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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea for its metabolite biosynthesis and sexual development.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Antrodia cinnamomea, a polyporus mushroom of Taiwan, has long been used as a remedy for cancer, hypertension, and hangover, with an annual market of over $100 million (US) in Taiwan. We obtained a 32.15-Mb genome draft containing 9,254 genes. Genome ontology enrichment and pathway analyses shed light on sexual development and the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, ergostanes, antroquinonol, and antrocamphin. We identified genes differentially expressed between mycelium and fruiting body and 242 proteins in the mevalonate pathway, terpenoid pathways, cytochrome P450s, and polyketide synthases, which may contribute to the production of medicinal secondary metabolites. Genes of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways showed expression enrichment for tissue-specific compounds, including 14-?-demethylase (CYP51F1) in fruiting body for converting lanostane to ergostane triterpenoids, coenzymes Q (COQ) for antroquinonol biosynthesis in mycelium, and polyketide synthase for antrocamphin biosynthesis in fruiting body. Our data will be useful for developing a strategy to increase the production of useful metabolites.
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Genomic organization, transcriptomic analysis, and functional characterization of avian ?- and ?-keratins in diverse feather forms.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Feathers are hallmark avian integument appendages, although they were also present on theropods. They are composed of flexible corneous materials made of ?- and ?-keratins, but their genomic organization and their functional roles in feathers have not been well studied. First, we made an exhaustive search of ?- and ?-keratin genes in the new chicken genome assembly (Galgal4). Then, using transcriptomic analysis, we studied ?- and ?-keratin gene expression patterns in five types of feather epidermis. The expression patterns of ?-keratin genes were different in different feather types, whereas those of ?-keratin genes were less variable. In addition, we obtained extensive ?- and ?-keratin mRNA in situ hybridization data, showing that ?-keratins and ?-keratins are preferentially expressed in different parts of the feather components. Together, our data suggest that feather morphological and structural diversity can largely be attributed to differential combinations of ?- and ?-keratin genes in different intrafeather regions and/or feather types from different body parts. The expression profiles provide new insights into the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers. Finally, functional analysis using mutant chicken keratin forms based on those found in the human ?-keratin mutation database led to abnormal phenotypes. This demonstrates that the chicken can be a convenient model for studying the molecular biology of human keratin-based diseases.
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Co-opting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolic pathways for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Sulphur is an essential element for life and is ubiquitous in living systems. Yet how the sulphur atom is incorporated into many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites is poorly understood. For bond formation between carbon and sulphur in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the persulphide and thiocarboxylate groups on sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins. Each group is post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all reported bacterial cases, the gene encoding the enzyme that catalyses the carbon-sulphur bond formation reaction and that encoding the cognate sulphur-carrier protein exist in the same gene cluster. To study the production of the 2-thiosugar moiety in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action seem similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme that catalyses thiazole formation in thiamine biosynthesis. However, no gene encoding a sulphur-carrier protein could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing uncovered a few genes encoding sulphur-carrier proteins that are probably involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites but only one activating enzyme gene in the A. orientalis genome. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme can adenylate each of these sulphur-carrier proteins and probably also catalyses the subsequent thiolation, through its rhodanese domain. A proper combination of these sulphur-delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalysed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. This study is, to our knowledge, the first complete characterization of thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrates the receptor promiscuity of the A. orientalis sulphur-delivery system. Our results also show that co-opting the sulphur-delivery machinery of primary metabolism for the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing natural products is probably a general strategy found in nature.
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Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in two domestic chickens.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Domestic chickens are excellent models for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity, as numerous phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology, and behavior in chickens have been artificially selected. Genomic study is required to study genome-wide patterns of DNA variation for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We sequenced the genomes of the Silkie and the Taiwanese native chicken L2 at ?23- and 25-fold average coverage depth, respectively, using Illumina sequencing. The reads were mapped onto the chicken reference genome (including 5.1% Ns) to 92.32% genome coverage for the two breeds. Using a stringent filter, we identified ?7.6 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8,839 copy number variations (CNVs) in the mapped regions; 42% of the SNPs have not found in other chickens before. Among the 68,906 SNPs annotated in the chicken sequence assembly, 27,852 were nonsynonymous SNPs located in 13,537 genes. We also identified hundreds of shared and divergent structural and copy number variants in intronic and intergenic regions and in coding regions in the two breeds. Functional enrichments of identified genetic variants were discussed. Radical nsSNP-containing immunity genes were enriched in the QTL regions associated with some economic traits for both breeds. Moreover, genetic changes involved in selective sweeps were detected. From the selective sweeps identified in our two breeds, several genes associated with growth, appetite, and metabolic regulation were identified. Our study provides a framework for genetic and genomic research of domestic chickens and facilitates the domestic chicken as an avian model for genomic, biomedical, and evolutionary studies.
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Inheritance of gene expression level and selective constraints on trans- and cis-regulatory changes in yeast.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Gene expression evolution can be caused by changes in cis- or trans-regulatory elements or both. As cis and trans regulation operate through different molecular mechanisms, cis and trans mutations may show different inheritance patterns and may be subjected to different selective constraints. To investigate these issues, we obtained and analyzed gene expression data from two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and their hybrid, using high-throughput sequencing. Our data indicate that compared with other types of genes, those with antagonistic cis-trans interactions are more likely to exhibit over- or underdominant inheritance of expression level. Moreover, in accordance with previous studies, genes with trans variants tend to have a dominant inheritance pattern, whereas cis variants are enriched for additive inheritance. In addition, cis regulatory differences contribute more to expression differences between species than within species, whereas trans regulatory differences show a stronger association between divergence and polymorphism. Our data indicate that in the trans component of gene expression differences genes subjected to weaker selective constraints tend to have an excess of polymorphism over divergence compared with those subjected to stronger selective constraints. In contrast, in the cis component, this difference between genes under stronger and weaker selective constraint is mostly absent. To explain these observations, we propose that purifying selection more strongly shapes trans changes than cis changes and that positive selection may have significantly contributed to cis regulatory divergence.
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Anatomical and transcriptional dynamics of maize embryonic leaves during seed germination.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Our anatomical analysis revealed that a dry maize seed contains four to five embryonic leaves at different developmental stages. Rudimentary kranz structure (KS) is apparent in the first leaf with a substantial density, but its density decreases toward younger leaves. Upon imbibition, leaf expansion occurs rapidly with new KSs initiated from the palisade-like ground meristem cells in the middle of the leaf. In parallel to the anatomical analysis, we obtained the time course transcriptomes for the embryonic leaves in dry and imbibed seeds every 6 h up to hour 72. Over this time course, the embryonic leaves exhibit transcripts of 30,255 genes at a level that can be regarded as "expressed." In dry seeds, ?25,500 genes are expressed, showing functional enrichment in transcription, RNA processing, protein synthesis, primary metabolic pathways, and calcium transport. During the 72-h time course, ?13,900 genes, including 590 transcription factor genes, are differentially expressed. Indeed, by 30 h postimbibition, ?2,200 genes expressed in dry seeds are already down-regulated, and ?2,000 are up-regulated. Moreover, the top 1% expressed genes at 54 h or later are very different from those before 30 h, reflecting important developmental and physiological transitions. Interestingly, clusters of genes involved in hormone metabolism, signaling, and responses are differentially expressed at various time points and TF gene expression is also modular and stage specific. Our dataset provides an opportunity for hypothesizing the timing of regulatory actions, particularly in the context of KS development.
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Natural selection on cis and trans regulation in yeasts.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Gene expression is regulated both by cis elements, which are DNA segments closely linked to the genes they regulate, and by trans factors, which are usually proteins capable of diffusing to unlinked genes. Understanding the patterns and sources of regulatory variation is crucial for understanding phenotypic and genome evolution. Here, we measure genome-wide allele-specific expression by deep sequencing to investigate the patterns of cis and trans expression variation between two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We propose a statistical modeling framework based on the binomial distribution that simultaneously addresses normalization of read counts derived from different parents and estimating the cis and trans expression variation parameters. We find that expression polymorphism in yeast is common for both cis and trans, though trans variation is more common. Constraint in expression evolution is correlated with other hallmarks of constraint, including gene essentiality, number of protein interaction partners, and constraint in amino acid substitution, indicating that both cis and trans polymorphism are clearly under purifying selection, though trans variation appears to be more sensitive to selective constraint. Comparing interspecific expression divergence between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus to our intraspecific variation suggests a significant departure from a neutral model of molecular evolution. A further examination of correlation between polymorphism and divergence within each category suggests that cis divergence is more frequently mediated by positive Darwinian selection than is trans divergence.
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Characterizing regulatory and functional differentiation between maize mesophyll and bundle sheath cells by transcriptomic analysis.
Plant Physiol.
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To study the regulatory and functional differentiation between the mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells of maize (Zea mays), we isolated large quantities of highly homogeneous M and BS cells from newly matured second leaves for transcriptome profiling by RNA sequencing. A total of 52,421 annotated genes with at least one read were found in the two transcriptomes. Defining a gene with more than one read per kilobase per million mapped reads as expressed, we identified 18,482 expressed genes; 14,972 were expressed in M cells, including 53 M-enriched transcription factor (TF) genes, whereas 17,269 were expressed in BS cells, including 214 BS-enriched TF genes. Interestingly, many TF gene families show a conspicuous BS preference in expression. Pathway analyses reveal differentiation between the two cell types in various functional categories, with the M cells playing more important roles in light reaction, protein synthesis and folding, tetrapyrrole synthesis, and RNA binding, while the BS cells specialize in transport, signaling, protein degradation and posttranslational modification, major carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen metabolism, cell division and organization, and development. Genes coding for several transporters involved in the shuttle of C(4) metabolites and BS cell wall development have been identified, to our knowledge, for the first time. This comprehensive data set will be useful for studying M/BS differentiation in regulation and function.
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A highly efficient ?-glucosidase from the buffalo rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5.
Biotechnol Biofuels
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Cellulose, which is the most abundant renewable biomass on earth, is a potential bio-resource of alternative energy. The hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides is catalyzed by microbial cellulases, including endo-?-1,4-glucanases, cellobiohydrolases, cellodextrinases, and ?-glucosidases. Converting cellobiose by ?-glucosidases is the key factor for reducing cellobiose inhibition and enhancing the efficiency of cellulolytic enzymes for cellulosic ethanol production.
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Transcriptomes of mouse olfactory epithelium reveal sexual differences in odorant detection.
Genome Biol Evol
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To sense numerous odorants and chemicals, animals have evolved a large number of olfactory receptor genes (Olfrs) in their genome. In particular, the house mouse has ~1,100 genes in the Olfr gene family. This makes the mouse a good model organism to study Olfr genes and olfaction-related genes. To date, whether male and female mice possess the same ability in detecting environmental odorants is still unknown. Using the next generation sequencing technology (paired-end mRNA-seq), we detected 1,088 expressed Olfr genes in both male and female olfactory epithelium. We found that not only Olfr genes but also odorant-binding protein (Obp) genes have evolved rapidly in the mouse lineage. Interestingly, Olfr genes tend to express at a higher level in males than in females, whereas the Obp genes clustered on the X chromosome show the opposite trend. These observations may imply a more efficient odorant-transporting system in females, whereas a more active Olfr gene expressing system in males. In addition, we detected the expression of two genes encoding major urinary proteins, which have been proposed to bind and transport pheromones or act as pheromones in mouse urine. This observation suggests a role of main olfactory system (MOS) in pheromone detection, contrary to the view that only accessory olfactory system (AOS) is involved in pheromone detection. This study suggests the sexual differences in detecting environmental odorants in MOS and demonstrates that mRNA-seq provides a powerful tool for detecting genes with low expression levels and with high sequence similarities.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.