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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Comparison of caffeine citrate and aminophylline for treating primary apnea in premature infants.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of caffeine citrate and aminophylline in the treatment of primary apnea in premature infants.
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Distinct aetiopathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia according to the Rome III criteria.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Whether there is distinct pathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia (FD), the postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) remains controversial. We aimed to identify the risk factors of FD and its subgroups in the Chinese population.
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Solid-State Emissive B,S-Bridged p-Terphenyls: Synthesis, Properties, and Utility as Bifunctional Fluorescent Sensor for Hg(2+) and F(-) Ions.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The efficient synthesis has been disclosed to achieve a new class of ladder-type molecules, B,S-bridged p-terphenyls (BS-TPs). Their properties were fully characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in both solution and solid state, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, DFT theoretical calculations, and cyclic voltammetry. A detailed comparison between anti-BS-TP and its analogue B,N-bridged p-terphenyl (BN-TP) was made to elucidate the effect of displacement of bridging N with S atom on the properties. The introduction of S rather than N atom as bridging atom leads to increased fluorescence efficiency in both solution and solid state as well as enhanced reduction stability. And thus this new class of ladder-type molecules are highly emissive in both solution and solid state and display reversible reduction wave in cyclic voltammograms, denoting their promising potentials as electron-transporting solid-state emitters. In addition, this new class of molecules are capable of detecting F(-) and Hg(2+) with different fluorescence responses, owing to the high Lewis acidity of the B center to coordinate with F(-) anions and the great mercury-philicity of the S center to complex with Hg(2+) cations.
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Drug-Induced Modulation of T Lymphocytes as a Potential Mechanism of Susceptibility to Infections in Patients with Multiple Myeloma During Bortezomib Therapy.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Bortezomib is effective in the therapy of multiple myeloma (MM), but causes infections that are different from those associated with conventional chemotherapy. It is important to identify the risk factors that facilitate infections associated with bortezomib therapy. In the present report, we sought to (1) define the features of the infections associated with this therapy and (2) identify the immune mechanisms responsible for the observed susceptibility to these infections. We first retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 143 patients who had received bortezomib therapy for MM. We then prospectively assessed the modulation of T lymphocyte status during this therapy, and evaluated potential relationships between infections and T lymphocyte changes. The infection rates peaked during the first cycle of bortezomib therapy (47.6 %) in patients with MM (p < 0.05 vs. subsequent cycles). Bortezomib therapy was associated with higher incidence rates of viral and fungal infections (15.8 %, p < 0.05 vs. conventional chemotherapy). In addition, patients with the IgG immunophenotype showed higher bacterial and viral infection rates (respectively, p = 0.008 and 0.009). The T lymphocyte numbers significantly decreased after bortezomib therapy (p < 0.05), and the same was true for the Th1/Th2 ratio (p < 0.01). Patients with MM who have decreased lymphocyte counts, while on bortezomib therapy are more likely to develop bacterial or viral infections. In addition, an imbalance in T lymphocyte subsets is also associated with bacterial or viral infections in these patients.
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Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) related tissue damage and angiogenesis is reduced in CCL2-/-CX3CR1gfp/gfp mice.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Purpose: To investigate the roles of the CCL2-CCR2 and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 pathways in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) mediated retinal tissue damage and angiogenesis. Methods: C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(gfp/gfp) (double knockout, DKO) mice were immunized with IRBP1-20. Retinal inflammation and tissue damage were evaluated clinically and histologically at different days post-immunization (p.i.). Retinal neovascular membranes were evaluated by confocal microscopy of retinal flatmounts, and immune cell infiltration by flow cytometry. Results: At day 25 p.i., DKO mice had lower clinical and histological scores and fewer CD45(high)CD11b(+) infiltrating cells compared to WT mice. F4/80(+) macrophages constitute 40% and 21% and CD11b(+)Gr-1(+)Ly6G(+) neutrophils constitute 10% and 22% of retinal infiltrating cells in WT and DKO mice respectively. At the late stages of EAU (day 60-90 p.i.), DKO and WT mice had similar levels of inflammatory score. However, less structural damage and reduced angiogenesis were detected in DKO mice. Neutrophils were rarely detected in the inflamed retina in both WT and DKO mice. Macrophages and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accounted for 8% and 3% in DKO EAU retina, and 19% and 10% in WT EAU retina. 71% of infiltrating cells were T/B-lymphocytes in DKO EAU retina and 50% in WT EAU retina. Conclusions:EAU-mediated retinal tissue damage and angiogenesis is reduced in CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(gfp/gfp) mice. Retinal inflammation is dominated by neutrophils at the acute stage and lymphocytes at the chronic stage in these mice. Our results suggest that CCR2(+) and CX3CR1(+) monocytes are both involved in tissue damage and angiogenesis in EAU.
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[Effects of sulfonylureas on patients with type 2 diabetes and acute nonlacunar ischemic stroke].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To explore the influence of sulfonylurea (SU) on the patients with Type 2 Diabetes and nonlacunar ischemic stroke.
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IL-33 attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is associated with several important immune-mediated disorders. However, its role in uveitis, an important eye inflammatory disease, is unknown. Here, we investigated the function of IL-33 in the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). IL-33 and IL-33 receptor (ST2) were expressed in murine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture, and IL-33 increased the expression of Il33 and Mcp1 mRNA in RPE cells. In situ, IL-33 was highly expressed in the inner nuclear cells of the retina of naïve mice, and its expression was elevated in EAU mice. ST2-deficient mice developed exacerbated EAU compared with WT mice, and administration of IL-33 to WT mice significantly reduced EAU severity. The attenuated EAU in IL-33-treated mice was accompanied by decreased frequency of IFN-?(+) and IL-17(+) CD4(+) T cells and reduced IFN-? and IL-17 production but with increased frequency of IL-5(+) and IL-4(+) CD4 T cells and IL-5 production in the draining lymph node and spleen. Macrophages from the IL-33-treated mice show a significantly higher polarization toward an alternatively activated macrophage phenotype. Our results therefore demonstrate that the endogenous IL-33/ST2 pathway plays an important role in EAU, and suggest that IL-33 represents a potential option for treatment of uveitis.
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Ultraselective electrochemiluminescence biosensor based on locked nucleic acid modified toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction and junction-probe.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is applied in toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (TMSDR) to develop a junction-probe electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection in the BRCA1 gene related to breast cancer. More than 65-fold signal difference can be observed with perfectly matched target sequence to single-base mismatched sequence under the same conditions, indicating good selectivity of the ECL biosensor.
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Target-controlled infusion of propofol versus intermittent bolus of a sedative cocktail regimen in deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy: comparison of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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To investigate whether target-controlled infusion (TCI) with propofol, a method that has theoretically better control of drug concentration, produces less cardiovascular and respiratory suppression than an intermittent bolus of a sedative cocktail regimen in deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy.
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An ultrasensitive label-free electrochemical biosensor for microRNA-21 detection based on a 2'-O-methyl modified DNAzyme and duplex-specific nuclease assisted target recycling.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Based on a highly efficient 2'-O-methyl modified G-quadruplex-hemin DNAzyme and duplex-specific nuclease (DSN) assisted target recycling, a novel label-free electrochemical biosensor for microRNA-21 (miR-21) detection is developed here. By employing the strategy, this DNA biosensor can detect as low as 8 aM miR-21 and exhibits high discrimination ability even against a single-base mismatch.
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Core-Shell Pd@Au Nanoplates as Theranostic Agents for In-Vivo Photoacoustic Imaging, CT Imaging, and Photothermal Therapy.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Uniform plasmonic Pd@Au core-shell bimetallic nanoplates are synthesized by seeded growth strategy. Surface modified with SH-PEG makes it good biocompatibility, prolonged blood circulation, and relatively high tumor accumulation. Enhanced tumor contrast effects can be obtained for in vivo photoacoustic/CT imaging after intravenous injection of Pd@Au-PEG. Moreover, efficient photothermal tumor ablation is achieved, guided by the imaging techniques. This work promises further exploration the superiority of 2D nanostructures for in vivo biomedical applications.
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Direct production of itaconic acid from liquefied corn starch by genetically engineered Aspergillus terreus.
Microb. Cell Fact.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Itaconic acid is on the DOE (Department of Energy) top 12 list of biotechnologically produced building block chemicals and is produced commercially by Aspergillus terreus. However, the production cost of itaconic acid is too high to be economically competitive with the petrochemical-based products. Itaconic acid is generally produced from raw corn starch, including three steps: enzymatic hydrolysis of corn starch into a glucose-rich syrup by ?-amylase and glucoamylase, fermentation, and recovery of itaconic acid. The whole process is very time-consuming and energy-intensive.
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The association between season of pregnancy and birth-sex among Chinese.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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although numerous studies have reported the association between birth season and sex ratio, few studies have been conducted in subtropical regions in a non-Western setting. The present study assessed the effects of pregnancy season on birth sex ratio in China.
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Association of interleukin 22 polymorphisms with gastric cancer risk.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Interleukin (IL)-22 has been implicated in inflammation and tumorigenesis. To date, no studies have investigated the role of IL-22 polymorphism in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of IL-22 polymorphisms with the risk of GC in a Chinese population. One hundred eight GC patients and 110 healthy controls were included in the study. IL-22 rs1179251, rs2227485, and rs2227473 polymorphisms were determined by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Haplotypes were constructed, and a possible association of these haplotypes with GC was assessed. The distribution of IL-22 rs1179251 polymorphism with clinical parameters was also analyzed. The IL-22 rs1179251 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC (p??0.05). Three possible haplotypes (C(rs1179251)-C(rs2227485)-G(rs2227485), C(rs1179251)-T(rs2227485)-G(rs2227485), and G(rs1179251)-T(rs2227485)-A(rs2227485)) were identified, but no associations were found between these and the risk of GC (p?>?0.05). In summary, our study demonstrates that the rs1179251 polymorphism of IL-22 was associated with an increased risk of GC and may influence the progression of GC. Future larger studies with other ethnic populations are required to confirm these findings.
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Aminoglycosides restore full-length type VII collagen by overcoming premature termination codons: therapeutic implications for dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) have severe, incurable skin fragility, blistering, and multiple skin wounds due to mutations in the gene encoding type VII collagen (C7), the major component of anchoring fibrils mediating epidermal-dermal adherence. Nearly 10-25% of RDEB patients carry nonsense mutations leading to premature stop codons (PTCs) that result in truncated C7. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using aminoglycosides to suppress PTCs and induce C7 expression in two RDEB keratinocyte cell lines (Q251X/Q251X and R578X/R906) and two primary RDEB fibroblasts (R578X/R578X and R163X/R1683X). Incubation of these cells with aminoglycosides (geneticin, gentamicin, and paromomycin) resulted in the synthesis and secretion of a full-length C7 in a dose-dependent and sustained manner. Importantly, aminoglycoside-induced C7 reversed the abnormal RDEB cell phenotype and incorporated into the dermal-epidermal junction of skin equivalents. We further demonstrated the general utility of aminoglycoside-mediated readthrough in 293 cells transiently transfected with expression vectors encoding 22 different RDEB nonsense mutations. This is the first study demonstrating that aminoglycosides can induce PTC readthrough and restore functional C7 in RDEB caused by nonsense mutations. Therefore, aminoglycosides may have therapeutic potential for RDEB patients and other inherited skin diseases caused by nonsense mutations.
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Comparison of double filtration plasmapheresis with immunoadsorption therapy in patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and (IA) are both used to clear antibody. However, the clinical efficacy and safety of DFPP in patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease are unclear.
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Quantitative analysis of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in foods: implication for dietary exposures.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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This study quantitatively measured neonicotinoids in various foods that are common to human consumption. All fruit and vegetable samples (except nectarine and tomato) and 90% of honey samples were detected positive for at least one neonicotinoid; 72% of fruits, 45% of vegetables, and 50% of honey samples contained at least two different neonicotinoids in one sample, with imidacloprid having the highest detection rate among all samples. All pollen samples from New Zealand contained multiple neonicotinoids, and five of seven pollens from Massachusetts detected positive for imidacloprid. These results show the prevalence of low-level neonicotinoid residues in fruits, vegetables, and honey that are readily available in the market for human consumption and in the environment where honeybees forage. In light of new reports of toxicological effects in mammals, the results strengthen the importance of assessing dietary neonicotinoid intakes and the potential human health effects.
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Bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor with Comamonas testosteroni and Bacillus cereus and their impact on reactor bacterial communities.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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The immobilization of microorganisms is essential for efficient bioaugmentation systems. The performance of Bacillus cereus G5 as biofilm-forming bacteria and Comamonas testosteroni A3 a 3,5 dinitrobenzoic acid (DNB)-degrading strain] in laboratory-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) treating DNB synthetic wastewater has been examined. The microbial diversity in the reactors was also explored. The reactor R3 inoculated with B. cereus G5 and C. testosteroni A3 together not only improved the removal of contaminants, but also exhibited obvious resistance to shock loading with DNB during later operations. Pyrosequencing was used to evaluate bacterial communities in three reactors. Comamonas was predominant in the reactor R3, indicating the effect of G5 in promoting immobilization of A3 cells in biofilms. Those microbial resources, e.g.G5, which can stimulate the self-immobilization of the degrading bacteria offer a novel strategy for immobilization of degraders in bioaugmentation systems and show broader application prospects.
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D2-like receptor activation does not initiate a brain docosahexaenoic acid signal in unanesthetized rats.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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The polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), participates in neurotransmission involving activation of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2), which is coupled to muscarinic, cholinergic and serotonergic neuroreceptors. Drug induced activation of iPLA2 can be measured in vivo with quantitative autoradiography using 14C-DHA as a probe. The present study used this approach to address whether a DHA signal is produced following dompaminergic (D)2-like receptor activation with quinpirole in rat brain. Unanesthetized rats were infused intravenously with 14C-DHA one minute after saline or quinpirole infusion, and serial blood samples were collected over a 20-minute period to obtain plasma. The animals were euthanized with sodium pentobarbital and their brains excised, coronally dissected and subjected to quantitative autoradiography to derive the regional incorporation coefficient, k*, a marker of DHA signaling. Plasma labeled and unlabeled unesterified DHA concentrations were measured.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Aeolesthes oenochrous (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): an endangered and colorful longhorn beetle.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Abstract Aeolesthes oenochrous (Fairmaire), a large and colorful longhorn beetle, is an endangered species in Taiwan. Its complete mitogenome, 15,747?bp, shows a typical coleopteran organization, containing 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one A?+?T rich region. Two protein coding genes, i.e. COI and ND1, have the atypical start codon of AAT and TTG, respectively. The third nucleotide position of codons shows extremely low guanine content. In the A?+?T rich region, there were two poly-T stretches with 14 and 13 thymine each. These two poly-T stretches were clarified by the cloning method.
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[Classification and grading of environments with Oncomelania hupensis snails inside embankment of marshland and lake areas].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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To classify and grade the environments with Oncomelania hupensis snails inside embankment in marshland and lake areas, so as to improve the work efficiency and realize the systematic management.
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[Recent development of natural and reconstituted lipoprotein based nano drug delivery vehicles].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Abstract: Lipoproteins are biological lipids carriers. The natural and reconstituted lipoprotein based drug delivery systems have been extensively developed in recent years. This article reviews the development of natural and reconstituted low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein based vehicles in the antitumor area.
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[Serotype distribution of non-polio enterovirus in patients with acute flaccid paralysis during 2011-2012 in Hebei Province, China].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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This study aims to investigate the serotype distribution of non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) isolated from patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) during 2011-2012 in Hebei Province, China and to analyze the relationship between these viruses and AFP. NPEV strains were isolated from the stool specimens from AFP cases in Hebei using human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD) and the mouse cell line expressing the gene for the human cellular receptor for poliovirus (L20B) according to the WHO requirements. The nucleotide sequence of VP1 region was determined, and the serotypes of NPEV were identified by molecular typing. The results showed that among the 82 strains of NPEV isolated from the AFP cases during 2011-2012, 42 isolates (55.3%) were identified as human enterovirus A (HEV-A), which were classified into 4 serotypes, 34 (44.7%) as human enterovirus B (HEV-B), which were classified into 13 serotypes, 2 as adenovirus, and 4 were untyped; human enteroviruses C and D were not found in these cases. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) was the main type of HEV-A, accounting for 85.7% of all HEV-A strains. HEV-A, especially EV-A71, was predominant among the NPEV strains isolated from AFP patients during 2011-2012 in Hebei Province.
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Association between IL-21 gene rs907715 polymorphisms and Graves' disease in a Southern Chinese population.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a pleiotropic cytokine linking innate and adaptive immune responses, which has been reported to play a key role in multiple autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present case-control study was to investigate the genetic association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rs907715 within the IL-21 gene and Graves' disease (GD) in a Southern Chinese population. A total of 211 patients with GD and 212 control subjects were recruited for the study. IL-21 gene rs907715 polymorphisms were detected by direct DNA sequencing. The results indicated that the frequencies of the GG genotype and the G allele in GD patients were significantly increased when compared with the frequencies in the controls (P=6.7×10(-3) and P=2.0×10(-5), respectively). In addition, the frequency of the AA genotype was much lower in the patient group when compared with the control group (16.6 vs. 34.0%; P=4.0×10(-5)). Furthermore, the G allele of rs907715 was associated with relapse in GD patients. These observations indicated that polymorphisms of IL-21/rs907715 may affect the susceptibility to GD in a Southern Chinese population. The G allele was significantly associated with an increased risk of GD development, whereas the A allele may lower the susceptibility to GD.
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[A new flavone C-glycoside from leaves of Lophatherum gracile].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Several kinds of column chromatography method were used to investigate the chemical constituents of the leaves of Lophatherum gracile. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified based on their physicochemical properties and spectral data. A new flavone C-glycoside was isolated and its structure was identified as 3'-methoxyl-luteolin 6-C-beta-D-galactopyranosiduronic acid (1 --> 2) -alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (1).
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cDNA cloning and transcriptional expression profiles of a hexamerin in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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A Bactrocera dorsalis hexamerin (BdAr) cDNA was cloned (GenBank accession no. KF815528), and its transcriptional expression profiles were determined. The complete 2,530-bp cDNA encodes a 780-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 94.01 kDa. The proportions of phenylalanine (7.8%), tyrosine (11.2%), and methionine (2.6%) in BdAr as well as all other amino acids are reported. BdAr transcripts were detected in the brain, flight muscle, foregut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body. In the larval stage, BdAr transcripts were expressed in the early third instar and increased in the late third instar. In pupae, the highest expression of BdAr mRNA was present on day 1, then declined and persisted through day 2 to day 8. In adult females, the relative expression of BdAr was significantly higher on day 0 and day 1 compared to day 6 to day 10 while it was highest in newly eclosed adult males. The comparison of the BdAr expression between 8-10-day-old males and females showed a higher level in females. Our phylogenetic analysis results suggest to us that BdAr is similar to Drosophila larval serum protein 1?.
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Sub-10-nm Pd nanosheets with renal clearance for efficient near-infrared photothermal cancer therapy.
Small
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Efficient renal clearance is of fundamentally important property of nanoparticles for their in vivo biomedical applications. In this work, we report the successful synthesis of ultra-small Pd nanosheets (SPNS) with an average diameter of 4.4 nm and their application in photothermal cancer therapy using a near infrared laser. The ultra-small Pd nanosheets have strong optical absorption in the NIR region and high photothermal conversion efficiency (52.0%) at 808 nm. After being surface-functionalized with reduced glutathione (GSH), the SPNS-GSH was administered to mice to investigate the biodistribution, photothermal efficacy and tumor ablation in vivo. The in vivo photothermal therapy studies clearly demonstrate that surface modification with GSH allows the nanosheets to exhibit prolonged blood circulation and thus high accumulation in tumors. Upon 808 nm NIR irradiation, the tumors can be completely ablated. More importantly, with the size below the renal filtration limit (<10 nm), the GSHylated Pd nanosheets can be nicely cleared from body through the renal excretion route and into urine. Together with the high efficacy of NIR photothermal therapy, the unique renal clearance properties make the ultra-small Pd nanosheets promising for practical use in photothermal cancer therapy.
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A novel genetic map of wheat: utility for mapping QTL for yield under different nitrogen treatments.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. Wheat varieties that maintain yield (YD) under moderate or even intense nitrogen (N) deficiency can adapt to low input management systems. A detailed genetic map is necessary for both wheat molecular breeding and genomics research. In this study, an F6:7 recombinant inbred line population comprising 188 lines was used to construct a novel genetic map and subsequently to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for YD and response to N stress.
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Culture and characterization of microglia from the adult murine retina.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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To develop a protocol for isolating and culturing murine adult retinal microglia and to characterize the phenotype and function of the cultured cells.
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Carvedilol protects against iron-induced microparticle generation and apoptosis of endothelial cells.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Increased circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) have been shown to associate with endothelial dysfunction. We explored the effect of iron on EMP generation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the potential protective effect of carvedilol.
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Intravitreal Injection of Normal Saline Induces Retinal Degeneration in the C57BL/6J Mouse.
Transl Vis Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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To investigate the adverse effect of intravitreal injection of normal saline (NS) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in mouse eyes.
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Photochemical production of atmospheric carbonyls in a rural area in southern China.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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For the first time, ambient carbonyls were measured in a rural area in southern China from August 2012 to February 2013 to investigate their distribution characteristics and sources. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were the three most abundant carbonyls, which accounted for 83-95 % of total seven carbonyls identified. The O3 formation potential of carbonyls in summer (59.55 ?g/m(3)) was approximately ten times greater than that (6.37 ?g/m(3)) in winter, and calculated photolysis rates were significantly faster in summer than those in winter, suggesting intensive photochemical activities in summer. Seasonal and diurnal variations of carbonyls showed that (1) the concentration of total carbonyls in summer (12.62 ± 10.83 ?g/m(3)) was approximately five times greater than that in winter (2.33 ± 0.90 ?g/m(3)), and a similar trend applied to the three abundant carbonyls; (2) the average summer to winter (S/W) ratio of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was 10-13, and the S/W ratio of acetone was ~2.59; and (3) the highest concentrations of the three carbonyls and total carbonyls occurred at 14:00-16:00 with high temperature and intensive sunlight, especially in summer. These variations provided direct evidence for significant photochemical production of ambient carbonyls. Average C1/C2 ratios (3.07 ± 1.62) in summer were much greater than those (1.28 ± 0.25) in winter, and average C2/C3 ratios (35.09 ± 58.67) in summer were significantly greater than those (4.75 ± 2.12) in winter, both cases indirectly implying positive photochemical productions in summer. Especially, strong correlations (R(2) = 0.63-0.98) of temperature and sunlight intensity with the three abundant carbonyls and total carbonyls were observed, indicating a similar causal source such as significant photochemical production.
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A fluorescent aptasensor based on DNA-scaffolded silver-nanocluster for ochratoxin A detection.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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The selective detection of ultratrace amounts of ochratoxin A (OTA) is extremely important for food safety since it is one of the most toxic and widespread mycotoxin. Here we develop a signal-on fluorescent biosensor for detection of OTA based on fluorescent DNA-scaffolded silver-nanocluster (AgNCs), structure-switching of anti-OTA aptamer (Ap) and magnetic beads (MBs), and demonstrate its feasibility in the application of detecting OTA in real samples of wheat. The method exhibits superior sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 2 pg/mL OTA with high specificity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to detect OTA based on DNA-scaffolded AgNCs, which possesses relatively high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability with regard to traditional organic dyes and quantum dots. Moreover, combined with the merits of MBs and aptamer, the proposed sensor has many advantages such as fabrication easiness, operation convenience, low cost, and being fast and portable, which may represent a promising path toward routine OTA control.
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Correlation between infiltration of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and expression of B7-H1 in the tumor tissues of gastric cancer.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Substantial evidence suggests that the expansion of regulatory T cells (T(regs)) plays a pivotal role in immunological evasion of tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that a majority of tumor cells overexpress B7-H1, and this overexpression is associated with poor disease prognosis. Although an increase of T(regs) and B7-H1 has been revealed in several malignancies, their correlation in gastric cancer has not been studied.
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Modulated regeneration of acid-etched human tooth enamel by a functionalized dendrimer that is an analog of amelogenin.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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In the bioinspired repair process of tooth enamel, it is important to simultaneously mimic the organic-matrix-induced biomineralization and increase the binding strength at the remineralization interface. In this work, a fourth-generation polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) is modified by dimethyl phosphate to obtain phosphate-terminated dendrimer (PAMAM-PO3H2) since it has a similar dimensional scale and peripheral functionalities to that of amelogenin, which plays important role in the natural development process of enamel. Its phosphate group has stronger affinity for calcium ion than carboxyl group and can simultaneously provide strong hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding capability. The MTT assay demonstrates the low cytotoxicity of PAMAM-PO3H2. Adsorption tests indicate that PAMAM-PO3H2 can be tightly adsorbed on the human tooth enamel. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to analyze the remineralization process. After being incubated in artificial saliva for 3weeks, there is a newly generated HA layer of 11.23?m thickness on the acid-etched tooth enamel treated by PAMAM-PO3H2, while the thickness for the carboxyl-terminated one (PAMAM-COOH) is only 6.02?m. PAMAM-PO3H2 can regulate the remineralization process to form ordered new crystals oriented along the Z-axis and produce an enamel prism-like structure that is similar to that of natural tooth enamel. The animal experiment also demonstrates that PAMAM-PO3H2 can induce significant HA regeneration in the oral cavity of rats. Thus PAMAM-PO3H2 shows great potential as a biomimetic restorative material for human tooth enamel.
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Transient postnatal fluoxetine leads to decreased brain arachidonic acid metabolism and cytochrome P450 4A in adult mice.
Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Fetal and perinatal exposure to selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been reported to alter childhood behavior, while transient early exposure in rodents is reported to alter their behavior and decrease brain extracellular 5-HT in adulthood. Since 5-HT2A/2C receptor-mediated neurotransmission can involve G-protein coupled activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), releasing arachidonic acid (ARA) from synaptic membrane phospholipid, we hypothesized that transient postnatal exposure to fluoxetine would alter brain ARA metabolism in adult mice. Brain ARA incorporation coefficients k* and rates Jin were quantitatively imaged following intravenous [1-(14)C]ARA infusion of unanesthetized adult mice that had been injected daily with fluoxetine (10mg/kg i.p.) or saline during postnatal days P4-P21. Expression of brain ARA metabolic enzymes and other relevant markers also was measured. On neuroimaging, k* and Jin was decreased widely in early fluoxetine- compared to saline-treated adult mice. Of the enzymes measured, cPLA2 activity was unchanged, while Ca(2+)-independent iPLA2 activity was increased. There was a significant 74% reduced protein level of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, which can convert ARA to 20-HETE. Reduced brain ARA metabolism in adult mice transiently exposed to postnatal fluoxetine, and a 74% reduction in CYP4A protein, suggest long-term effects independent of drug presence in brain ARA metabolism, and in CYP4A metabolites. These changes might contribute to reported altered behavior following early SSRI in rodents.
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Left ventricular torsional mechanics and myocardial iron load in beta-thalassaemia major: a potential role of titin degradation.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Iron may damage sarcomeric proteins through oxidative stress. We explored the left ventricular (LV) torsional mechanics in patients with beta-thalassaemia major and its relationship to myocardial iron load. Using HL-1 cell and B6D2F1 mouse models, we further determined the impact of iron load on proteolysis of the giant sarcomeric protein titin.
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Iron Overload and Apoptosis of HL-1 Cardiomyocytes: Effects of Calcium Channel Blockade.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Iron overload cardiomyopathy that prevails in some forms of hemosiderosis is caused by excessive deposition of iron into the heart tissue and ensuing damage caused by a raise in labile cell iron. The underlying mechanisms of iron uptake into cardiomyocytes in iron overload condition are still under investigation. Both L-type calcium channels (LTCC) and T-type calcium channels (TTCC) have been proposed to be the main portals of non-transferrinic iron into heart cells, but controversies remain. Here, we investigated the roles of LTCC and TTCC as mediators of cardiac iron overload and cellular damage by using specific Calcium channel blockers as potential suppressors of labile Fe(II) and Fe(III) ingress in cultured cardiomyocytes and ensuing apoptosis.
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Comparative Analysis of Human ?D-Crystallin Aggregation under Physiological and Low pH Conditions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cataract, a major cause of visual impairment worldwide, is the opacification of the eye's crystalline lens due to aggregation of the crystallin proteins. The research reported here is aimed at investigating the aggregating behavior of ?-crystallin proteins in various incubation conditions. Thioflavin T binding assay, circular dichroism spectroscopy, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid fluorescence spectroscopy, intrinsic (tryptophan) fluorescence spectroscopy, light scattering, and electron microscopy were used for structural characterization. Molecular dynamics simulations and bioinformatics prediction were performed to gain insights into the ?D-crystallin mechanisms of fibrillogenesis. We first demonstrated that, except at pH 7.0 and 37°C, the aggregation of ?D-crystallin was observed to be augmented upon incubation, as revealed by turbidity measurements. Next, the types of aggregates (fibrillar or non-fibrillar aggregates) formed under different incubation conditions were identified. We found that, while a variety of non-fibrillar, granular species were detected in the sample incubated under pH 7.0, the fibrillogenesis of human ?D-crystallin could be induced by acidic pH (pH 2.0). In addition, circular dichroism spectroscopy, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid fluorescence spectroscopy, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural and conformational features in different incubation conditions. Our results suggested that incubation under acidic condition led to a considerable change in the secondary structure and an enhancement in solvent-exposure of the hydrophobic regions of human ?D-crystallin. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations and bioinformatics prediction were performed to better explain the differences between the structures and/or conformations of the human ?D-crystallin samples and to reveal potential key protein region involved in the varied aggregation behavior. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that the initiation of amyloid formation of human ?D-crystallin may be associated with a region within the C-terminal domain. We believe the results from this research may contribute to a better understanding of the possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of senile nuclear cataract.
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Loss of synaptic connectivity, particularly in second order neurons is a key feature of diabetic retinal neuropathy in the Ins2Akita mouse.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Retinal neurodegeneration is a key component of diabetic retinopathy (DR), although the detailed neuronal damage remains ill-defined. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to amacrine and ganglion cell, diabetes may also impact on other retinal neurons. In this study, we examined retinal degenerative changes in Ins2Akita diabetic mice. In scotopic electroretinograms (ERG), b-wave and oscillatory potentials were severely impaired in 9-month old Ins2Akita mice. Despite no obvious pathology in fundoscopic examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed a progressive thinning of the retina from 3 months onwards. Cone but not rod photoreceptor loss was observed in 3-month-old diabetic mice. Severe impairment of synaptic connectivity at the outer plexiform layer (OPL) was detected in 9-month old Ins2Akita mice. Specifically, photoreceptor presynaptic ribbons were reduced by 25% and postsynaptic boutons by 70%, although the density of horizontal, rod- and cone-bipolar cells remained similar to non-diabetic controls. Significant reductions in GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells and Brn3a+ retinal ganglion cells were also observed in 9-month old Ins2Akita mice. In conclusion, the Ins2Akita mouse develops cone photoreceptor degeneration and the impairment of synaptic connectivity at the OPL, predominately resulting from the loss of postsynaptic terminal boutons. Our findings suggest that the Ins2Akita mouse is a good model to study diabetic retinal neuropathy.
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Isolation and characterization of broad spectrum coaggregating bacteria from different water systems for potential use in bioaugmentation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The bridging bacteria with broad-spectrum coaggregation ability play an important role during multispecies-biofilm development. In this study, through a visual and semi-quantitative assay, twenty-two bacterial strains with aggregation ability were obtained from 8 different water environments, and these strains were assigned to 7 genera according to their 16S rDNA and they were Aeromonas, Bacillus, Comamonas, Exiguobacterium, Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Comamonas. Furthermore, all possible 231 pairwise combinations among these 22 strains were explored for coaggregation ability by spectrophotometric assay. Among all these strains, it was found that Bacillus cereus G5 and Bacillus megaterium T1 coaggregated with themajority of assayed other strains, 90.5% (19 of 21 strains) and 76.2% respectively (17 of 21 strains) at a higher coaggregation rates (A.I. greater than 50%), indicating they have a broad-spectrum coaggregation property. The images of coaggregates also confirmed the coexistence of G5 and T1 with their partner strains. Biofilm biomass development of G5 cocultured with each of its partner strains were further evaluateded. The results showed that 15 of 21 strains, when paired with G5, developed greater biofilm biomass than the monocultures. Furthermore, the images from both fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that G5 and A3-GFP (a 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid-degrading strain, staining with gfp),could develop a typical spatial structure of dual-species biofilm when cocultured. These results suggested that bridging-bacteria with a broad spectrum coaggregating ability, such as G5,could mediate the integration of exogenous degrading bacteria into biofilms and contribute to the bioaugmentation treatment.
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RAGE regulates immune cell infiltration and angiogenesis in choroidal neovascularization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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RAGE regulates pro-inflammatory responses in diverse cells and tissues. This study has investigated if RAGE plays a role in immune cell mobilization and choroidal neovascular pathology that is associated with the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD).
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DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE AND FEMALE FAT BODY IN THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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The sexual difference in gene expression in fat body between 8- and 10-day-old male and female Bactrocera dorsalis was examined using suppression subtractive hybridization. A total of 952 clones were sequenced and searched using BLAST from the subtracted cDNA library. About 22% of these clones showed homology with detoxification enzymes including cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) and glutathione S-transferase. NADH dehydrogenases, distributed to energy metabolism, constituted about 9% of these clones. About 10% of these clones were cecropin, an antimicrobial peptide. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis showed that four transcripts were expressed at a higher level in fat body of males, compared to females. Bactrocera dorsalis cyp6g2 (Bdcyp6g2) was cloned (accession number KF469179) and the temporal profile of transcriptional expression showed that Bdcyp6g2 mRNA increased with age in males from day 3 after eclosion, but only on days 0-3 in females. Compared to females, the susceptibility of 9-day-old males to three insecticides was significantly less. These results suggested the genes expressed at a higher level in male act in its survival.
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Extremely Complex Populations of Small RNAs in the Mouse Retina and RPE/Choroid.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs of approximately 18 to 22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression. They are widely expressed in the retina, being both required for its normal development and perturbed in disease. The aim of this study was to apply new high-throughput sequencing techniques to more fully characterize the miRNAs and other small RNAs expressed in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid of the mouse.
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Accuracy of faecal occult blood test and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for detection of upper gastrointestinal lesions.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Highly sensitive guaiac-based faecal occult blood (Hemoccult SENSA) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen testing might help detect upper gastrointestinal lesions when appended to a colorectal cancer screening programme with faecal immunochemical testing. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracies of two stool tests in detecting upper gastrointestinal lesions.
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Extracellular Heat Shock Protein 90 Signals through Subdomain II and the NPVY Motif of LRP-1 Receptor to Akt1 and Akt2: a Circuit Essential for Promoting Skin Cell Migration In Vitro and Wound Healing In Vivo.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Normal cells secrete heat shock protein 90 alpha (Hsp90?) in response to tissue injury. Tumor cells have managed to constitutively secrete Hsp90? during invasion and metastasis. The sole function of extracellular Hsp90? (eHsp90?) is to promote cell motility, a critical event for both wound healing and tumor progression. The mechanism of promotility action by eHsp90?, however, has remained elusive. A key issue is whether eHsp90? still acts as a chaperone outside the cells or is a new and bona fide signaling molecule. Here, we have provided evidence that eHsp90? utilizes a unique transmembrane signaling mechanism to promote cell motility and wound healing. First, subdomain II in the extracellular part of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receives the eHsp90? signal. Then, the NPVY but not the NPTY motif in the cytoplasmic tail of LRP-1 connects eHsp90? signaling to serine 473 but not threonine 308 phosphorylation in Akt kinases. Individual knockdown of Akt1, Akt2, or Akt3 revealed the importance of Akt1 and Akt2 in eHsp90?-induced cell motility. Akt gene rescue experiments suggest that Akt1 and Akt2 work in concert, rather than independently, to mediate eHsp90? promotility signaling. Finally, Akt1 and Akt2 knockout mice showed impaired wound healing that cannot be corrected by topical application with the eHsp90? protein.
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Cell nuclei segmentation in fluorescence microscopy images using inter- and intra-region discriminative information.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Automated segmentation of cell nuclei in microscopic images is critical to high throughput analysis of the ever increasing amount of data. Although cell nuclei are generally visually distinguishable for human, automated segmentation faces challenges when there is significant intensity inhomogeneity among cell nuclei or in the background. In this paper, we propose an effective method for automated cell nucleus segmentation using a three-step approach. It first obtains an initial segmentation by extracting salient regions in the image, then reduces false positives using inter-region feature discrimination, and finally refines the boundary of the cell nuclei using intra-region contrast information. This method has been evaluated on two publicly available datasets of fluorescence microscopic images with 4009 cells, and has achieved superior performance compared to popular state of the art methods using established metrics.
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Near-infrared light-triggered irreversible aggregation of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-stabilised polypyrrole nanoparticles under biologically relevant conditions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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We report the use of near-infrared (NIR) radiation to trigger the irreversible flocculation of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-stabilised polypyrrole nanoparticles in physiological buffer.
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[Determination of atracurium and laudanosine in dog plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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A high performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with fluorometric detection has been developed for the determination of atracurium and its major metabolite laudanosine in dog plasma. The separation of atracurium and laudanosine was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column, and the mobile phase consisted of 0.03 mol/L dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and acetonitrile (72: 28, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Verapamil was used as the internal standard. The sample was extracted by dichloromethane, concentrated and dissolved in the mobile phase. The detection is performed at 240 nm for excitation and 320 nm for emission. The results showed that the linear concentration ranges of the calibration curve were 25 - 5 000 microg/L for atracurium (r = 0.999 0), and 25 - 6 000 microg/L for laudanosine (r = 0.9984). The recoveries were 92.1% - 109.5%. The limits of detection were 3 microg/L for atracurium and 1 microg/L for laudanosine. The RSDs of intra-day and inter-day were less than 10%. The stability tests under various conditions have been performed. The method is specific, sensitive and accurate in the determination of atracurium and laudanosine, and also can be used for the pharmacokinetic investigations of atracurium and laudanosine in plasma.
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[The relationship between hyperinsulinemia and hypokalemic periodic paralysis in overweight/obesity subjects].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To study the relationship between hyperinsulinemia and primary periodic paralysis in overweight/obesity people.
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[Relationship between schistosome serum test positive rate of residents and positive rate of Oncomelania snails in a national schistosomiasis surveillance site of Jiangling County].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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To explore the relationship between schistosome serum test positive rate of residents and positive rate of Oncomelania snails in a national schistosomiasis surveillance site of Jiangling County.
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[Surveillance of endemic situation of schistosomiasis in a national surveillance site in Jiangling County from 2005 to 2011].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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To understand the dynamics of schistosomiasis japonica in a national surveillance site in Jiangling County, Hubei Province, China, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the intervention strategy of schistosomiasis control in the whole county.
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The clinical course and long-term outcome of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in Chinese adults.
Clin. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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To explore the long-term outcome and prognostic factors of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in Chinese adults.
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Simultaneous determination of residues in pollen and high-fructose corn syrup from eight neonicotinoid insecticides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The neonicotinoids have recently been identified as a potential contributing factor to the sudden decline in adult honeybee population, commonly known as colony collapse disorder (CCD). To protect the health of honeybees and other pollinators, a new, simple, and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of eight neonicotinoids, including acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, flonicamid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam, in pollen and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). In this method, eight neonicotinoids, along with their isotope-labeled internal standards, were extracted from 2 g of pollen or 5 g of HFCS using an optimized quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction procedure. The method limits of detection in pollen and HFCS matrices were 0.03 ng/g for acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam and ranged between 0.03 and 0.1 ng/g for nitenpyram and flonicamid. The precision and accuracy were well within the acceptable 20% range. Selectivity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, matrix effect, recovery, and stability in autosampler were also evaluated during validation. This validated method has been used successfully in analyzing a set of pollen and HFCS samples collected for evaluating potential honeybee exposure to neonicotinoids.
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[Tissue factor expression of platelets and leukocytes in patients with acute coronary syndromes].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the tissue factor (TF) expression of platelets and leukocytes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), patients with stalbe angina (SA) and healthy subjects (as controls). 26 patients with ACS, 29 patients with SA, and 25 controls were enrolled in this study. The peripheral blood samples of above-mentioned subjects were collected and isolated to obtain the monocytes and platele-rich plasma, the TF-mRNA expression of monocytes, and platelets among 3 groups was detected by RT-PCR, the TF expression ratio of platelets, platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLA) and platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMP) was detected by flow cytometry among 3 groups. The results showed that the TF mRNA expression level of platelets in ACS group were significantly higher (3.11 ± 0.51 relative expression) as compared with SA and control groups (1.88 ± 0.78 and 0.7 ± 0.1, respectively) (P = 0.03). Expression of TF mRNA of monocytes was higher in ACS group (P = 0.05 versus controls) too. ACS group had a significantly higher amount of TF-positive platelets (8.8 ± 2.6) than SA (2.6 ± 0.5, P = 0.02) or control groups (2.5 ± 0.4, P = 0.02). A significantly greater number of TF positive platelet-leukocyte aggregates and platelet-monocyte aggregates were also found by flow cytometry in blood of ACS patients than in either SA patients or controls. It is concluded that the high TF expression of platelets and leukocytes in ACS patients strengthens the platelet activation, blood coagulation, and thrombus formation and may further contribute to the hypercoagulability associated with the disease. The present study further extends the proinflammatory/prothrombotic phenotype of ACS patients showing that new players on the scene.
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Cellodextrin transporters play important roles in cellulase induction in the cellulolytic fungus Penicillium oxalicum.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Cellodextrin transporters (cellodextrin permeases) have been identified in fungi in recent years. However, the functions of these transporters in cellulose utilization and cellulase expression have not been well studied. In this study, three cellodextrin transporters, namely, CdtC, CdtD, and CdtG, in the cellulolytic fungus Penicillium oxalicum (formally was classified as P. decumbens) were identified, and their functions were analyzed. The deletion of a single cellodextrin transporter gene slightly decreased cellobiose consumption, but no observable effect on cellulase expression was observed, which was attributed to the overlapping activity of isozymes. Further simultaneous deletion of cdtC and cdtD resulted in significantly decreased cellobiose consumption and poor growth on cellulose. The extracellular activity and transcription level of cellulases in the mutant without cdtC and cdtD were significantly lower than those in the wild-type strain when grown on cellulose. This result provides direct evidence of the crucial function of cellodextrin transporters in the induction of cellulase expression by insoluble cellulose.
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Association of genetic polymorphisms in matrix metalloproteinase-9 and coronary artery disease in the Chinese Han population: a case-control study.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in inflammation and matrix degradation involved in atherosclerosis and plaque rupture. The T allele of rs3918242 has been reported to lead to a high promoter activity and associate with the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). And some studies have reported that the G allele of rs17576 might be associated with CAD. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the polymorphisms of the MMP-9 gene and CAD in the Chinese Han population.
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Penicillium decumbens BrlA extensively regulates secondary metabolism and functionally associates with the expression of cellulase genes.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Penicillium decumbens has been used in the industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in China for more than 15 years. Conidiation is essential for most industrial fungi because conidia are used as starters in the first step of fermentation. To investigate the mechanism of conidiation in P. decumbens, we generated mutants defective in two central regulators of conidiation, FluG and BrlA. Deletion of fluG resulted in neither "fluffy" phenotype nor alteration in conidiation, indicating possible different upstream mechanisms activating brlA between P. decumbens and Aspergillus nidulans. Deletion of brlA completely blocked conidiation. Further investigation of brlA expression in different media (nutrient-rich or nutrient-poor) and different culture states (liquid or solid) showed that brlA expression is required but not sufficient for conidiation. The brlA deletion strain exhibited altered hyphal morphology with more branches. Genome-wide expression profiling identified BrlA-dependent genes in P. decumbens, including genes previously reported to be involved in conidiation as well as previously reported chitin synthase genes and acid protease gene (pepB). The expression levels of seven secondary metabolism gene clusters (from a total of 28 clusters) were drastically regulated in the brlA deletion strain, including a downregulated cluster putatively involved in the biosynthesis of the mycotoxins roquefortine C and meleagrin. In addition, the expression levels of most cellulase genes were upregulated in the brlA deletion strain detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The brlA deletion strain also exhibited an 89.1 % increase in cellulase activity compared with the wild-type strain. The results showed that BrlA in P. decumbens not only has a key role in regulating conidiation, but it also regulates secondary metabolism extensively as well as the expression of cellulase genes.
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Different B-type methionine sulfoxide reductases in Chlamydomonas may protect the alga against high-light, sulfur-depletion, or oxidative stress.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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The genome of unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains four genes encoding B-type methionine sulfoxide reductases, MSRB1.1, MSRB1.2, MSRB2.1, and MSRB2.2, with functions largely unknown. To understand the cell defense system mediated by the methionine sulfoxide reductases in Chlamydomonas, we analyzed expression and physiological roles of the MSRBs under different abiotic stress conditions using immunoblotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. We showed that the MSRB2.2 protein was accumulated in cells treated with high light (1,300?µE/m² per s), whereas MSRB1.1 was accumulated in the cells under 1?mmol/L H?O? treatment or sulfur depletion. We observed that the cells with the MSRB2.2 knockdown and overexpression displayed increased and decreased sensitivity to high light, respectively, based on in situ chlorophyll a fluorescence measures. We also observed that the cells with the MSRB1.1 knockdown and overexpression displayed decreased and increased tolerance to sulfur-depletion and oxidative stresses, respectively, based on growth and H?-producing performance. The physiological implications revealed from the experimental data highlight the importance of MSRB2.2 and MSRB1.1 in protecting Chlamydomonas cells against adverse conditions such as high-light, sulfur-depletion, and oxidative stresses.
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Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in response to acute boron deficiency and toxicity reveals effects on photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and protein synthesis.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Boron (B) stress (deficiency and toxicity) is common in plants, but as the functions of this essential micronutrient are incompletely understood, so too are the effects of B stress. To investigate mechanisms underlying B stress, we examined protein profiles in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under normal B (30?M), compared to plants transferred for 60 and 84h (i.e., before and after initial visible symptoms) in deficient (0?M) or toxic (3mM) levels of B. B-responsive polypeptides were sequenced by mass spectrometry, following 2D gel electrophoresis, and 1D gels and immunoblotting were used to confirm the B-responsiveness of some of these proteins. Fourteen B-responsive proteins were identified, including: 9 chloroplast proteins, 6 proteins of photosynthetic/carbohydrate metabolism (rubisco activase, OEC23, photosystem I reaction center subunit II-1, ATPase ?-subunit, glycolate oxidase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase), 6 stress proteins, and 3 proteins involved in protein synthesis (note that the 14 proteins may fall into multiple categories). Most (8) of the B-responsive proteins decreased under both B deficiency and toxicity; only 3 increased with B stress. Boron stress decreased, or had no effect on, 3 of 4 oxidative stress proteins examined, and did not affect total protein. Hence, our results indicate relatively early specific effects of B stress on chloroplasts and protein synthesis.
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Complement expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells is modulated by activated macrophages.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Complement activation is involved in a variety of retinal diseases. We have shown previously that a number of complement components and regulators can be produced locally in the eye, and that retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are the major source of complement expression at the retina-choroidal interface. The expression of complement components by RPE cells is regulated by inflammatory cytokines. Under aging or inflammatory conditions, microglia and macrophages accumulate in the subretinal space, where they are in close contact with RPE cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of activated macrophages on complement expression by RPE cells. Mouse RPE cells were treated with the supernatants from un-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BM-DMs), the classically activated BM-DMs (M1) and different types of the alternatively activated BM-DMs (M2a by IL-4, M2b by immune complex and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), M2c by IL-10). The expression of inflammatory cytokines and complement genes by RPE cells were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The protein expression of CFB, C3, C1INH, and C1r was examined by Western blot. Our results show that un-stimulated RPE cells express a variety of complement-related genes, and that the expression levels of complement regulators, including C1r, factor H (CFH), DAF1, CD59, C1INH, Crry, and C4BP genes are significantly higher than those of complement component genes (C2, C4, CFB, C3, and C5). Macrophage supernatants increased inflammatory cytokine (IL-1?, IL-6, iNOS), chemokine (CCL2) and complement expression in RPE cells. The supernatants from M0, M2a and M2c macrophages mildly up-regulated (2-3.5-fold) CFB, CFH and C3 gene expression in RPE cells, whereas the supernatants from M1 and M2b macrophages massively increased (10-30-fold) CFB and C3 gene expression in RPE cells. The expression of other genes, including C1r, C2, C4, CFH, Masp1, C1INH, and C4BP in RPE cells was also increased by the supernatants of M1 and M2b macrophages; however, the increment levels were significantly lower than CFB and C3 genes. M1 and M2b macrophage supernatants enhanced CFB (Bb fragment) protein expression and C3 secretion by RPE cells. M1 macrophages may affect complement expression in RPE cells through the STAT1 pathway. Our results suggest that under inflammatory conditions, activated macrophages could promote the alternative pathway of complement activation in the retina via induction of RPE cell CFB and C3 expression.
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Region-based progressive localization of cell nuclei in microscopic images with data adaptive modeling.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Segmenting cell nuclei in microscopic images has become one of the most important routines in modern biological applications. With the vast amount of data, automatic localization, i.e. detection and segmentation, of cell nuclei is highly desirable compared to time-consuming manual processes. However, automated segmentation is challenging due to large intensity inhomogeneities in the cell nuclei and the background.
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Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates atherosclerosis development and protects endothelial cells from ox-LDL.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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We assessed whether tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an active ingredient of Ligusticum wallichii Franchat, attenuates atherosclerosis (AS) development in rabbits and protects endothelial cells injured by ox-LDL.
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Associations of the PTEN -9C>G polymorphism with insulin sensitivity and central obesity in Chinese.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 gene (PTEN) is known as a tumor-suppressor gene. Previous studies demonstrated that PTEN dysfunction affects the function of insulin. However, investigations of PTEN single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and IR-related disease associations are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether its polymorphism could be involved in the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS).
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Topical application of recombinant type VII collagen incorporates into the dermal-epidermal junction and promotes wound closure.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) have incurable skin fragility, blistering, and skin wounds due to mutations in the gene that codes for type VII collagen (C7) that mediates dermal-epidermal adherence in human skin. In this study, we evaluated if topically applied human recombinant C7 (rC7) could restore C7 at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) and enhance wound healing. We found that rC7 applied topically onto murine skin wounds stably incorporated into the newly formed DEJ of healed wounds and accelerated wound closure by increasing re-epithelialization. Topical rC7 decreased the expression of fibrogenic transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2) and increased the expression of anti-fibrogenic TGF-?3. These were accompanied by the reduced expression of connective tissue growth factor, fewer ? smooth muscle actin (?-SMA)-positive myofibroblasts, and less deposition of collagen in the healed neodermis, consistent with less scar formation. In addition, using a mouse model in which skin from C7 knock out mice was grafted onto immunodeficient mice, we showed that applying rC7 onto RDEB grafts with wounds restored C7 and anchoring fibrils (AFs) at the DEJ of the grafts and corrected the dermal-epidermal separation. The topical application of rC7 may be useful for treating patients with RDEB and patients who have chronic skin wounds.
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Determining the optimal time for bortezomib-based induction chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant in the treatment of multiple myeloma.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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In our study, we determined the efficacy of bortezomib-based induction therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory (R/R) multiple myeloma (MM) patients and compared the advantages of early versus late transplant. We used a retrospective analysis to examine 62 patients, including 46 cases of newly diagnosed MM (early transplant group) and 16 cases of relapsed/refractory MM (late transplant group). All of these patients received bortezomib-based induction therapy followed by ASCT. The efficacy and side effects of the treatment regimen were analyzed. Patients overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) times were determined. The ratio of complete remission to near-complete remission (CR/nCR) was 69.5% versus 56.2% (P=0.361), respectively, for the early transplant group versus the late transplant group, respectively, after receiving bortezomib-based induction therapy; the overall response rates of the two group were 91.3% and 81.2%, respectively (P=0.369). After receiving ASCT, the CR/nCR of the two groups increased to 84.8% and 81.3%, respectively. The median time required for neutrophil engraftment of the early transplant group and the late transplant group was 11 and 14.5 days, respectively (P=0.003); the median time required for platelet engraftment was 13 and 21.5 days (P=0.031), respectively. There were no significant differences in the toxic side effects observed during induction therapy and ASCT between the two groups. The OS of the two groups was not statistically different (P=0.058). The PFS of the early transplant group and the late transplant group was 41.6 and 26.5 months, respectively (P=0.008). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the time of receiving ASCT, the types of M protein, and the International Staging System (ISS) stage were all independent factors that influenced PFS. In conclusion, patients in a suitable condition for ASCT should be recommended to have an early ASCT immediately after diagnosis.
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Sipa1 promoter polymorphism predicts risk and metastasis of lung cancer in Chinese.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Signal-induced proliferation associated gene 1 (Sipa1) is a signal transducer to activate the Ras-related proteins and modulate cell progression, differentiation, adhesion and cancer metastasis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Sipa1 are associated with lung cancer risk and metastasis. Three common SNPs (rs931127A > G, rs2448490G > A, and rs3741379G > T) were genotyped in a discovery set of southern Chinese population and then validated the promising SNPs in a validation set of an eastern Chinese population in a total of 1559 lung cancer patients and 1679 cancer-free controls. The results from the two sets were consistent, the rs931127GG variant genotype had an increased risk of lung cancer compared to the rs931127AA/GA genotypes (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.09-1.49) after combination of the two populations, and the rs931127GG interacted with pack-year smoked on increasing lung cancer risk (P = 0.037); this SNP also had an effect on patients clinical stages (P = 0.012) that those patients with the rs931127GG genotype had a significant higher metastasis rate and been advanced N, M stages at diagnosis. However, these associations were not observed for rs2448490G > A and rs3741379G > T in the discovery set. Our data suggest that the SNP rs931127A > G in the promoter of Sipa1 was significantly associated with lung cancer risk and metastasis, which may be a biomarker to predict the risk and metastasis of lung cancer.
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Prime-boost with Mycobacterium smegmatis recombinant vaccine improves protection in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The development of a new vaccine as a substitute for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or to improve its efficacy is one of the many World Health Organization goals to control tuberculosis. Mycobacterial vectors have been used successfully in the development of vaccines against tuberculosis. To enhance the potential utility of Mycobacterium smegmatis as a vaccine, it was transformed with a recombinant plasmid containing the partial sequences of the genes Ag85c, MPT51, and HspX (CMX) from M. tuberculosis. The newly generated recombinant strain mc(2)-CMX was tested in a murine model of infection. The recombinant vaccine induced specific IgG1 or IgG2a responses to CMX. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from the lungs and spleen responded ex vivo to CMX, producing IFN-?, IL17, TNF-?, and IL2. The vaccine thus induced a significant immune response in mice. Mice vaccinated with mc(2)-CMX and challenged with M. tuberculosis showed better protection than mice immunized with wild-type M. smegmatis or BCG. To increase the safety and immunogenicity of the CMX antigens, we used a recombinant strain of M. smegmatis, IKE (immune killing evasion), to express CMX. The recombinant vaccine IKE-CMX induced a better protective response than mc(2)-CMX. The data presented here suggest that the expression of CMX antigens improves the immune response and the protection induced in mice when M. smegmatis is used as vaccine against tuberculosis.
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Myeloid cells expressing VEGF and arginase-1 following uptake of damaged retinal pigment epithelium suggests potential mechanism that drives the onset of choroidal angiogenesis in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Whilst data recognise both myeloid cell accumulation during choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) as well as complement activation, none of the data has presented a clear explanation for the angiogenic drive that promotes pathological angiogenesis. One possibility that is a pre-eminent drive is a specific and early conditioning and activation of the myeloid cell infiltrate. Using a laser-induced CNV murine model, we have identified that disruption of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruchs membrane resulted in an early recruitment of macrophages derived from monocytes and microglia, prior to angiogenesis and contemporaneous with lesional complement activation. Early recruited CD11b(+) cells expressed a definitive gene signature of selective inflammatory mediators particularly a pronounced Arg-1 expression. Accumulating macrophages from retina and peripheral blood were activated at the site of injury, displaying enhanced VEGF expression, and notably prior to exaggerated VEGF expression from RPE, or earliest stages of angiogenesis. All of these initial events, including distinct VEGF (+) Arg-1(+) myeloid cells, subsided when CNV was established and at the time RPE-VEGF expression was maximal. Depletion of inflammatory CCR2-positive monocytes confirmed origin of infiltrating monocyte Arg-1 expression, as following depletion Arg-1 signal was lost and CNV suppressed. Furthermore, our in vitro data supported a myeloid cell uptake of damaged RPE or its derivatives as a mechanism generating VEGF (+) Arg-1(+) phenotype in vivo. Our results reveal a potential early driver initiating angiogenesis via myeloid-derived VEGF drive following uptake of damaged RPE and deliver an explanation of why CNV develops during any of the stages of macular degeneration and can be explored further for therapeutic gain.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.