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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Absence of Putative Artemisinin Resistance Mutations Among Plasmodium falciparum in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Molecular Epidemiologic Study.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Plasmodium falciparum parasites that are resistant to artemisinins have been detected in Southeast Asia. Resistance is associated with several polymorphisms in the parasite's K13-propeller gene. The molecular epidemiology of these artemisinin resistance genotypes in African parasite populations is unknown. We developed an assay to quantify rare polymorphisms in parasite populations that uses a pooled deep-sequencing approach to score allele frequencies, validated it by evaluating mixtures of laboratory parasite strains, and then used it to screen P. falciparum parasites from >1100 African infections collected since 2002 from 14 sites across sub-Saharan Africa. We found no mutations in African parasite populations that are associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asian parasites. However, we observed 15 coding mutations, including 12 novel mutations, and limited allele sharing between parasite populations, consistent with a large reservoir of naturally occurring K13-propeller variation. Although polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum in Southeast Asia are not prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, numerous K13-propeller coding polymorphisms circulate in Africa. Although their distributions do not support a widespread selective sweep for an artemisinin-resistant phenotype, the impact of these mutations on artemisinin susceptibility is unknown and will require further characterization. Rapid, scalable molecular surveillance offers a useful adjunct in tracking and containing artemisinin resistance.
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Polymorphisms in K13 and falcipain-2 associated with artemisinin resistance are not prevalent in Plasmodium falciparum isolated from Ugandan children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The emergence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives in Southeast Asia, manifested as delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following treatment with artemisinins, is a major concern. Recently, the artemisinin resistance phenotype was attributed to mutations in portions of a P. falciparum gene (PF3D7_1343700) encoding kelch (K13) propeller domains, providing a molecular marker to monitor the spread of resistance. The P. falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-2 (FP2; PF3D7_1115700) has been shown to contribute to artemisinin action, as hemoglobin degradation is required for potent drug activity, and a stop mutation in the FP2 gene was identified in parasites selected for artemisinin resistance. Although delayed parasite clearance after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has not yet been noted in Uganda and ACTs remain highly efficacious, characterizing the diversity of these genes is important to assess the potential for resistance selection and to provide a baseline for future surveillance. We therefore sequenced the K13-propeller domain and FP2 gene in P. falciparum isolates from children previously treated with ACT in Uganda, including samples from 2006-7 (n?=?49) and from 2010-12 (n?=?175). Using 3D7 as the reference genome, we identified 5 non-synonymous polymorphisms in the K13-propeller domain (133 isolates) and 35 in FP2 (160 isolates); these did not include the polymorphisms recently associated with resistance after in vitro selection or identified in isolates from Asia. The prevalence of K13-propeller and FP2 polymorphisms did not increase over time, and was not associated with either time since prior receipt of an ACT or the persistence of parasites ?2 days following treatment with an ACT. Thus, the K13-propeller and FP2 polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance are not prevalent in Uganda, and we did not see evidence for selection of polymorphisms in these genes.
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Longitudinal outcomes in a cohort of Ugandan children randomized to artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of malaria.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has become the standard of care for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although several ACT regimens are approved, data guiding optimal choices of ACTs are limited. We compared short- and long-term outcomes in a cohort of young Ugandan children randomized to 2 leading ACTs.
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Temporal changes in prevalence of molecular markers mediating antimalarial drug resistance in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Standard therapy for malaria in Uganda changed from chloroquine to chloroquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 2000, and artemether-lumefantrine in 2004, although implementation of each change was slow. Plasmodium falciparum genetic polymorphisms are associated with alterations in drug sensitivity. We followed the prevalence of drug resistance-mediating P. falciparum polymorphisms in 982 samples from Tororo, a region of high transmission intensity, collected from three successive treatment trials conducted during 2003-2012, excluding samples with known recent prior treatment. Considering transporter mutations, prevalence of the mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, and pfmdr1 1246Y alleles decreased over time. Considering antifolate mutations, the prevalence of pfdhfr 51I, 59R, and 108N, and pfdhps 437G and 540E were consistently high; pfdhfr 164L and pfdhps 581G were uncommon, but most prevalent during 2008-2010. Our data suggest sequential selective pressures as different treatments were implemented, and they highlight the importance of genetic surveillance as treatment policies change over time.
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Comparative impacts over 5 years of artemisinin-based combination therapies on Plasmodium falciparum polymorphisms that modulate drug sensitivity in Ugandan children.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Artemisinin-based combination therapies, including artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), are recommended to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Sensitivities to components of AL and DP are impacted by polymorphisms in pfmdr1 and pfcrt. We monitored changes in prevalences of polymorphisms in Tororo, Uganda, from 2008 to 2012.
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Validation of the ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere assay for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum resistance mediating polymorphisms in Uganda.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Malaria remains a major public health problem, and its control has been hampered by drug resistance. For a number of drugs, Plasmodium falciparum single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with altered drug sensitivity and can be used as markers of drug resistance. Several techniques have been studied to assess resistance markers. The most widely used methodology is restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere (LDR-FM) assay was recently shown to provide high throughput assessment of P. falciparum SNPs associated with drug resistance. The aim of this study was to validate the reliability and accuracy of the LDR-FM assay in a field setting.
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Optimization of a ligase detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay for characterization of resistance-mediating polymorphisms in African samples of Plasmodium falciparum.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Genetic polymorphisms in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum mediate alterations in sensitivity to important antimalarial drugs. Surveillance for these polymorphisms is helpful in assessing the prevalence of drug resistance and designing strategies for malaria control. Multiple methods are available for the assessment of P. falciparum genetic polymorphisms, but they suffer from low throughput, technical limitations, and high cost. We have optimized and tested a multiplex ligase detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere (LDR-FM) assay for the identification of important P. falciparum genetic polymorphisms. For 84 clinical samples from Kampala, Uganda, a region where both transmission intensity and infection complexity are high, DNA was extracted from dried blood spots, genes of interest were amplified, amplicons were subjected to multiplex ligase detection reactions to add bead-specific oligonucleotides and biotin, fragments were hybridized to magnetic beads, and polymorphism prevalences were assessed fluorometrically in a multiplex format. A total of 19 alleles from the pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfmrp1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes were analyzed by LDR-FM and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. Considering samples with results from the two assays, concordance between the assays was good, with 78 to 100% of results identical at individual alleles, most nonconcordant results differing only between a mixed and pure genotype call, and full disagreement at individual alleles in only 0 to 3% of results. We estimate that the LDR-FM assay offers much higher throughput and lower cost than RFLP. Our results suggest that the LDR-FM system offers an accurate high-throughput means of classifying genetic polymorphisms in field samples of P. falciparum.
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Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis reinfection in HIV-positive women.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Recently developed genotyping tools allow better understanding of Trichomonas vaginalis population genetics and epidemiology. These tools have yet to be applied to T vaginalis collected from HIV+ populations, where understanding the interaction between the pathogens is of great importance due to the correlation between T vaginalis infection and HIV transmission. The objectives of the study were twofold: first, to compare the genetic diversity and population structure of T vaginalis collected from HIV+ women with parasites from reference populations; second, to use the genetic markers to perform a case study demonstrating the usefulness of these techniques in investigating the mechanisms of repeat infections.
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The evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans: brief discussions of some individual organisms.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: (1) what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; (2) what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and (3) what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future?
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Microsatellite polymorphism in the sexually transmitted human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis indicates a genetically diverse parasite.
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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Given the growing appreciation of serious health sequelae from widespread Trichomonas vaginalis infection, new tools are needed to study the parasites genetic diversity. To this end we have identified and characterized a panel of 21 microsatellites and six single-copy genes from the T. vaginalis genome, using seven laboratory strains of diverse origin. We have (1) adapted our microsatellite typing method to incorporate affordable fluorescent labeling, (2) determined that the microsatellite loci remain stable in parasites continuously cultured for up to 17 months, and (3) evaluated microsatellite marker coverage of the six chromosomes that comprise the T. vaginalis genome, using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We have used the markers to show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite in a population of commonly used laboratory strains. In addition, we have used phylogenetic methods to infer evolutionary relationships from our markers in order to validate their utility in future population analyses. Our panel is the first series of robust polymorphic genetic markers for T. vaginalis that can be used to classify and monitor lab strains, as well as provide a means to measure the genetic diversity and population structure of extant and future T. vaginalis isolates.
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Getting trichy: tools and approaches to interrogating Trichomonas vaginalis in a post-genome world.
Trends Parasitol.
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Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite of the urogenital tract in men and women, with a worldwide presence and significant implications for global public health. T. vaginalis research entered the age of genomics with the publication of the first genome sequence in 2007, but subsequent utilization of other omics technologies and methods has been slow. Here, we review some of the tools and approaches available to interrogate T. vaginalis biology, with an emphasis on recent advances and current limitations, and draw attention to areas where further efforts are needed to examine effectively the complex and intriguing biology of the parasite.
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Association between Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal bacterial community composition among reproductive-age women.
Sex Transm Dis
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Some vaginal bacterial communities are thought to prevent infection by sexually transmitted organisms. Prior work demonstrated that the vaginal microbiota of reproductive-age women cluster into 5 types of bacterial communities; 4 dominated by Lactobacillus species (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii) and 1 (termed community state type (CST) IV) lacking significant numbers of lactobacilli and characterized by higher proportions of Atopobium, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Mobiluncus, and other taxa. We sought to evaluate the relationship between vaginal bacterial composition and Trichomonas vaginalis.
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Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasites genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.