakoids. TW3 grows aerobically in nitrogen-deficient artificial seawater, and exhibited the highest observed growth rate of 0.035 h(-1) when cultured at 30°C and 140 µmol m(-2) s(-1) of light intensity. The nitrogen fixation rate, when grown optimally using a 12 h/12 h light-dark cycle, was 7.31 × 10(-15) mol N cell(-1) day(-1) . Immunocytochemical staining using Trichodesmium sp. NIBB1067 nitrogenase antiserum revealed the existence of diazotrophic cells sharing morphological characteristics of TW3 in the Kuroshio water from which TW3 was isolated.
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Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from five selected herbs.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Eucalyptus bridgesiana, Cymbopogon martinii, Thymus vulgaris, Lindernia anagallis, and Pelargonium fragrans are five species of herbs used in Asia. Their essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 36 components were detected. The results of our study indicated that, except for the essential oil of P. fragrans, all of the essential oils demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms. The C. martinii essential oil, which is rich in geraniol, was the most effective antimicrobial additive. All of the essential oils demonstrated antioxidant activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, the T. vulgaris essential oil, which possesses plentiful thymol, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. For P. acnes-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the essential oils of P. aeruginosa, C. martinii, and T. vulgaris reduced the TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-8 secretion levels of THP-1 cells.
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Molecular mechanisms for anti-aging by natural dietary compounds.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Aging is defined as a normal decline in survival with advancing age; however, the recent researches have showed that physiological functions of the body change during the aging process. Majority of the changes are often subject to a higher risk of developing diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, as well as the dysregulated immune and inflammatory disorders. Aging process is controlled by a complicated and precise signaling network that involved in energy homeostasis, cellular metabolism and stress resistance. Over the past few decades, research in natural dietary compounds by various organism and animal models provides a new strategy for anti-aging. Natural dietary compounds act through a variety mechanisms to extend lifespan and prevent age-related diseases. This review summarizes the current understanding on signaling pathways of aging and knowledge and underlying mechanism of natural dietary compounds that provide potential application on anti-aging and improve heath in human.
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Compatibility enhancement of polyimide-silica hybrid sol-gel materials without incorporation of silane-coupling agent.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
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A facile route has been developed to enhance compatibility between organic polyimide matrix and dispersed phase of inorganic silica particles without addition of conventional silane-coupling agent. The as-prepared hybrid sol-gel materials having reduced size of SiO2 particle dispersed in polyimide matrix were successfully synthesized through pre-catalyzed sol-gel route using an organic diamine base. The PI-silica hybrid materials through conventional polyamic acid-catalyzed sol-gel route with/without silane-coupling agent were also prepared for comparative control studies. Morphological feature of as-prepared sol-gel materials prepared from three different approaches was also compared based on the studies of transmission electron microscopy. Effects of the material composition, in three different catalyzed routes, were investigated by thermal stability, mechanical strength, optical clarity, gas barrier and water absorption measurements of polyimide and a series of polyimide-silica hybrid sol-gel materials, respectively.
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Induction of a secretable beta-lactamase requires a long lag time in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. 17.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2011
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Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) constitutively expresses penicillinase activity in the absence of an inducer. An ampR-bla module is required for the antibiotic resistance phenotype. In this study, we demonstrate that AmpR negatively autoregulates its own expression in a ?-lactam-independent manner. In the absence of inducer, bla is expressed at a high basal level. Expression of bla is inducible by ?-lactam, however, with a period. AmpR protein and the LysR-motif located upstream of bla promoter are essential for basal expression and induction of bla. Most ?-lactamase activity is present in the culture medium, suggesting that Bla protein can be secreted by Xcc into the environment.
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The body image, weight satisfaction, and eating disorder tendency of school children: the 2-year follow-up study.
J Am Coll Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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This 2-year follow-up study was conducted to enhance our understanding of changes and rates of disturbed eating attitudes/behaviors, weight satisfaction, and prevalence of obesity in elementary school students between the ages of 10 and 12 years.
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition contributes to SWCNT-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Previous studies suggest that single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) exposure causes pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the contribution of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during SWCNT-induced pulmonary fibrosis. C57BL6 female mice were intratracheally instilled with SWCNT at 80 ?g/mouse for up to 56 days. SWCNT exposure caused pulmonary epithelial and mesenchymal injury, followed by granulomatous and fibrotic changes. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated the increasing occurrence of epithelial-derived fibroblasts up to 42 days post-exposure. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 42.60% of N-cadherin (N-cad)-positive fibroblasts were derived from pulmonary epithelial cells, and, in separate experiments, 30.68% of SPC positive cells were stained for N-cad at 42 days. These epithelial-derived fibroblasts were functional in collagen production. With the progression of fibrosis, there were increases in the number of hyperplastic epithelial cells stained positively for TGF-?/p-Smad2 or ?-catenin. Therefore, EMT contributes significantly to fibroblast expansion. Aberrant activations of TGF-?/p-Smad2 and ?-catenin are postulated to induce EMT during SWCNT-induced pathogenic fibrosis.
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Survey on eating disorders related thoughts, behaviors and dietary intake in female junior high school students in Taiwan.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate body weight satisfaction, eating attitudes and dietary intake related to eating disorders of female junior high school students in Taiwan.
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A variant of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) regulates left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Many organs in vertebrates are left-right asymmetrical located. For example, liver is at the right side and stomach is at the left side in human. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is important for left-right asymmetry. To investigate the roles of Fgfr2 signaling in zebrafish left-right asymmetry, we used splicing blocking morpholinos to specifically block the splicing of fgfr2b and fgfr2c variants, respectively. We found that the relative position of the liver and the pancreas were disrupted in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, the left-right asymmetry of the heart became random. Expression pattern of the laterality controlling genes, spaw and pitx2c, also became random in the morphants. Furthermore, lefty1 was not expressed in the posterior notochord, indicating that the molecular midline barrier had been disrupted. It was also not expressed in the brain diencephalon. Kupffers vesicle (KV) size became smaller in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, KV cilia were shorter in fgfr2c morphants. We conclude that the fgfr2c isoform plays an important role in the left-right asymmetry during zebrafish development.
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Deliberate self-harm by Taiwanese adolescents.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2011
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Prevalence rates for deliberate self-harm (DSH) are unusually high among Taiwanese high school students. Several models have been advanced to explain the occurrence of DSH. One, the experiential avoidance model suggests that self-mutilation helps the individual escape from unwanted emotional experiences. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic, health and behavioral correlates of DSH in a population (Taiwanese adolescents) known to have a high rate of DSH.
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Positive attitudes and self-harming behavior of adolescents in a juvenile detention house in Taiwan.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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This study aimed to evaluate the less stigmatizing positivity construct screening measurement and its association with recent self-harming behaviors among adolescents. Participants were 193 detained Taiwanese adolescents. Questionnaires consisted of a deliberate self-harm inventory, a positivity construct measurement, a depression scale, data concerning risky health behaviors and demographics. The prevalence rate of recent self-harming behavior among adolescents in the detention house was 43.5%. The logistic model showed that age, gender and level of positivity demonstrated significant odds ratios for self-harm behavior. Results showed that younger age and female gender increased self-harming behavior. In addition, low score on positivity construct screening measurement increased the probability of self-harming behavior. Furthermore, these adolescents also engaged in risky health behaviors and were more depressed. Parental and school awareness for these risky behaviors should be enhanced and appropriate early interventions implemented to prevent negative health outcomes.
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Comparison of the changes in sexual function of premenopausal and postmenopausal women following transvaginal mesh surgery.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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The effect of transvaginal mesh (TVM) surgery on sexual function between premenopausal and postmenopausal women remains controversial.
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Whole-body FDG PET/CT in diagnosis of internal mammary nodal metastasis of ovarian carcinosarcoma.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Internal mammary lymph node is rare metastatic site in ovarian neoplasm. In this study, we report an ovarian carcinosarcoma with peritoneal carcinomatosis initially. Annually, whole-body FDG PET/CT is indicated during 4 years. Tiny peritoneal nodules are found on the first-time FDG PET/CT imaging. A high grade of FDG-avid internal mammary nodal activity is shown on the secondary time of FDG PET/CT imaging. Pathologic result of excision biopsy demonstrates carcinoma metastasis. On the recent imaging, significant FDG-avid peritoneal and subphrenic carcinomatosis has happened again. After surgery and chemotherapy, the patient is still followed up in clinic.
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Nickel(II) induced JNK activation-regulated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway leading to cultured rat pancreatic ?-cell death.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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Nickel (Ni), a well-known toxic metal, is widely used in electroplating and alloy production. It is also significantly implicated in industrial and environmental pollution caused by uncontrolled industrial and municipal discharges. In this study, we characterized and investigated the cytotoxic effects of Ni exposure and their probable toxicological mechanisms in the pancreatic ?-cells. The results showed that it was significantly decreased cell viability after exposing pancreatic ?-cell-derived RIN-m5F cells to NiCl(2) for 24h in a dose-dependent manner. NiCl(2) also increased sub-G1 hypodiploid cells and Annexin V-Cy3 binding population in RIN-m5F cells, indicating that it has apoptosis-inducing ability. Moreover, the exposure of RIN-m5F cells to NiCl(2) induced distinct signals of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, including mitochondrial dysfunction (the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase in mitochondrial cytochrome c release into the cytosol), Bak and Bid mRNA up-regulation, and activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation. In addition, NiCl(2) also markedly induced the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), but not of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38. These NiCl(2)-induced apoptosis-related signaling responses could be effectively reversed by specific JNK inhibitor SP600125. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to show that Ni causes pancreatic ?-cell death through a JNK activation-regulated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis-signaling pathway.
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Resectoscopic treatment of ectopic pregnancy in previous cesarean delivery scar defect with vasopressin injection.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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To describe resectoscopic treatment with vasopressin injection as an effective surgical intervention for ectopic pregnancy in previous cesarean delivery scar (PCDS) defect.
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Effectiveness of a brief intervention for managing hazardous drinking problems of inpatients in Taiwan.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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This paper is a report of a randomized control trial undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of the Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use in Taiwanese inpatients with hazardous drinking patterns.
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Interleukin-1? induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression and promotes the invasive ability of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from ovarian endometrioma.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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To elucidate the role of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and invasion of endometrioma-derived ectopic endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EN-MSCs) and to develop an organoid method to study the invasive ability of endometrial cells.
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Expression and function of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 7 during liver regeneration.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are involved in the process of liver injury repair. Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) is impaired in transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative FGFR2b in hepatocytes. Although FGF7, a ligand specifically bound to FGFR2b, is expressed by activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in fibrotic livers, the expressions and functions of FGF7 and FGFR2b after PH remain unexplored. Therefore, this study sought to examine the potential role of FGF7 signaling during liver regeneration.
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Benzyl butyl phthalate induces necrosis by AhR mediation of CYP1B1 expression in human granulosa cells.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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We investigated the signaling pathway of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) on HO23 cells (immortalized human granulosa cells (hGC)) mediated by benzyl butyl-phthalate (BBP). BBP (1 ?M) significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of AhR, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and cytochrome-P450 (CYP)1B1 in HO23 cells. Treatment with 3,4-dimethoxyflavone (3,4-DMF) or AhR siRNA significantly reduced AhR and CYP1B1, but CYP1A1 was not affected by 3,4-DMF or AhR siRNA, suggesting that increases in CYP1A1 may not regulated by AhR. BBP induced the AhR fusion protein to localize and accumulate around the nucleus, and AhR heterodimerization with ARNT was observed in the nucleus by immunoprecipitation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays revealed the effect of BBP on CYP1B1, but not CYP1A1. Necrosis was significantly increased in HO23 cells after BBP treatment, and 3,4-DMF, AhR siRNA or CYP1B1 siRNA knockdown blocked this phenomenon. These data suggest that BBP-induced HO23 cell necrosis is AhR and CYP1B1 dependent.
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Effects of an osteoarthritis self-management programme.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a self-management programme among osteoarthritis knee sufferers.
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SmQnrR, a DeoR-type transcriptional regulator, negatively regulates the expression of Smqnr and SmtcrA in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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To characterize the role of SmqnrR in the expression of Smqnr and SmtcrA, and the role of SmtcrA in drug resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
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Pterostilbene is more potent than resveratrol in preventing azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumorigenesis via activation of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant signaling pathway.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Inflammatory bowel diseases have been a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by inflammatory cells create oxidative stress and contribute to neoplastic transformation, proliferation, and even metastasis. Previously, resveratrol (RS) and pterostilbene (PS) had been reported to prevent chemical-induced colon carcinogenesis by anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. In this study, we investigated whether RS and PS could prevent the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumorigenesis via antioxidant action and to explore possible molecular mechanisms. Male BALB/c mice were injected with AOM (5 mg/kg of body weight) with or without RS or PS, and at the end of the protocol, all of the mice were euthanized and colons were analyzed. Administrations of PS can be more effective than RS in reducing AOM-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), lymphoid nodules (LNs), and tumors. We also find that PS is functioning more effectively than RS to reduce nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-?2 (PKC-?2) and decreasing downstream target gene expression, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and aldose reductase (AR) in mouse colon stimulated by AOM. Moreover, administration of RS and PS for 6 weeks significantly enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione reductase (GR), via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling. When the above findings are taken together, they suggest that both stilbenes block cellular inflammation and oxidative stress through induction of HO-1 and GR, thereby preventing AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis. In comparison, PS was a more potent chemopreventive agent than RS for the prevention of colon cancer. This is also the first study to demonstrate that PS is a Nrf2 inducer and AR inhibitor in the AOM-treated colon carcinogenesis model.
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New plasma separation glucose oxidase-based glucometer in monitoring of blood with different PO2 levels.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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The PalmLab glucometer is a newly designed plasma separation glucose oxidase (GO)-based glucometer. Past studies have shown that the accuracy of GO-based glucometers is compromised when measurements are taken in patients with high PO(2) levels. We performed a two-arm study comparing the fitness of the PalmLab blood glucometer with that of a standard glucose analyzer in monitoring blood glucose levels in pediatric patients, especially when arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PO(2)) was high.
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The effectiveness of a self-management program on quality of life for knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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To evaluate the effectiveness of the Taipei Osteoarthritis Program (TOAP) for community elderly persons who suffer from knee OA.
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Does conductance catheter measurement system give consistent and reliable pressure-volume relations in rats?
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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The conductance catheter technique was developed in the 1980s to measure instantaneous ventricular conductance. After converting measured conductance to volume signals by use of the classic Baan conductance-to-volume equation, real-time pressure-volume (PV) relations can be obtained. A nonlinear conductance-to-volume conversion equation was proposed by Wei in 2005 to improve the accuracy of the conductance catheter system. This study tested the in vivo applicability of the nonlinear conversion equation, particularly focusing on the effect of deviation in catheter position. By altering catheter position, PV loops obtained by using the classic Baans equation and the nonlinear equation were compared. The comparison results show that the nonlinear equation indeed compensates for the errors introduced by catheter position deviation, and gives more consistent and reliable PV relations. Moreover, the effect of variations in blood resistivity was analyzed. To obtain consistent and reliable PV relations, the nonlinear equation is suggested for use, and changes in blood resistivity should be carefully monitored.
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An alcohol training program improves Chinese nurses knowledge, self-efficacy, and practice: a randomized controlled trial.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Excessive alcohol use has been associated with health, social and legal problems. Helping health care providers to manage hazardous or harmful drinkers is an important worldwide issue. Alcohol is a legal and accessible substance in Taiwan and is viewed as an acceptable drink for relieving stress and enhancing socialization in Chinese culture. These cultural factors may contribute to drinking problems being easily ignored and to lack of alcohol training programs for health care providers.
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Characterization of TRPM8-like channels activated by the cooling agent icilin in the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Icilin is recognized as a chemical agonist of nociceptors and can activate TRPM8 channels. However, whether this agent has any effects on immune cells remains unknown. In this study, the effects of icilin on ion currents were investigated in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells. Icilin (1-100 ?M) increased the amplitude of nonselective (NS) cation current (INS) in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 8.6 ?M. LaCl3 (100 ?M) or capsazepine (30 ?M) reversed icilin-induced INS; however, neither apamin (200 nM) nor iberiotoxin (200 nM) had any effects on it. In cell-attached configuration, when the electrode was filled with icilin (30 ?M), a unique population of NS cation channels were activated with single-channel conductance of 158 pS. With the use of a long-lasting ramp pulse protocol, increasing icilin concentration produced a left shift in the activation curve of NS channels, with no change in the slope factor of the curve. The probability of channel opening enhanced by icilin was increased by either elevated extracellular Ca2+ or application of ionomycin (10 ?M), while it was reduced by BAPTA-AM (10 ?M). Icilin-stimulated activity is associated with an increase in mean open time and a reduction in mean closed time. Under current-clamp conditions, icilin caused membrane depolarization. Therefore, icilin interacts with the TRPM8-like channel to increase INS and depolarizes the membrane in these cells.
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Quantitative shot-gun proteomics and MS-based activity assay for revealing gender differences in enzyme contents for rat liver microsome.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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Liver microsomes are subcellular fractions that contain many metabolizing enzymes for drugs and endogeneous compounds. Some of these enzymes are regulated by sex hormonal control and exhibit sex-dependent expression pattern and metabolizing speed. Studying these enzymes, however, are complicated by the presence of isoforms such as cytochrome P450 (CYP450), which families share more than 50% amino acid identities. In this study, we applied quantitative shot-gun proteomics approach coupled with stable-isotope dimethyl labeling, two-dimensional reversed-phase peptide separation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) to explore the gender-dependent expression of rat liver microsomal proteins. A total of 391 proteins were identified and quantified by this approach, and 56% of quantified proteins were enzymes. Although shot-gun approach is rarely used for identifying protein isoforms, we identified 53 isoforms by at least one unique peptide including 21 isoforms of CYP450s. Moreover, by quantitative and statistics assessment, we were able to classify them into 28 male dominant enzymes including CYP2C12 CYP2C11, CYP2C13, CYP2B3, CYP2C11, CYP2C70 and CYP3A2 which are known to be male specific, 21 female dominant enzymes including CYP2A1, CYP2C7, CYP2C12, CYP2D26, alcohol dehydrogenase 1, carboxylesterase 3, glutathione S-transferase, liver carboxylesterase 4, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B1, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase which are known to be female specific; and 125 sex-independent enzymes. However, most of the sex specificities revealed from this study, such as the male specificity of CYP2D1, were novel and not yet reported. We then conducted a mass spectrometry-multiple reaction mode (MS-MRM) based enzyme activity method to determine the catalyzing rate of CYP2D1 in male and female liver microsomes using carteolol as its specific substrate. The reaction rate catalyzed by CYP2D1 in female rats was determined to differ significantly with the rate in male rats. Moreover, the ratio (female/male) of reaction rate (0.68) was found to correlate with their relative protein abundance (0.72). This study revealed novel sex dependences of many rat liver enzymes and also demonstrated a unique MS-based analytical platform that could identify novel iso-enzymes and further quantify their abundance and enzyme activity.
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Hexahydro-?-acids induce apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway, GADD153 expression, and caspase activation in human leukemia cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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Hexahydro-?-acids (HBA) and ?-acids (BA) displayed strong growth inhibitory effects against human leukemia HL-60 cells and were able to induce apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and the morphological changes associated with apoptotic cell death; however, BA was less effective. Treatment with HBA caused a rapid loss of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytosol. The levels of Bad and Bax were dramatically increased in cells treated with HBA. In addition, the results showed that HBA promoted the up-regulation of Fas prior to the processing and activation of pro-caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid, suggesting the involvement of a Fas-mediated pathway in HBA-induced cells. Moreover, the changes occurred after single breaks in DNA were detected, suggesting that HBA induced irreparable DNA damage, which in turn triggered the process of apoptosis. HBA markedly enhanced the growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) protein in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. These findings suggest that HBA creates an oxidative cellular environment that induces DNA damage and GADD153 gene activation, which in turn triggers apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Our study identified the novel mechanisms of HBA-induced apoptosis and indicated that HBA may be used as a potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent.
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Ni2+-enhanced charge transport via ?-? stacking corridor in metallic DNA.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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The mechanism underlying DNA charge transport is intriguing. However, poor conductivity of DNA makes it difficult to detect DNA charge transport. Metallic DNA (M-DNA) has better conducting properties than native DNA. Ni(2+) may chelate in DNA and thus enhance DNA conductivity. On the basis of this finding, it is possible to reveal the mechanisms underlying DNA charge transport. The conductivity of various Ni-DNA species such as single-stranded, full complement, or mismatched sequence molecules was systematically tested with ultraviolet absorption and electrical or chemical methods. The results showed that the conductivity of single-stranded Ni-DNA (Ni-ssDNA) was similar to that of a native DNA duplex. Moreover, the resistance of Ni-DNA with a single basepair mismatch was significantly higher than that of fully complementary Ni-DNA duplexes. The resistance also increased exponentially as the number of mismatched basepairs increased linearly after the tunneling current behavior predicted by the Simmons model. In conclusion, the charges in Ni(2+)-doped DNA are transported through the Ni(2+)-mediated ?-? stacking corridor. Furthermore, Ni-DNA acts as a conducting wire and exhibits a tunneling barrier when basepair mismatches occur. This property may be useful in detecting single basepair mismatches.
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Tricetin, a Dietary Flavonoid, Induces Apoptosis through the Reactive Oxygen Species/c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Pathway in Human Liver Cancer Cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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This study is the first to investigate the anticancer effect of tricetin (TCN) in two human liver cancer cell lines, Hep G2 and PLC/PRF/5. TCN induced cancer cell death treatment by triggering mitochondrial and death receptor 5 (DR5) apoptotic pathways. Exposure of Hep G2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells to TCN resulted in cellular glutathione reduction and ROS generation, accompanied by JNK activation and apoptosis. Both of the antioxidants vitamin C and catalase significantly decreased apoptosis by inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK and subsequently triggering DR5 cell death pathways. The reduction of JNK expression by siRNA decreased TCN-mediated Bim cleavage, DR5 up-regulation, and apoptosis. Furthermore, daily TCN intraperitoneal injections in nude mice with PLC/PRF/5 subcutaneous tumors resulted in an approximately 60% decrease of mean tumor volume, compared with vehicle-treated controls. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that TCN-induced cell death in liver cancer cells is initiated by ROS generation and that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways contribute to the cell death caused by this highly promising cancer chemopreventive agent.
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Purification and Characterization of a Fish Scale-Degrading Enzyme from a Newly Identified Vogesella sp.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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The objective of the present study is to purify and characterize the fish scale-degrading enzyme from Vogesella sp.7307-1, which was newly identified and isolated from fish scales. The enzyme from Vogesella sp.7307-1 was assayed with casein and confirmed as a protease. Crude protease was extracted, isolated, and purified 35.7-fold with 19.6% recovery using 20-80% saturation of ammonium sulfate fractionation, Q FF ion exchange chromatography, and Superdex 200 gelfiltration. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 119 kDa. The Km and Vmax were 0.067 mM and 425.5 U/mg-min, respectively using azo-casein as substrate. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 7.5, and the optimum temperature was 50 °C. The enzyme was stable at temperatures below 55 °C and pH range 7.5 to 9.0. The enzyme activity of the purified protease was completely inhibited by EDTA (ethylene diamine teraacetates), indicating the enzyme was a metalloprotease. Hydrolysates from fish scales treated with protease 7307-1 were found having low molecular weight peptides (<1 kDa). The protease 7307-1 is a promising enzyme for preparing smaller peptides from fish scales.
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Garcinol inhibits cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells through induction of ROS-dependent apoptosis.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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Garcinol, derived from Garcinia indica and other related species, has been found to modulate several cell signalling pathways involved in apoptosis and cancer development. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) is a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors; it is expressed at low levels under normal conditions but strongly induced upon growth arrest, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This study investigated the effect of garcinol on Hep3B cells, a human hepatocellular cancer cell line lacking functional p53, with the goal of elucidating the molecular mechanisms of p53-independent apoptosis in hepatocellular cancer. Overall, garcinol activated not only the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptosis pathways but also the ER stress modulator GADD153. Garcinol treatment led to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased GADD153 expression, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. An increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio resulted in enhanced apoptosis. Caspase-8 and tBid (truncated Bid) expression also increased in a time-dependent manner. The enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 increased approximately 13-fold and 7.8-fold, respectively. In addition, the proteolytic cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation factor-45 (DFF-45) increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. Our data suggest a promising therapeutic application of garcinol in p53-independent apoptosis in cancers.
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Integron types, gene cassettes, antimicrobial resistance genes and plasmids of Shigella sonnei isolates from outbreaks and sporadic cases in Taiwan.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
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This study analysed the presence, location and transferability of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in 103 Shigella sonnei outbreak isolates and in 32 sporadic isolates from Taiwan. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was common in both outbreak (95?%) and sporadic (97?%) isolates. Class 1 integrons were present in 34 outbreak isolates (33?%) and in six sporadic isolates (19?%). This study is the first, to our knowledge, to identify an atypical sul3-associated class 1 integron carrying the estX-psp-aadA2-cmlA-aadA1-qacH cassette array in Shigella. Class 2 integrons carrying the dfr1-sat2-aadA1 cassette array were predominant in outbreak isolates (90?%) but were not present in sporadic isolates. Other antimicrobial resistance genes not associated with integrons were found to encode resistance to ampicillin (bla(TEM)), chloramphenicol (cat1), sulfonamide (sul2) and tetracycline (tetA and tetB). The most common plasmid size was 130 kb (observed in 43 and 97?% of 1998 outbreak and sporadic isolates, respectively). In conclusion, the plasmid location of resistance genes and horizontal plasmid transfer promote the spread of multiple resistance genes in outbreak and sporadic isolates of S. sonnei.
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Predictors of improved overactive bladder symptoms after transvaginal mesh repair for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse: predictors of improved OAB after POP repair.
Int Urogynecol J
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of improved overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms after transvaginal mesh repair.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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