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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ischemic Stroke and Intracranial Hemorrhage With Aspirin, Dabigatran, and Warfarin: Impact of Quality of Anticoagulation Control.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Little is known about the impact of quality of anticoagulation control, as reflected by time in therapeutic range (TTR), on the effectiveness and safety of warfarin therapy in Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated the risks of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in relation to warfarin at various TTRs in a real-world cohort of Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation receiving warfarin and compared with those on dabigatran, aspirin, and no therapy.
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[Effect of environmental factors on photosynthetic physiology and flavonoid constituent of Scutellaria baicalensis].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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To discuss the effect of environmental factors and photosynthesis on the growing of plant and the content of active components in Scutellaria baicalensis, the photosynthetic physiology index and diurnal changes of flavonoid constituent of S. Baicalensis were observed and tested in flowering and fruiting stages, and in the meantime environmental parameters were recorded. The obtained data were analyzed data by using path analysis and gray correlation analysis. The results showed that PAR and SWC were important environmental factors impacting on photosynthesis of S. baicalensis. SWC, RH and Ca were important environmental factors impacting on baicalin content. PAR, Po and Ta were important environmental factors impacting on baicalein content.
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Changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome treated with immunoglobulin.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune condition characterized by peripheral neuropathy. The pathogenesis of GBS is not fully understood, and the mechanism of how intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) cures GBS is ambiguous. Herein, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in patients with two major subtypes of GBS (acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, AIDP, and acute motor axonal neuropathy, AMAN) before and after treatment with IVIG, and explored the possible mechanism of IVIG action.
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Eurifoloids A-R, Structurally Diverse Diterpenoids from Euphorbia neriifolia.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Eighteen new diterpenoids, named eurifoloids A-R (1-18), including ingenane (1 and 2), abietane (3-7), isopimarane (8-12), and ent-atisane (13-18) types, along with four known analogues were isolated from Euphorbia neriifolia. Eurifoloid M (13) represents a rare class of ent-atisane-type norditerpenoid. Eurifoloids E (5) and F (6) exhibited significant anti-HIV activities, with EC50 values of 3.58 ± 0.31 (SI = 8.6) and 7.40 ± 0.94 ?M (SI = 10.3), respectively.
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[Chinese medicine clinical trial protocol design and report specifications].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Clinical trial protocol is the document that illustrates the background of a clinical trial, theoretic basis, objective, design, methods, and organization, as well as statistical calculating, implement, and conditions for completion. Clinical trial protocol is the basic measure for ensuring the validity of scientific results and reducing bias. In order to optimize the design of clinical trial protocol, we generalize main problems in Chinese medicine clinical trials, key points of clinical trial protocol, as well as report standards.
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Generation and characterization of a transgenic pig carrying a DsRed-monomer reporter gene.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Pigs are an optimal animal for conducting biomedical research because of their anatomical and physiological resemblance to humans. In contrast to the abundant resources available in the study of mice, few fluorescent protein-harboring porcine models are available for preclinical studies. In this paper, we report the successful generation and characterization of a transgenic DsRed-Monomer porcine model.
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Carotene production from agro-industrial wastes by Arthrobacter globiformis in shake-flask culture.
Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Industrial waste substrates, sugarcane molasses, and corn steep liquor were used for production of carotenes by Arthrobacter globiformis in this study. At the first stage, a one-factor-at-a-time approach was used for optimization of different media components such as carbon, nitrogen, MgSO(4) · 7H(2)O, and KH(2)PO(4), as well as pH, temperature, liquid medium volume, and inoculums level. The response surface method was further applied to determination of optimum values of process variables for maximum carotenes concentration. Results showed that the optimum combination for carotenes formation was as follows (g/L): sugarcane molasses, 40.00; corn steep liquor, 50.00; MgSO(4) · 7H(2)O, 0.75; KH(2)PO(4), 1.00. The maximum carotene concentration of 1.19 ± 0.02 mg/g dry biomass, about 113% of 1.05 ± 0.02 mg/g dry biomass growing in basal medium, was demonstrated by confirmatory experiments to be the optimum in liquid medium at 100 rpm, 30°C, initial pH of 7.5, and cultivation for 60 hr. In a second stage, detailed studies showed about 1.64-fold and 1.43-fold increase in carotene concentration (mg/g dry biomass) in the presence of addition of ethanol (4%, v/v) and addition of hydrogen peroxide (4%, v/v) at 40 hr, and 32 hr in liquid medium, separately.
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Affinity purification of binding miRNAs for messenger RNA fused with a common tag.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Prediction of microRNA-mRNA interaction typically relies on bioinformatic methods, but these methods only suggest the possibility of microRNA binding and may miss important interactions as well as falsely predict others. A major obstacle to the miRNA research has been the lack of experimental procedures for the identification of miRNA-mRNA interactions. Recently, a few studies have attempted to explore experimental methods to isolate and identify miRNA targets or miRNAs targeting a single gene. Here, we developed an more convenient experimental approach for the isolation and identification of miRNAs targeting a single gene by applying short biotinylated DNA anti-sense oligonucleotides mix to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mRNA which was fused to target gene mRNA. This method does not require a design of different anti-sense oligonucleotides to any mRNA. This is a simple and an efficient method to potentially identify miRNAs targeting specific gene mRNA combined with chip screen.
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Eps8 regulates cellular proliferation and migration of breast cancer.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The role of Eps8 in human breast cancer was studied, and we found that Eps8 was overexpressed in >60% of human breast cancer samples compared with adjacent normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. Eps8 was highly expressed in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB?231 compared with the weakly invasive breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB?468. MCF7 cell line stably expressing Eps8 was established by G418 screening, and the ectopic expression of Eps8 enhanced MCF7 breast cancer cell growth and survival as assessed by MTT analysis, cell viability and liquid colony formation, whereas the lentiviral expression of Eps8 shRNA in MDA-MB?231 cells resulted in a significant reduction in cellular growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Eps8 knockdown inhibited breast cancer cell migration in wound healing assays, decreased the number and size of EGF-induced filopodia and increased the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to cisplatin analyzed by MTT assays. Eps8 knockdown decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and MMP9 but increased p53. Moreover, Eps8 knockdown suppressed a partial EMT-like transition and showed a significant increase in E-cadherin and decrease in N-cadherin and vimentin. These results suggest that Eps8 is overexpressed in human breast cancers, possibly by regulating ERK signaling, MMP9, p53 and EMT-like transition to affect breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion. Therefore, Eps8 might represent a novel potential target in human breast cancer therapy.
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An-jun-ning, a traditional herbal formula, attenuates spontaneous withdrawal symptoms via modulation of the dopamine system in morphine-dependent rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The dopamine system, which is involved in drug dependence, can be damaged by opioid abuse. However, current clinical medicines cannot reverse these damages in the brain, which are believed to be a key reason for the high relapse rate after abstinence treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of An-jun-ning (AJN), a commercial traditional Chinese medicine formula used for the treatment of opioid addiction, on the dopamine system in morphine-dependent rats and to explore the possible mechanism underlying its therapeutic effects.
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An infertile 45,X male with a SRY-bearing chromosome 13: a clinical case report and literature review.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Patients with a karyotype of 45,X (monosomy X) normally display a female phenotype. However, in some rare cases, monosomy X is associated with maleness. Here we describe a case of a male with a 45,X karyotype and primary infertility, which prompted molecular investigation of the sex-determination gene SRY.
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Possible association between DBH 19 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia with tardive dyskinesia.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Overactivity of dopaminergic neurotransmission is a putative mechanism of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Previous studies have found dysfunction in plasma dopamine beta-hydoxylase (DBH) in schizophrenia with TD. Moreover, DBH, whose activity and levels are strongly controlled by the DBH gene, is a key enzyme in the conversion of dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) associated with excited behavior. This study examined whether the DBH5'-insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism was associated with excited behavior in schizophrenia with TD. The presence of the DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism was determined in 741 schizophrenia with TD (n = 345) and without TD (n = 396). The Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were used to assess the severity of TD and psychopathology of schizophrenia. There was no significant difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism between schizophrenia with and without TD (both p > 0.05). However, the excited symptoms score was significantly different to the DBH5'-Ins/Del genotypic groups in schizophrenia with TD (p < 0.05) but not in the two groups of non-TD and total patients (both p > 0.05). The excited symptoms score was higher in TD patients with the Del/Del genotype than those with Ins alleles (p = 0.015). Our findings suggest that the DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism may not contribute directly to the development of TD in schizophrenia, but it may be involved in the excited behavior of TD patients.
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The challenges of commercializing second-generation transgenic crop traits necessitate the development of international public sector research infrastructure.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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It has been 30 years since the first transformation of a gene into a plant species, and since that time a number of biotechnology products have been developed, with the most important being insect- and herbicide-resistant crops. The development of second-generation products, including nutrient use efficiency and tolerance to important environmental stressors such as drought, has, up to this time, been less successful. This is in part due to the inherent complexities of these traits and in part due to limitations in research infrastructure necessary for public sector researchers to test their best ideas. Here we discuss lessons from previous work in the generation of the first-generation traits, as well as work from our labs and others on identifying genes for nitrogen use efficiency. We then describe some of the issues that have impeded rapid progress in this area. Finally, we propose the type of public sector organization that we feel is necessary to make advances in important second-generation traits such as nitrogen use efficiency.
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Copper-catalyzed cyclization/aza-Claisen rearrangement cascade initiated by ketenimine formation: an efficient stereocontrolled synthesis of ?-allyl cyclic amidines.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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An efficient and convenient synthesis of ?-allyl cyclic amidines has been achieved by applying a novel cascade reaction. Copper(I)-mediated in?situ N-sulfonyl ketenimine formation from the reaction of a terminal alkyne with sulfonyl azide is followed by an intramolecular nucleophilic attack on the central carbon atom by an allylic tertiary amine, and then an aza-Claisen rearrangement takes place through a chair transition state to furnish the titled amidines with complete stereocontrol.
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Dyslipidemia awareness, treatment, control and influence factors among adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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In China, even though the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults increased yearly and dyslipidemia being an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases among the Chinese population, however, the awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia are at low levels, and only limited studies on the influence factors associated with the awareness, treatment and control dyslipidemia in China have been carried out.
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Study on changes of clinical indicators and key proteins from fluoride exposure.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Few studies have evaluated the biomarker changes of fluoride exposure. In order to explore early and sensitive indicators, animal experiment was designed. Ninety-six healthy SD rats (48 males and 48 females) weighing approximately 60 g were randomly divided into six groups of 16 animals each by gender average. Control animals were supplied with distilled water only as group 1. Exposure groups' animals were treated with 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg NaF/kg bw, respectively, as groups 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Our study found that contents of white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte percentage (LYMPH%), lymphocyte (LYM), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDW) increased significantly in high-fluoride-exposure groups (p < 0.05), which revealed that immune system may be interfered by high fluoride. Meanwhile, levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and ALT/AST in groups 5 and 6 decreased significantly compared to those in control group (p < 0.05), as well as the concentration of uric acid (UA) in groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 exhibited the same trends (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the level of blood B2 microglobulin (BB2MG) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in groups 4, 5, and 6. Changes of ALT, AST, UA, and BB2MG suggested the functions of the liver and kidney be altered by fluoride exposure. At the same time, the ATF4 content decreased gradually with the increase of fluoride concentration; furthermore, a highly significant (r =?-0.586, p < 0.01) negative relationship between ATF4 content and fluoride exposure level was found. Results meant that clinical indicators cannot act as indicators of high fluoride exposure, and it also suggested that protein ATF4 might be the early and sensitive indicator in epidemiologic study of high fluoride exposure.
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The uptake mechanism and biocompatibility of graphene quantum dots with human neural stem cells.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Cellular imaging after transplantation may provide important information to determine the efficacy of stem cell therapy. We have reported that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are a type of robust biological labeling agent for stem cells that demonstrate little cytotoxicity. In this study, we examined the interactions of GQDs on human neural stem cells (hNSCs) with the aim to investigate the uptake and biocompatibility of GQDs. We examined the mechanism of GQD uptake by hNSCs and investigated the effects of GQDs on the proliferation, metabolic activity, and differentiation potential of hNSCs. This information is critical to assess the suitability of GQDs for stem cell tracking. Our results indicated that GQDs were taken up into hNSCs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner via the endocytosis mechanism. Furthermore, no significant change was found in the viability, proliferation, metabolic activity, and differentiation potential of hNSCs after treatment with GQDs. Thus, these data open a promising avenue for labeling stem cells with GQDs and also offer a potential opportunity to develop GQDs for biomedical applications.
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Metabolic engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for the L-lysine production by increasing the flux into L-lysine biosynthetic pathway.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The experiments presented here were based on the conclusions of our previous results. In order to avoid introduction of expression plasmid and to balance the NADH/NAD ratio, the NADH biosynthetic enzyme, i.e., NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), was replaced by NADP-dependent GADPH, which was used to biosynthesize NADPH rather than NADH. The results indicated that the NADH/NAD ratio significantly decreased, and glucose consumption and L-lysine production drastically improved. Moreover, increasing the flux through L-lysine biosynthetic pathway and disruption of ilvN and hom, which involve in the branched amino acid and L-methionine biosynthesis, further improved L-lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Compared to the original strain C. glutamicum Lys5, the L-lysine production and glucose conversion efficiency (?) were enhanced to 81.0 ± 6.59 mM and 36.45% by the resulting strain C. glutamicum Lys5-8 in shake flask. In addition, the by-products (i.e., L-threonine, L-methionine and L-valine) were significantly decreased as results of genetic modification in homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) and acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS). In fed-batch fermentation, C. glutamicum Lys5-8 began to produce L-lysine at post-exponential growth phase and continuously increased over 36 h to a final titer of 896 ± 33.41 mM. The L-lysine productivity was 2.73 g l(-1) h(-1) and the ? was 47.06% after 48 h. However, the attenuation of MurE was not beneficial to increase the L-lysine production because of decreasing the cell growth. Based on the above-mentioned results, we get the following conclusions: cofactor NADPH, precursor, the flux through L-lysine biosynthetic pathway and DCW are beneficial to improve L-lysine production in C. glutamicum.
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KCTD10 is critical for heart and blood vessel development of zebrafish.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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KCTD10 is a member of the PDIP1 family, which is highly conserved during evolution, sharing a lot of similarities among human, mouse, and zebrafish. Recently, zebrafish KCTD13 has been identified to play an important role in the early development of brain and autism. However, the specific function of KCTD10 remains to be elucidated. In this study, experiments were carried out to determine the expression pattern of zebrafish KCTD10 mRNA during embryonic development. It was found that KCTD10 is a maternal gene and KCTD10 is of great importance in the shaping of heart and blood vessels. Our data provide direct clues that knockdown of KCTD10 resulted in severe pericardial edema and loss of heart formation indicated by morphological observation and crucial heart markers like amhc, vmhc, and cmlc2. The heart defect caused by KCTD10 is linked to RhoA and PCNA. Flk-1 staining revealed that intersomitic vessels were lost in the trunk, although angioblasts could migrate to the midline. These findings could be helpful to better understand the determinants responsible for the heart and blood vessel defects.
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The interactions of anticancer agents with tea catechins: current evidence from preclinical studies.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Tea catechins exhibit a broad range of pharmacological activities that impart beneficial effects on human health. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the major tea catechins, has been widely associated with cancer prevention and treatment. In addition, tea catechins in combination with anticancer drugs are being evaluated as a new cancer treatment strategy. However, the interactions of anticancer drugs with tea catechins are largely unknown. Accumulated data indicate significant interactions between anticancer drugs and tea catechins, such as synergistic tumor inhibition or antagonist activity. Therefore, it is critical to understand comprehensively the effects of tea catechins on anticancer drugs. Focusing on evidence from preclinical studies, this paper will review the interactions between anticancer drugs and tea catechins, including pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics effects. We hope that by detailing the interactions between anticancer drugs and tea catechins, more attention will be directed to this important therapeutic combination in the future.
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Pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of tea polyphenols.
Curr. Drug Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Tea is an infusion of the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant and is the most widely consumed beverage in the world after water. The main chemical components in teas are phenolic compounds (tea polyphenols, mainly tea catechins). A large number of in vitro and in vivo scientific studies have supported that the tea polyphenols can provide a number of health benefits such as, reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Recently, tea polyphenols have proven highly attractive as lead compounds for drug discovery programs. A clear understanding of chemistry, stability, pharmacokinetics and metabolic fate of tea will be significant to elucidate many medicinal effects by biochemical theory and pharmaceutical development. This article reviews the current literature on the pharmacoknetics and biotransformation of tea catechins. The half-lives of tea polyphenols are 2-4h and their absorption and elimination are rapid in humans. The peak times (tmax) are 1 and 3 h after oral administration and the peak plasma concentrations are low ?M range. It has been reported that catechins are easily metabolized by enzyme and microbe, and the main metabolic pathways are methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, ring-fission metabolism, and so on. The information is important to discuss some of the challenges and benefits of pursuing this family of compounds for drug discovery.
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Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex attenuates pain-related negative emotion in rats.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The emotional components of pain are far less studied than the sensory components. Previous studies have indicated that the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is implicated in the affective response to noxious stimuli. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the spinal cord has been documented to play an important role in diverse kinds of pathological pain states. We used formalin-induced conditioned place aversion (F-CPA) in rats, an animal model believed to reflect the emotional response to pain, to investigate the involvement of p38 MAPK in the rACC after the induction of affective pain. Intraplantar formalin injection produced a significant activation of p38 MAPK, as well as mitogen-activated kinase kinase (MKK) 3 and MKK6, its upstream activators, in the bilateral rACC. p38 MAPK was elevated in both NeuN-positive neurons and Iba1-positive microglia in the rACC, but not GFAP-positive cells. Blocking p38 MAPK activation in the bilateral rACC using its specific inhibitor SB203580 or SB239063 dose-dependently suppressed the formation of F-CPA. Inhibiting p38 MAPK activation did not affect formalin-induced two-phase spontaneous nociceptive response and low intensity electric foot-shock induced CPA. The present study demonstrated that p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the rACC contributes to pain-related negative emotion. Thus, a new pharmacological strategy targeted at the p38 MAPK cascade may be useful in treating pain-related emotional disorders.
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Transcriptome profiling reveals that the SM22?-regulated molecular pathways contribute to vascular pathology.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Smooth muscle cell marker, SM22?, was down-regulated in the pathogenesis of arterial diseases including atherosclerosis, restenosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, the question still exists whether this down-regulation actively contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In an ongoing effort to understand the role of SM22?, here we explored transcriptome profiling by RNA-Seq from arteries of SM22?(-/-) and SM22?(+/+) mice. Analysis revealed that the most enriched pathways caused by SM22?-knockout were hematopoiesis, inflammation and lipid metabolism, respectively, and NF-?B, RXR? and PPAR? were the major upstream regulators. The candidate genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism were clustered in atherosclerosis. Thus we suspected that the molecular basis in SM22?(-/-) mice was already prepared for the initiation of atherosclerosis. Further analysis suggested the up-regulated TNF caused NF-?B pathway activation. Our results showed loss of SM22? exacerbated TNF-?-mediated NF-?B activation and increased the expression levels of ApoCI in vitro, while overexpression of SM22? suppressed TNF-?-mediated NF-?B activation. In addition, disruption of SM22? enhanced injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia, and increased expression levels of molecules related with cellular adhesion and extracellular matrix degradation. Taken together, these findings not only suggested down-regulation of SM22? can actively contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from the molecular basis, but also further confirmed that the vascular cells of SM22?(-/-) mice may become more sensitive to extracellular stimulation, increasing its tendency to develop vascular diseases. Meanwhile, rescuing SM22? expression may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for arterial diseases.
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Impact on outcomes by measuring tortuosity with reporting standards for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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In this study, we assessed the association between the tortuosity of the thoracic aorta as measured by the reporting standards for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), described by the Society for Vascular Surgery, and midterm outcomes after TEVAR for atherosclerotic aneurysms.
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Traditional Chinese medicine injection for angina pectoris: an overview of systematic reviews.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection is widely used to treat angina pectoris in China. This overview aims to systematically summarize the general characteristics of systematic reviews (SRs) on TCM injection in treating angina, and assess the methodological and reporting quality of these reviews. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and four Chinese databases from inception until March 2013. Data were extracted according to a preset form. The AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists were used to explore the methodological quality and reporting characteristics of included reviews, respectively. All data analyses were descriptive. 46 SRs involving over 57,463 participants with angina reviewing 23 kinds of TCM injections were included. The main outcomes evaluated in the reviews were symptoms (43/46, 93.5%), surrogate outcomes (42/46, 91.3%) and adverse events (41/46, 87.0%). Few reviews evaluated endpoints (7/46, 15.2%) and quality of life (1/46, 2.2%). One third of the reviews (16/46, 34.8%) drew definitely positive conclusions while the others (30/46, 65.2%) suggested potential benefits mainly in symptoms, electrocardiogram and adverse events. With many serious flaws such as lack of a protocol and inappropriate data synthesis, the overall methodological and reporting quality of the reviews was limited. While many SRs of TCM injection on the treatment of angina suggested potential benefits or definitely positive effects, stakeholders should not accept the findings of these reviews uncritically due to the limited methodological and reporting quality. Future SRs should be appropriately conducted and reported according to international standards such as AMSTAR and PRISMA, rather than published in large numbers.
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Neuroprotective Effects of Jitai Tablet, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, on the MPTP-Induced Acute Model of Parkinson's Disease: Involvement of the Dopamine System.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Jitai tablet (JTT) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that JTT treatment led to increased level of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum, thus indicating that JTT might have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by dysregulated dopamine (DA) transmission and decreased striatal DAT expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of JTT on MPTP-induced PD mice. Using locomotor activity test and rotarod test, we evaluated the effects of JTT (0.50, 0.15, or 0.05?g/kg) on MPTP-induced behavioral impairments. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and DAT and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels in the striatum were detected by immunohistochemical staining and/or autoradiography. Levels of DA and its metabolites were determined by HPLC. In MPTP-treated mice, behavioral impairments were alleviated by JTT treatment. Moreover, JTT protected against impairment of TH-positive neurons and attenuated the MPTP-induced decreases in DAT and D2R. Finally, high dose of JTT (0.50?g/kg) inhibited the MPTP-induced increase in DA metabolism rate. Taken together, results from our present study provide evidence that JTT offers neuroprotective effects against the neurotoxicity of MPTP and thus might be a potential treatment for PD.
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SIP30 is required for neuropathic pain-evoked aversion in rats.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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SIP30 (SNAP25 interacting protein of 30) is a SNAP25 interaction protein of 30 kDa that functions in neurotransmitter release. Using a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain, we profiled gene expression in the rat spinal cord and brain and identified sip30, which was upregulated after CCI. Here, we show that CCI induced a bilateral increase of SIP30 in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), a key brain region that has been implicated in pain affect. We put rats in a chamber with one half painted white (light area) and the other half painted black (dark area), and measured neuropathic pain-evoked place escape/avoidance paradigm (PEAP) to quantify the level of negative emotion evoked by painful stimuli using a Von Frey hair. Inhibition of CCI-mediated induction of SIP30 by intra-rACC injection of shRNA targeting the rat sip30 gene reduced PEAP. Interestingly, knockdown of SIP30 did not affect CCI-induced evoked pain such as heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Neither did it affect general learning and memory. CCI-induced upregulation of SIP30 was correlated with activation of ERK, PKA, and CREB in the rACC. Intra-rACC administration of PKA or ERK inhibitors suppressed CCI-induced SIP30 upregulation and blocked the induction of PEAP. Additionally, knockdown of SIP30 suppressed the frequency of mEPSCs and increased paired-pulse ratios in rACC slices and decreased extracellular glutamate concentrations. Together, our results highlight SIP30 as a target of PKA and ERK in the rACC to mediate neuropathic pain-evoked negative emotion via modulation of glutamate release and excitatory synaptic transmission.
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Chinese herbal medicine Guizhi Fuling Formula for treatment of uterine fibroids: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Guizhi Fuling Formula is widely applied for uterine fibroids in China. Many clinical trials are reported. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of Guizhi Fuling Formula for the treatment of uterine fibroids.
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Awareness, treatment, control of diabetes mellitus and the risk factors: survey results from northeast China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The awareness, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus (DM) can effectively reflect on the social status of diabetes conditions. Although several researchers have investigated the awareness, treatment and control rates of diabetes mellitus in China, little is known about their association with risk factors. This study aims to examine the relationship between risk factors and awareness, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus in northeast China.
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Central inflammation and leptin resistance are attenuated by ginsenoside Rb1 treatment in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A low-grade pro-inflammatory state is at the pathogenic core of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that the plant terpenoid compound ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), known to exert anti-inflammatory effects, would ameliorate obesity, obesity-associated inflammation and glucose intolerance in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model. Furthermore, we examined the effect of Rb1 treatment on central leptin sensitivity and the leptin signaling pathway in the hypothalamus. We found that intraperitoneal injections of Rb1 (14 mg/kg, daily) for 21 days significantly reduced body weight gain, fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice on a HF diet compared to vehicle treatment. Importantly, Rb1 treatment also reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6 and/or IL-1?) and NF-?B pathway molecules (p-IKK and p-I?B?) in adipose tissue and liver. In the hypothalamus, Rb1 treatment decreased the expression of inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-1? and p-IKK) and negative regulators of leptin signaling (SOCS3 and PTP1B). Furthermore, Rb1 treatment also restored the anorexic effect of leptin in high-fat fed mice as well as leptin pSTAT3 signaling in the hypothalamus. Ginsenoside Rb1 has potential for use as an anti-obesity therapeutic agent that modulates obesity-induced inflammation and improves central leptin sensitivity in HF diet-induced obesity.
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Analysis of outcomes following surgical treatment of thymolipomatous myasthenia gravis: comparison with thymomatous and non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2013
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Although significant improvement in myasthenic symptoms has been reported following the removal of thymolipomas, information on surgical outcomes among patients with thymolipomatous myasthenia gravis (MG) is limited.
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Peripheral TGF-?1 Signaling Is a Critical Event in Bone Cancer-Induced Hyperalgesia in Rodents.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Pain is the most common symptom of bone cancer. TGF-?, a major bone-derived growth factor, is largely released by osteoclast bone resorption during the progression of bone cancer and contributes to proliferation, angiogenesis, immunosuppression, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we further show that TGF-?1 is critical for bone cancer-induced pain sensitization. We found that, after the progression of bone cancer, TGF-?1 was highly expressed in tumor-bearing bone, and the expression of its receptors, TGF?RI and TGF?RII, was significantly increased in the DRG in a rat model of bone cancer pain that is based on intratibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. The blockade of TGF-? receptors by the TGF?RI antagonist SD-208 robustly suppressed bone cancer-induced thermal hyperalgesia on post-tumor day 14 (PTD 14). Peripheral injection of TGF-?1 directly induced thermal hyperalgesia in intact rats and wide-type mice, but not in Trpv1(-/-) mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from DRG neurons showed that transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) sensitivity was significantly enhanced on PTD 14. Extracellular application of TGF-?1 significantly potentiated TRPV1 currents and increased [Ca(2+)]i in DRG neurons. Pharmacological studies revealed that the TGF-?1 sensitization of TRPV1 and the induction of thermal hyperalgesia required the TGF-?R-mediated Smad-independent PKC? and TGF-? activating kinase 1-p38 pathways. These findings suggest that TGF-?1 signaling contributes to bone cancer pain via the upregulation and sensitization of TRPV1 in primary sensory neurons and that therapeutic targeting of TGF-?1 may ameliorate the bone cancer pain in advanced cancer.
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Dopamine transporter dysfunction in Han Chinese people with chronic methamphetamine dependence after a short-term abstinence.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) after the administration of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was performed on healthy subjects and subjects with methamphetamine (METH)dependence at time 1 (T1) after 24-48h of abstinence, time 2 (T2) after 2 weeks of abstinence, and time 3 (T3) after 4 weeks of abstinence. In contrast to values in controls, the values of the striatal DAT specific uptake ratios (SURs) in subjects with METH dependence were significantly lower at T1 (n=25), T2 (n=9), and T3 (n=8); a mild increase in SURs was observed at T2 and T3, but values were still significantly lower than those in controls. In subjects with METH dependence, there was a trend for a negative correlation of striatal DAT SURs and craving for METH at T1. METH craving, anxiety and depression scores significantly decreased from T1 to T2 to T3. We conclude that Han Chinese people with METH dependence experience significant striatal DAT dysfunction, and that these changes may be mildly reversible after 4 weeks of abstinence, but that DAT levels still remain significantly lower than those in healthy subjects. The mild recovery of striatal DAT may parallel improvements in craving, anxiety and depression.
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Fiber polarization control based on a fast locating algorithm.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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In this article, currently used feedback control algorithms used in the polarization controller, including a simulated annealing algorithm and a gradient algorithm, are analyzed. On this basis, a new method of polarization control feedback algorithm based on a fast locating algorithm is proposed to solve the defects of the original algorithm, such as poor convergence and an extensive time consuming search. It can reduce convergence time and improve the response speed of the polarization controllers. This new endless polarization control algorithm utilizing a four-plate polarization controller is proposed and demonstrated. The results have shown that the response time of the polarization controller is less than 1 ms. The control of polarization is achieved and the output polarization state is stable, while the light intensity fluctuated less than 2%, which can run endless resets freely.
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Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated diastolic dysfunction in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: therapeutic benefits of Drp1 inhibition to reduce mitochondrial fission.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Mitochondrial fission, regulated by dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), is a newly recognized determinant of mitochondrial function, but its contribution to left ventricular (LV) impairment following ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is unknown. We report that Drp1 activation during IR results in LV dysfunction and that Drp1 inhibition is beneficial. In both isolated neonatal murine cardiomyocytes and adult rat hearts (Langendorff preparation) mitochondrial fragmentation and swelling occurred within 30 min of IR. Drp1-S637 (serine 637) dephosphorylation resulted in Drp1 mitochondrial translocation and increased mitochondrial fission. The Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 preserved mitochondrial morphology, reduced cytosolic calcium, and prevented cell death. Drp1 siRNA similarly preserved mitochondrial morphology. In Langendorff hearts, Mdivi-1 reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, improved LV developed pressure (92±5 vs. 28±10 mmHg, P<0.001), and lowered LV end diastolic pressure (10±1 vs. 86±13 mmHg, P<0.001) following IR. Mdivi-1 was protective if administered prior to or following ischemia. Because Drp1-S637 dephosphorylation is calcineurin sensitive, we assessed the effects of a calcineurin inhibitor, FK506. FK506 treatment prior to IR prevented Drp1-S637 dephosphorylation and preserved cardiac function. Likewise, therapeutic hypothermia (30°C) inhibited Drp1-S637 dephosphorylation and preserved mitochondrial morphology and myocardial function. Drp1 inhibition is a novel strategy to improve myocardial function following IR.-Sharp, W. S., Fang, Y. H., Han, M., Zhang, H. J., Hong, Z., Banathy, A., Morrow, E., Ryan, J. J., Archer, S. L. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated diastolic dysfunction in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: therapeutic benefits of Drp1 inhibition to reduce mitochondrial fission.
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11?-HSD1 inhibitors from Walsura cochinchinensis.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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A search for inhibitors of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) from Walsura cochinchinensis yielded 10 new limonoids, cochinchinoids A-J (1-10), and two new triterpenoids, 3-epimesendanin S (11) and cochinchinoid K (12). Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, with the absolute configurations of 1 and 12 being established by X-ray diffraction analysis. Of these compounds, cochinchinoid K (12) displayed inhibitory activity against mouse 11?-HSD1 with an IC50 value of 0.82 ?M.
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Content analysis of systematic reviews on effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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To evaluate evidence for the efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in systematic reviews.
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Lung adenocarcinoma with ipsilateral breast metastasis: a simple coincidence?
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Lung cancer with breast metastasis is rare. However, differentiating between primary breast cancer and metastatic lung adenocarcinoma is of clinical importance. The metastasis cascade of how cancer cells migrate from the primary lung tumor to the breast is not clear yet.
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The Role of Src in Colon Cancer and Its Therapeutic Implications.
Clin Colorectal Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Src is a member of a superfamily of membrane-associated nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases. It is stimulated by receptors of growth hormone, cytokines, and adipokines, and it regulates multiple signaling pathways, including phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase-Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, interleukin 8, and vascular endothelial growth factor pathways, and cytoskeletal pathways to cause a cascade of cellular responses. Eighty percent of patients with colon cancer overexpress Src in tumor tissue. Evidence has shown that the overexpression of Src in colon cancer accelerates metastasis and causes chemotherapeutic drug resistance via multiple downstream signaling pathways. Therefore, the inhibition of Src may be useful for the treatment of colon cancer. However, the inhibition of Src may also weaken immune responses that are essential for the eradication of cancer cells. Overcoming the problem of inhibiting Src in cancer cells while retaining immune system efficacy is the key to the successful application of Src-inhibition therapy. Different Src family members are used by the immune system and colon cancer. This differential use may provide a good opportunity to develop Src family member-specific inhibitors to avoid immune inhibition.
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[Study of adsorption and desorption of behaviors of Pb2+ on thiol-modified bentonite by flame atomic absorption spectrometry].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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A comparative analysis of the functional groups and surface structure of the Ca-bentonite (RB) and thiol-modified bentonite (TMB) were characterized by means of FTIR and SEM. The absorptive property of Pb2+ on TMB and RB and its influential factors was studied and the conditions for the adsorption were optimized by using FAAS method. Then the conditions for desorption of Pb2+ from the TMB by using simulated acid rain were studied and the contrast analysis of absorptive stability of Pb2+ on TMB and RB was given. The results showed that the adsorption rate of Pb2+ by TMB could reach more than 98%, when the initial Pb2+ concentration was 100 mg.L-1, the liquid-solid ratio was 5 g.L-1, pH was 6. 0, KNO3 ionic strength was 0. 1 mol.L-1 and adsorption period was 60min at 25 C. The saturated adsorption capacity of TMB was 67.27 mg.g-1; its much more than that of RB (9.667 mg.g-1). The adsorption of Pb2+ on TMB follows Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models well. Desorption experiments of Pb2+ from TMB with simulated acid rain (pH 3. 50) were done, and the desorption rate was 0. The results showed that TMB has a strong adsorption and fixation capacity for PbZ+; it is adapted to lead contaminated soil for chemical remediation.
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Association of RASSF1A promoter methylation with gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Ras-association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), a candidate tumor suppressor gene, is frequently silenced and inactivated by hypermethylation of its promoter region in several human tumors. However, the association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and gastric cancer risk remains conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the association of RASSF1A promoter methylation with gastric cancer risk by a comprehensive meta-analysis. Relevant studies were identified by searches of PubMed and Web of Science databases with no restrictions. Combined odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and gastric cancer risk. A chi-square-based Q test and sensitivity analyses were performed to test the between-study heterogeneity and the contributions of single studies to the final results, respectively. Funnel plots were carried out to evaluate publication bias. Overall, a significant association was observed between RASSF1A promoter methylation and gastric cancer risk (OR, 12.67; 95 % CI, 8.12-19.78; p?
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Association between DBH 19 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and cognition in first-episode schizophrenic patients.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Many genes associated with dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) systems influence cognitive deficits of schizophrenia patients, but one key enzyme is dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), which converts DA to NE and whose activity and levels are under strong genetic control. This study examines the association of the 19 bp insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism in the 5 flank of the DBH gene with cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenic patients (FEP). We assessed the cognitive function in 195 FEP and 304 healthy controls using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). The 19 bp Ins/Del polymorphism of DBH gene was genotyped. Our results showed that the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the 19 bp Ins/Del polymorphism significantly differed between FEP and healthy controls (both p < 0.05). Cognitive test scores were significantly lower in FEP than healthy controls on all scales (all p < 0.001) except for the visuospatial/constructional index (p > 0.05). Immediate memory abilities significantly differed by genotype (p<0.05) but not genotype×diagnosis. Immediate memory score was lower in FEP with DBH5-Del/Del genotype (61.3 ± 17.2) than those with DBH5-Ins/Ins genotype (68.6 ± 16.2; p < 0.05). The 19 bp Del allele was associated with poorer immediate memory performance than the Ins allele in FEP (p < 0.05). However, healthy controls did not show any differences in cognitive function indices between the Ins and Del for either the allele or genotype of the 19 bp Ins/Del polymorphism. Our findings suggest that the DBH5-Ins/Del polymorphism may play a role in susceptibility to FEP. The DBH5-Ins/Del polymorphism may also influence immediate memory in FEP. Moreover, FEP had poorer cognitive function than healthy controls in all examined cognitive domains except for the visuospatial/constructional index.
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A Simple One-Step PCR Walking Method and Its Application of Bacterial rRNA for Sequencing Identification.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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There are many PCR walking methods applied currently, and they all have examples of successful application in organisms which are more complex than bacteria. However, to a certain extent, it will be more convenient for researchers if the complicated operation and poor specificity for bacteria can be improved. Here, we introduced an improved one-step PCR walking method of bacteria. Using a specific primer of the known sequence together with a universal semi-random primer, the unknown sequence adjacent to a known sequence can be obtained easily by just one ordinary round PCR. The products can be gel-purified and directly sequenced. Specific primers were designed according to the gene sequence of bacterial rRNA, and the variable and adjacent gene sequences were obtained by this method. The sequence analysis of the product showed that it can improve the resolution of bacterial identification to the species level.
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Small interference RNA targeting vascular endothelial growth factor gene effectively attenuates retinal neovascularization in mice model.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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The mechanism of retinal neovascularization is not understood completely. Many growth factors are involved in the process of retinal neovascularization, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-deprived factor (PEDF), which are the representatives of angiogenic and antiangiogenic molecules respectively. Oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) is a useful model to investigate retinal neovascularization. The present study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting VEGF gene in attenuating oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) by regulating VEGF to PEDF ratio (VEGF/PEDF).
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Preliminary evaluation of the interactions of Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge with 5-fluorouracil on pharmacokinetics in rats and pharmacodynamics in human cells.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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An increasing number of cancer patients are using herbs in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic treatment. It is therefore important to study the potential consequences of the interactions between herbs and anticancer drugs. The effects of extracts from Panax ginseng (PGS) and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB) on the pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were performed in vivo and detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while, an ATP assay was used to study the pharmacodynamic interactions in vitro. The results of the pharmacokinetic experiments showed a significant increase in the elimination half-life (t1/2(k e )) of 5-FU in the PGS-pretreated group and in the area under the curve (AUC) in the SMB-pretreated group compared with the control group. However, after SMB pretreatment, weight loss was observed in rats. The results of pharmacodynamic experiments showed that neither PGS nor SMB, when used alone, directly inhibited cancer cell growth at 0.1-100 ?g/ml. Moreover, PGS had a synergistic cytotoxic effect with 5-FU on human gastric cancer cells but not on normal gastric cells. The results imply that when combined with 5-FU, PGS may be a better candidate for further study. This study might provide insights for the selection of herbal-chemotherapy agent interactions.
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Self-construction of magnetic hollow La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 microspheres with complex units.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Perovskite structure La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 magnetic hollow microspheres with complex units were prepared via the hydrothermal route without hard and soft templates. The formation of hollow microspheres follows the self-construction mechanism involving oriented attachment, dissolution, and recrystallization processes. It exhibits a ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.
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Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and uric acid levels are associated with impaired fasting glucose in adults from Inner Mongolia, China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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BACKGROUND: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and uric acid (UA) levels are elevated in patients with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Prediabetes, characterized by impaired glucose tolerance, is an important risk factor for overt diabetes as well as cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between GGT, UA and prediabetes in a Chinese population, and provide a scientific basis for the early prevention and treatment of diabetes. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional population-based study in a cohort of 2694 subjects (1211 men and 1483 women, aged 35--86 years). Questionnaires and physical examinations were performed using standardized procedures. Fasting blood was collected to measure glucose and other biochemical parameters. The subjects were divided into two groups with either normal fasting glucose (NFG) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG), according to international diagnostic criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Compared with the NFG group, the IFG group had significantly higher blood pressure but lower high-density lipoprotein--cholesterol in women. Body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride, glucose, GGT, and UA levels were significantly higher in males and females in the IFG group than those in the NFG group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the OR for prediabetes increased with increasing serum GGT quartiles and UA quartiles. GGT and UA were positively associated with prediabetes in men and women, independent of age, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, blood pressure, physical labor, and other confounders. CONCLUSIONS: We found that serum GGT and UA levels were positively associated with prediabetes in men and women living in areas inhabited by Chinese ethnic minorities. As elevated GGT and UA levels were associated with significantly increased risk of prediabetes, they may be used as sensitive biological markers of prediabetes.
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Chinese herbal medicine for gout: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Patients with gout referring to Chinese herbal medicine are not rare in China, and a great number of clinical trials on herbal medicine have been published. However, there has not been a systematic review to summarize the evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for gout. The aim of this study is to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for gout. We searched for randomized clinical trials on Chinese herbal medicine for gout till December 2012. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality. RevMan 5.2 was used to synthesize the results. We included 57 trials involving 4,527 gout patients. The quality of trials was generally poor. No trial reported health-related quality of life in patients. There is not enough evidence showing that herbal medicine was statistically more effective than conventional medications in pain relief [mean difference (MD), -0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.06, 0.00], but herbal medicine combined with conventional medicines may have better effectiveness (MD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.59, -0.07). Trials that reported function limitation relief found herbal medicine more effective than conventional medications (MD, -0.23; 95% CI, -0.32, -0.15). There was no evidence showing that herbal medicine prevents gout recurrence better. Twenty-five out of 41 trials, involving 23 different herbal prescriptions, found statistical significance in lowering serum uric acid level, and the overall effect from Chinese herbal medicine in inflammation relief is better than conventional therapies in 19 trials with 17 different prescriptions. The current data show that herbal medicine leads to fewer side reactions compared to conventional therapies [risk ratio (RR), 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.15]. Chinese herbal medicine may have clinical effectiveness for functional recovery in patients with gout, and lead to a safe control of serum uric acid level and inflammation severity. Due to low quality of trials, trials with higher methodological quality and less heterogeneity are needed in the future.
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PGC1?-mediated mitofusin-2 deficiency in female rats and humans with pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal, female-predominant, vascular disease. Pathologic changes in PA smooth muscle cells (PASMC) include excessive proliferation, apoptosis-resistance, and mitochondrial fragmentation. Activation of dynamin-related protein increases mitotic fission and promotes this proliferation-apoptosis imbalance. The contribution of decreased fusion and reduced mitofusin-2 (MFN2) expression to PAH is unknown.
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Study on the factors affecting simultaneous removal of ammonia and manganese by pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) for drinking water pre-treatment.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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It was demonstrated that simultaneous removal of ammonia and manganese could be accomplished by biological aerated filter (BAF) with low-cost lava as media. Long-term operation performance and impact factors were systematically studied. DGGE analysis demonstrated that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), manganese oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and simultaneous ammonia and manganese oxidizing bacteria (SAMOB) co-existed in the bio-film. Ammonia and manganese concentration profiles along the height of BAF column, including that in the influent and effluent, were investigated with varying hydraulic loadings, aeration intensities and feed ammonia concentrations. It was inferred that AOB and MOB may have different spatial distribution in vertical direction, and AOB and MOB may compete for oxygen capture or be present on different layers of the bio-films. Further work should focus on the distribution of AOB, MOB and SAMOB in the reactor and optimize it for more efficient mass transfer and better system performance.
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C13C4.5/Spinster, an evolutionarily conserved protein that regulates fertility in C. elegans through a lysosome-mediated lipid metabolism process.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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Lipid droplets, which are conserved across almost all species, are cytoplasmic organelles used to store neutral lipids. Identification of lipid droplet regulators will be conducive to resolving obesity and other fat-associated diseases. In this paper, we selected 11 candidates that might be associated with lipid metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using a BODIPY 493/503-based flow cytometry screen, 6 negative and 3 positive regulators of fat content were identified. We selected one negative regulator of lipid content, C13C4.5, for future study. C13C4.5 was mainly expressed in the worm intestine. We found that this gene was important for maintaining the metabolism of lipid droplets. Biochemical results revealed that 50% of triacylglycerol (TAG) was lost in C13C4.5 knockout worms. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) signals in C13C4.5 mutants showed only 49.6% of the fat content in the proximal intestinal region and 86.3% in the distal intestinal region compared with wild type animals. The mean values of lipid droplet size and intensity in C13C4.5 knockout animals were found to be significantly decreased compared with those in wild type worms. The LMP-1-labeled membrane structures in worm intestines were also enlarged in C13C4.5 mutant animals. Finally, fertility defects were found in C13C4.5(ok2087) mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that C13C4.5 may regulate the fertility of C. elegans by changing the size and fat content of lipid droplets by interfering with lysosomal morphology and function.
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Early biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid and long-term prognosis of primary biliary cirrhosis: results of a 14-year cohort study.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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The biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in primary biliary cirrhosis is a strong predictor of long-term outcome and thus facilitates the rapid identification of patients needing new therapeutic approaches. Numerous criteria for predicting outcome of treatment have been studied based on biochemical response to UDCA at 1 year. We sought to determine whether an earlier biochemical response at 3 or 6 months could as efficiently identify patients at risk of poor outcome, as defined by liver-related death, liver transplantation, and complications of cirrhosis. We analyzed the prospectively collected data of 187 patients with a median follow-up of 5.8 years (range, 1.3-14 years). The survival rates without adverse outcome at 5 years and 10 years were 86% and 63%. Under UDCA therapy, laboratory liver parameters experienced the most prominent improvement in the first 3 months (P < 0.0001) and then stayed relatively stable for the following months. The Paris, Barcelona, Toronto, and Ehime definitions, but not the Rotterdam definition, applied at 3, 6, and 12 months significantly discriminated the patients in terms of long-term outcome. Compared with biochemical responses evaluated after 1 year of UDCA therapy, biochemical responses at the third month demonstrated higher positive predictive value (PPV) but lower negative predictive value (NPV) and increased negative likelihood ratio (NLR) by all definitions; biochemical responses at the sixth month showed higher or the same PPV and NPV and lower NLR by all definitions. Conclusion: For the previously published criteria, biochemical responses at the sixth month can be used in place of those evaluated after 1 year of UDCA therapy. Our findings justify a more rapid identification of patients who need new therapeutic approaches.
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Dopamine transporter availability in heroin-dependent subjects and controls: longitudinal changes during abstinence and the effects of Jitai tablets treatment.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Previous imaging studies have indicated that the levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) are reduced in the brains of heroin users. However, whether these changes can be reversed by abstinence and/or treatment remains unclear.
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Reduced expression of SM22 is correlated with low autophagy activity in human colorectal cancer.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy with a high incidence and mortality rate. Recent studies have pointed to deregulation of autophagy as a novel pathogenesis of human malignancy. SM22 is considered as a tumor suppressor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of the SM22 expression level with the autophagy activity and the clinical characteristics in human CRC tissues. The expressions of SM22 and p62, a biomarker of autophagy activity, in paired tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 43 patients with colorectal cancer were detected by western blot and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The results showed that the SM22 level decreased significantly in 81.4% CRC tissues, while the expression of p62 increased in 79.1% cases. There was a negative correlation between p62 and SM22 expressions in colorectal cancer tissues (p=0.004). Similarly, the negative correlation between SM22 and p62 was verified in human CRC cell lines. The data suggest that the autophagy activity decreased in human CRC, which was associated with reduction in SM22 expression. However, the expression of SM22 was not associated with the gender, tumor site and Dukes stage of the patients. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the disruption of SM22 may be involved in tumorigenesis in CRC. The autophagic activity may be suppressed in human CRC, and SM22 may act as a positive regulator in the processes of autophagy.
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Alleles of keratin 1 in families and populations.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Keratin 1 is found in the upper layers of the epidermis, on the surface of endothelial cells and in the membrane of the neuroblastoma NMB7. It is important for the structural integrity of the skin, has been found to regulate the activity of kinases, such as protein kinase C (PKC) and SRC, to participate in complement activation by the lectin pathway and to be involved in fibrinolysis, angiogenesis and the response to oxidative stress. Studies of the polymorphisms of the Keratin 1 (KRT1) gene have been driven mostly by interest in its role in skin diseases. However, much of the KRT1 variation occurs in normal populations and is not associated with dermal pathology. In the present experiments, we have investigated the polymorphism of KRT1 genes by nucleotide sequencing in normal families and normal populations of European, African, Hispanic and Asian background. The frequencies of the KRT1 alleles were strikingly different in the four ethnic groups and most of the mutations resulted in amino acid substitutions, with only 3 out of 19 being synonymous. Analysis of selective neutrality by the Ewens-Watterson and Tajima D statistics showed that KRT1 allele homozygosity was decreased in three of the populations suggesting that KRT1 genes may be under the influence of balancing selection. It is possible that the role of KRT1 as a receptor, rather than its structural function in the epidermis, is what drives the selective forces that are apparent in the inheritance of this gene.
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A Simple One-Step PCR Walking Method and Its Application of Bacterial rRNA for Sequencing Identification.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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There are many PCR walking methods applied currently, and they all have examples of successful application in organisms which are more complex than bacteria. However, to a certain extent, it will be more convenient for researchers if the complicated operation and poor specificity for bacteria can be improved. Here, we introduced an improved one-step PCR walking method of bacteria. Using a specific primer of the known sequence together with a universal semirandom primer, the unknown sequence adjacent to a known sequence can be obtained easily by just one ordinary round PCR. The products can be gel purified and directly sequenced. Specific primers were designed according to the gene sequence of bacterial rRNA, and the variable and adjacent gene sequences were obtained by this method. The sequence analysis of the product showed that it can improve the resolution of bacterial identification to the species level.
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Non-invasive UPR monitoring system and its applications in CHO production cultures.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Unfolded protein response (UPR) is the primary signaling network activated in response to the accumulation of unfolded and/or misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The expression of high levels of recombinant proteins in mammalian cell cultures has been linked to the increased UPR. However, the dynamics of different UPR-mediated events and their impact on cell performance and recombinant protein secretion during production remain poorly defined. Here, we have created a non-invasive UPR-responsive, fluorescence-based reporter system to detect and quantify specific UPR-mediated transcriptional activation of different intracellular signaling pathways. We have generated stable antibody-expressing CHO clones containing this UPR responsive system and established FACS-based methods for real-time, continuous monitoring of the endogenous UPR activation in live cultures. The results showed that the UPR activation is dynamically regulated during production culture. The clones differed in their UPR patterns; both the timing and the degree of UPR-induced transcriptional activation were linked to cell performance, such as growth, and viability. In addition, the cell culture environment, such as media composition and osmolarity, significantly impacted endogenous UPR activation. Taken together, these data demonstrate a utility of this UPR monitoring system in recombinant protein production processes and the observations increase our understanding of the critical role of UPR in regulating diverse phenotypes of the cells including growth, survival and recombinant protein secretion under different culture environments and processing conditions.
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Can chinese herbal medicine improve outcomes of in vitro fertilization? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A large number of infertile couples are choosing Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an adjuvant therapy to improve their success when undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). There is no systematic review to evaluate the impact of CHM on the IVF outcomes.
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Prospective registration, bias risk and outcome-reporting bias in randomised clinical trials of traditional Chinese medicine: an empirical methodological study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Clinical trials on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) should be registered in a publicly accessible international trial register and report on all outcomes. We systematically assessed and evaluated TCM trials in registries with their subsequent publications.
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Diabetes and cognitive deficits in chronic schizophrenia: a case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cognitive impairment occurs in both schizophrenia and diabetes. There is currently limited understanding whether schizophrenia with diabetes has more serious cognitive deficits than schizophrenia without diabetes or diabetes only. This study assessed cognitive performance in 190 healthy controls, 106 diabetes only, 127 schizophrenia without diabetes and 55 schizophrenia with diabetes. This study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2010. Compared to healthy controls, all patient groups had significantly decreased total and five index RBANS scores (all p<0.01-p<0.001), except for the visuospatial/constructional index. Schizophrenia with diabetes performed worse than schizophrenia without diabetes in immediate memory (p<0.01) and total RBANS scores (<0.05), and showed a trend for decreased attention (p?=?0.052) and visuospatial/constructional capacity (p?=?0.063). Schizophrenia with diabetes performed worse than diabetes only in immediate memory (p<0.001) and attention (p<0.05), and showed a trend for decreased total RBANS scores (p?=?0.069). Regression analysis showed that the RBANS had modest correlations with schizophrenia PANSS scores, their duration of current antipsychotic treatment, and diagnosis of diabetes. Schizophrenia with co-morbid diabetes showed more cognitive impairment than schizophrenia without diabetes and diabetes only, especially in immediate memory and attention.
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FcR? controls the fas-dependent regulatory function of lymphoproliferative double negative T cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and lymphoproliferation (LPR) mice are deficient in Fas, and accumulate large numbers of ??-TCR(+), CD4(-), CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells. The function of these DN T cells remains largely unknown. The common ? subunit of the activating Fc receptors, FcR?, plays an important role in mediating innate immune responses. We have shown previously that a significant proportion of DN T cells express FcR?, and that this molecule is required for TCR transgenic DN T cells to suppress allogeneic immune responses. Whether FcR? plays a critical role in LPR DN T cell-mediated suppression of immune responses to auto and allo-antigens is not known. Here, we demonstrated that FcR?(+), but not FcR?(-) LPR DN T cells could suppress Fas(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation in vitro and attenuated CD4(+) T cell-mediated graft-versus host disease. Although FcR? expression did not allow LPR DN T cells to inhibit the expansion of Fas-deficient cells within the LPR context, adoptive transfer of FcR?(+), but not FcR?(-), DN T cells inhibited lymphoproliferation in generalized lymphoproliferative disease (GLD) mice. Furthermore, FcR? acted in a cell-intrinsic fashion to limit DN T cell accumulation by increasing the rate of apoptosis in proliferated cells. These results indicate that FcR? can confer Fas-dependent regulatory properties on LPR DN T cells, and suggest that FcR? may be a novel marker for functional DN Tregs.
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Enzyme inhibitor studies reveal complex control of methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzyme expression in Catharanthus roseus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In Catharanthus roseus, the monoterpene moiety exerts a strong flux control for monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) formation. Monoterpene synthesis depends on the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we have explored the regulation of this pathway in response to developmental and environmental cues and in response to specific enzyme inhibitors. For the MEP pathway entry enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), a new (type I) DXS isoform, CrDXS1, has been cloned, which, in contrast to previous reports on type II CrDXS, was not transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor ORCA3. Regulation of the MEP pathway in response to metabolic perturbations has been explored using the enzyme inhibitors clomazone (precursor of 5-ketochlomazone, inhibitor of DXS) and fosmidomycin (inhibitor of deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR)), respectively. Young leaves of non-flowering plants were exposed to both inhibitors, adopting a non-invasive in vivo technique. Transcripts and proteins of DXS (3 isoforms), DXR, and hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (HDS) were monitored, and protein stability was followed in isolated chloroplasts. Transcripts for DXS1 were repressed by both inhibitors, whereas transcripts for DXS2A&B, DXR and HDS increased after clomazone treatment but were barely affected by fosmidomycin treatment. DXS protein accumulated in response to both inhibitors, whereas DXR and HDS proteins were less affected. Fosmidomycin-induced accumulation of DXS protein indicated substantial posttranscriptional regulation. Furthermore, fosmidomycin effectively protected DXR against degradation in planta and in isolated chloroplasts. Thus our results suggest that DXR protein stability may be affected by substrate binding. In summary, the present results provide novel insight into the regulation of DXS expression in C. roseus in response to MEP-pathway perturbation.
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Walsucochinoids A and B: new rearranged limonoids from Walsura cochinchinensis.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Walsucochinoids A (1) and B (2), two rearranged limonoids possessing an unprecedented carbon framework, were isolated from Walsura cochinchinensis. Their configurations were assigned as 1S, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, 7S, 8R, 9R, and 10R on the basis of a detailed examination of spectroscopic data, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and CD experiments.
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[Quality control of recombinant oncolytic adenovirus/p53].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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To establish a detection method of oncolytic adenovirus/p53 and standard of quality control, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter, CMV fusion promoter containing hypoxia reaction element (HRE) and p53 gene were identified by vector DNA restriction enzyme digestion and PCR analysis. The result conformed that all modified regions were in consistent with theoretical ones. Particle number was 2.0 x 10(11) mL(-1) determined by UV (A260). Infectious titer was 5.0 x 10(10) IU mL(-1) analyzed by TCID50. In vitro p53 gene expression in human lung cancer cell H1299 was determined by ELISA, and A450 ratio of nucleoprotein in virus infection group to control group was 5.2. Antitumor potency was evaluated by cytotoxicity assay using human lung cancer cell A549, and the MOI(IC50) of this gene therapy preparation was 1.0. The tumor cells targeted replication ability of recombinant virus was determined by TCID50 titer ratio of filial generation virus between human lung cancer cell A549 and human diploid epidermal fibrolast BJ cells after infected by virus with same MOI. TCID50 titer ratio of tumor cell infection group to normal cell infection control group was 398. The IE-HPLC purity of virus was 99.5%. There was less than 1 copy of wild type adenovirus within 1 x 10(7) VP recombinant virus. Other quality control items were complied with corresponding requirements in the guidance for human somatic cell therapy and gene therapy and Chinese pharmacopeia volume III. The detection method of oncolytic adenovirus/p53 was successfully established for quality control standard. The study also provided reference for quality control of other oncolytic viral vector products.
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[Furosteroidal saponin from Smilacina japonica].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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Smilacina japonica is a perennial herb, belonging to Smilacina genus of Liliaceae. A new furosteroidal saponin (1) was isolated and purified from the ethanol extract of the rhizome of S. japonica by various column chromatography. Its structure was established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3beta, 12, 17alpha, 22xi, 26-pentol-12-O-acetyle-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside by physical and chemical properties and IR, MS, 1D, 2D NMR techniques. It showed strong cytotoxicity against the SPC-A-1 cancer cell lines.
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[Identification and expression analysis of a novel splice variant of human tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Identification of a novel splice variant of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and its expression analysis.
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Salvianic borneol ester reduces ?-amyloid oligomers and prevents cytotoxicity.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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The destabilization of ?-amyloid (A?) peptide aggregates and the protection of functional cells are the attractive therapeutic strategies for Alzheimers disease (AD). Some active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li (Lamiaceae) (SM) have attracted increasing attention for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
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[Effect of lysyl oxidase on migration and adhesion of human gastric cancer HGC-27 cells in vitro].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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To study the effects of lysyl oxidase (LOX) on the migration and adhesion of the human gastric cancer cell line HGC-27 cells in vitro.
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Treatment of children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis with mycophenolate mofetil.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2011
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Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) can progress to Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN), and the most effective management remains unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for treating pediatric patients with HSPN and nephrotic-range proteinuria.
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