Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), which used as an effective agent in the treatment of leukaemia and other solid tumors, is largely limited by its toxicity. QT prolongation, torsades de pointes and sudden heart death have been implicated in the cardiotoxicity of As2O3. The present study was designed to explore whether the combination of As2O3 and resveratrol could generate a more powerful anti-cancer effect both in vitro and in vivo.
A practical 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ)-mediated synthesis of 1,3-disubstituted allenes from terminal alkynes and aldehydes under mild conditions in the presence of CuBr first and then ZnI2 was reported. This telescoped allene synthesis reaction includes three consecutive steps and two reactions: first, a room-temperature CuBr-catalyzed synthesis of propargylamines, exo-yne-THIQs, from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, and THIQ, then filtration of the CuBr catalyst, and finally the ZnI2-mediated allene synthesis from the generated exo-yne-THIQs under mild conditions (either at room temperature or heating at 50 or 75 °C). A wide range of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes and terminal alkynes are tolerated, affording the allene products in up to 92% yield. Especially, temperature-sensitive aldehydes can be used in the reaction system. Preliminary exploration of the asymmetric allene synthesis has also been conducted, and a moderate enantioselectivity has been achieved. Finally, the relative reactivities of several secondary amines were compared with THIQ, showing that THIQ is the best of these amines in the synthesis of allenes under mild reaction conditions.
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