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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
No enhancing effect of vitamin a administration on iron absorption or body total iron content in preschool children from chengdu, china.
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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To explore the effect of vitamin A supplements on iron metabolic homeostasis for preschoolers. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled and blinded intervention trial with 3- to 6-y old preschoolers. A total of 445 subjects were randomly divided into four groups: a vitamin A supplementation group (group 1, a single oral dose of vitamin A as retinol 200,000 IU), an iron supplement group (group 2, daily oral supplement with the elemental iron 1-2 mg/kg/d for 5 d a week, lasting for 6 mo) a combined vitamin A and iron (group 3) and administration of no vitamin A or iron as a placebo-control (group 4). A total of 387 (95, 98, 90 and 104 from groups 1, 2, 3 and 4) children completed the intervention. After intervention, serum retinol levels of children in group 1 and group 3 was markedly higher than those of children in groups 2 and 4 (p<0.05). The serum ferritin level of children in group 1 significantly decreased after intervention (p<0.05), but increased in group 2 (p<0.05). The sTfR-SF index (TFR-F) and total body iron content (BTIC) showed the same change after intervention. In group 2 and group 3, the levels of TRF-F index and BTIC had statistically increased to the same degree after intervention (p<0.05). The impact of vitamin A intervention on iron metabolic homeostasis was mainly manifested in storage and mobilization; there was no direct effect on total body iron content or iron absorption in the intestine.
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Effects of Wen Dan Tang on insomnia-related anxiety and levels of the brain-gut peptide Ghrelin.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide that induces anxiety and other abnormal emotions, contributes to the effects of insomnia on emotional behavior. In contrast, the traditional Chinese Medicine remedy Wen Dan Tang reduces insomnia-related anxiety, which may perhaps correspond to changes in the brain-gut axis. This suggests a possible relationship between Wen Dan Tang's pharmacological mechanism and the brain-gut axis. Based on this hypothesis, a sleep-deprived rat model was induced and Wen Dan Tang was administered using oral gavage during model establishment. Wen Dan Tang significantly reduced insomnia-related anxiety and prevented Ghrelin level decreases following sleep deprivation, especially in the hypothalamus. Increased expression of Ghrelin receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus was also observed, suggesting that reduced anxiety may be a result of Wen Dan Tang's regulation of Ghrelin-Ghrelin receptors.
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Pericytes: a double-edged sword in cancer therapy.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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ABSTRACT? Pericytes, which envelope the vascular endothelium throughout the body, are often targeted to promote vascular normalization and restore normal function of blood vessels in cancer treatment. The goals of pericyte-targeted therapy tend to promote proper vascular normalization of the tumor. Tumor vascular normalization prevents metastasis, increases tumor oxygenation (making radiation more effective in killing tumor cells), optimizes Starling forces to increase delivery of cancer cell-directed therapies (e.g., chemotherapy or targeted agents), increases the efficacy of focal therapies (e.g., surgery or radiation), and increases recognition by the host immune system. We review how approaches in pericyte-targeted therapy aim to reach a balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic function (i.e., by targeting platelet-derived growth factor beta receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and Tie-2) for tumor vascular normalization.
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Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.
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Evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome in the evaniomorpha (hymenoptera)—a group with an intermediate rate of gene rearrangement.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of three evaniomorph species, Ceraphron sp. (Ceraphronoidea), Gasteruption sp. (Evanioidea), and Orthogonalys pulchella (Trigonalyoidea) as well as the nearly complete mt genome from another evaniomorph species, Megalyra sp. (Megalyroidea). Each of them possesses dramatic gene rearrangements, including protein-coding or rRNA genes. Gene inversions were identified in all of these mt genomes; for example, the two rRNA genes have inverted and moved into the nad2-cox1 junction in the Megalyra sp. mt genome. In addition, we found two copies of a 10-bp complementary repeat at the beginning of rrnS and at the end of trnL(2) in the Gasteruption sp. mt genome, consistent with recombination as the possible mechanism for gene inversion and long-range movement. Although each of the genomes contains a number of repeats of varying size, there was no consistent association of the size or number of repeats with the extent or type of gene rearrangement. The breakpoint distance analysis showed the Evaniomorpha has an intermediate rate of gene rearrangement. Sequence-based phylogenetic analyses of 13 protein-coding and 2 rRNA genes in 22 hymenopteran taxa recovered a paraphyletic Evaniomorpha with the Aculeata nested within it. Within the Evaniomorpha, our analyses confirmed the Trigonalyoidea + Megalyroidea as the sister group to the Aculeata and recovered a novel clade, Ceraphronoidea + Evanioidea. In contrast to previous hymenopteran phylogenetic studies, the internal relationships of the Evaniomorpha were highly supported and robust to the variation of alignment approach and phylogenetic inference approach.
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DNA repair gene polymorphisms and clinical outcome of patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes impact on the synthesis of DNA repair proteins that are crucial to the repair of DNA damages induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We retrospectively examined whether there was an association between the selected six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of five DNA repair genes (PARP1-Val762Ala, XRCC1-Arg194Trp, XRCC1-Arg399Gln, XPC-Lys939Gln, BRCA1-Lys1183Arg, and BRCA2-Asn372His) and the clinical outcome of patients with primary small cell carcinoma of esophagus (SCCE), and it showed that the median progression-free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) were 11.8 versus 9.7 months (P?=?0.041) and 17.4 versus 14.8 months (P?=?0.032) for patients carrying the variant allele (T/C?+?C/C) and the wild-type allele (T/T) of PARP1-Val762Ala polymorphism, respectively. However, no statistical significance was observed in the other five polymorphic loci (P?>?0.05). When these six SNPs were combined, however, patients with at least three variant genotypes had significantly longer PFS and OS compared with those carrying less than three variant genotypes (P?=?0.009 and P?=?0.007, respectively). The presence of at least three polymorphic variants in certain DNA repair genes may impact on patient survival and could be a potential genomic predictor of clinical response to DNA-damaging treatment in SCCE patients.
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Complete mitochondrial genomes of Ceratobaeus sp. and Idris sp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae): shared gene rearrangements as potential phylogenetic markers at the tribal level.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of two sceliond taxa (Ceratobaeus sp. and Idris sp.). An atypical tRNA-Arg which lacks a D-stem was identified in both taxa, and represents a potentially derived character of sceliond wasps. A number of tRNA genes have rearranged in the two mitochondrial genomes compared with the ancestral organization. Some of these derived genome organizations are shared, and thus have much potential as phylogenetic markers at the tribal level in the subfamily Scelioninae. We test the influence of third codon inclusion/exclusion, alignment methods and partition schemes on the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. The results show that inclusion of third codon positions does not appear to be problematic when investigating the phylogeny of closely related taxa. Muscle and PartitionFinder schemes significantly improve the likelihood scores.
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[Effect of vitamin A supplements on iron metabolic homeostasis for preschoolers].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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To explore the effect of vitamin A (VA) combined iron supplements on iron metabolic homeostasis for preschoolers.
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L-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3? chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 ?m; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway.
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Wen-dan decoction improves negative emotions in sleep-deprived rats by regulating orexin-a and leptin expression.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Wen-Dan Decoction (WDD), a formula of traditional Chinese medicine, has been clinically used for treating insomnia for approximately 800 years. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of WDD remain unclear. Orexin-A plays a key role in the sleep-wake cycle, while leptin function is opposite to orexin-A. Thus, orexin-A and leptin may be important factors in sleep disorders. In this study, 48 rats were divided into control, model, WDD-treated, and diazepam-treated groups. The model of insomnia was produced by sleep deprivation (SD) for 14 days. The expressions of orexin-A, leptin, and their receptors in blood serum, prefrontal cortex, and hypothalamus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and real time PCR. Open field tests showed that SD increased both crossing movement (Cm) and rearing-movement (Rm) times. Orexin-A and leptin levels in blood serum increased after SD but decreased in brain compared to the control group. mRNA expressions of orexin receptor 1 and leptin receptor after SD were decreased in the prefrontal cortex but were increased in hypothalamus. WDD treatment normalized the behavior and upregulated orexin-A, leptin, orexin receptor 1 and leptin receptor in brain. The findings suggest that WDD treatment may regulate SD-induced negative emotions by regulating orexin-A and leptin expression.
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Melatonin attenuates prenatal dexamethasone-induced blood pressure increase in a rat model.
J Am Soc Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Although antenatal corticosteroid is recommended to accelerate fetal lung maturation, prenatal dexamethasone exposure results in hypertension in the adult offspring. Since melatonin is a potent antioxidant and has been known to regulate blood pressure, we examined the beneficial effects of melatonin therapy in preventing prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension. Male offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups (n = 12/group): control, dexamethasone (DEX), control + melatonin, and DEX + melatonin. Pregnant rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Blood pressure was measured by an indirect tail-cuff method. Gene expression and protein levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. At 16 weeks of age, the DEX group developed hypertension, which was partly reversed by maternal melatonin therapy. Reduced nephron numbers due to prenatal dexamethasone exposure were prevented by melatonin therapy. Renal superoxide and NO levels were similar in all groups. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure led to increased mRNA expression of renin and prorenin receptor and up-regulated histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 expression in the kidneys of 4-month-old offspring. Maternal melatonin therapy augmented renal Mas protein levels in DEX + melatonin group, and increased renal mRNA expression of HDAC-1, HDAC-2, and HDAC-8 in control and DEX offspring. Melatonin attenuated prenatal DEX-induced hypertension by restoring nephron numbers, altering RAS components, and modulating HDACs.
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Melatonin in the regulation of liver steatosis following prenatal glucocorticoid exposure.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients are characterized by hepatic steatosis. Prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure can result in steatosis. In this study, we aimed to determine the mechanism and cellular apoptosis of prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure in rats and whether melatonin can rescue the prenatal glucocorticoid-induced steatosis and apoptosis in neonatal rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at gestational days 14 to 21 were administered dexamethasone. Acute effects of prenatal programming liver were assessed at postnatal day 7. The expression of proteins involved in the apoptotic and methylation pathways was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis and steatosis were examined by histology staining. The liver steatosis and apoptosis were increased in prenatal glucocorticoid group more than in control group and decreased in melatonin group. The expression of leptin decreased in prenatal glucocorticoid and increased in melatonin group by liver RT-PCR and Western blot study. Caspase 3, TNF- ? proteins expression, and TUNEL stains increased in prenatal glucocorticoid compared with control and decreased in melatonin group. The liver histone deacetylase, DNA methyltransferase activity, and DNA methylation were increased in prenatal glucocorticoid and decreased in melatonin group. The present study showed that the prenatal glucocorticoid induced programming liver steatosis at day 7 after delivery, possibly via altered leptin expression. Melatonin can reverse the methylation of leptin and decreased liver steatosis.
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Pioglitazone use and the risk of bladder cancer.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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This study aimed to identify the risk association between pioglitazone exposure and bladder cancer. A nested case-control study was performed using a representative database randomly sampled from National Health Insurance enrollees. The source cohort consisted of newly diagnosed diabetic patients from 1997 to 2009. Cases were identified as those with a diagnosis of bladder cancer from 2002 to 2009. For each case, four matched control individuals were randomly selected. A multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate the relative magnitude of risk in relation to the use of pioglitazone. In total, 259 cases and 1036 controls were identified. The prevalent use of pioglitazone is similar in cases and controls (adjusted odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-2.49). Compared to nonusers, these values were 1.08 (0.41-2.88) for those with cumulative pioglitazone use ? 8268 mg and 1.35 (0.48-3.79) for those with cumulative pioglitazone use > 8268 mg. This study does not provide support for the risk association between pioglitazone exposure and bladder cancer. Further confirmation is needed due to the limitation of small case number with relatively shorter exposure duration and lower cumulative dose.
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Mitochondrial translocation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in cord blood mononuclear cells of newborns with gestational diabetes mellitus mothers.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To better understand the role of oxidative stress in fetal programming, we assessed the hypothesis that the mitochondrial translocation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) could protect neonatal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from oxidative damage during pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
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Resveratrol partially prevents rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells through induction of heme oxygenase-1 dependent autophagy.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress or protein misfolding and aggregation may underlie this process. Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic mechanism responsible for protein degradation and recycling of damaged proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. Autophagic dysfunction may hasten the progression of neuronal degeneration. In this study, resveratrol promoted autophagic flux and protected dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced apoptosis. In an in vivo PD model, rotenone induced loss of dopaminergic neurons, increased oxidation of mitochondrial proteins and promoted autophagic vesicle development in brain tissue. The natural phytoalexin resveratrol prevented rotenone-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro, and this pro-survival effect was abolished by an autophagic inhibitor. Although both rotenone and resveratrol promoted LC3-II accumulation, autophagic flux was inhibited by rotenone and augmented by resveratrol. Further, rotenone reduced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, whereas resveratrol increased HO-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HO-1 abolished resveratrol-mediated autophagy and neuroprotection. Notably, the effects of a pharmacological inducer of HO-1 were similar to those of resveratrol, and protected against rotenone-induced cell death in an autophagy-dependent manner, validating the hypothesis of HO-1 dependent autophagy in preventing neuronal death in the in vitro PD model. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol induces HO-1 expression and prevents dopaminergic cell death by regulating autophagic flux; thus protecting against rotenone-induced neuronal apoptosis.
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Stereotactic body radiation therapy using the CyberKnife(®) system for patients with liver metastases.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with liver metastases. Between August 2006 and July 2011, patients with 1-4 liver metastases were enrolled and treated with SBRT using the CyberKnife(®) system at Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital. The metastases were from different primary tumors, with a maximum tumor diameter of less than 6 cm. The primary endpoint was local control. Secondary endpoints were overall survival, progression-free survival, distant progression-free survival, and adverse events. Fifty-seven patients with 80 lesions were treated with SBRT. The 1-year and 2-year local control rates were 94.4% and 89.7%, respectively. The difference in local control between patients who received adjuvant treatment before SBRT and those who did not reached statistical significance (P=0.049). The median overall survival for the entire cohort was 37.5 months. According to the primary tumor sites, the median overall survival was not reached. The 2-year overall survival rate was 72.2% in the favorable group (primary tumors originating from the colon, breast, or stomach, as well as sarcomas); however, in the unfavorable group (primary tumors originating from the pancreas, lung, ovary, gallbladder, uterus, hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as olfactory neuroblastoma), the median overall survival and 2-year overall survival rates were 37.5 months and 55.9%, respectively (P=0.0001). Grade 1-2 fatigue, nausea, and vomiting were the most common adverse events, and no grade 3 and higher adverse events were observed. With excellent local control in the absence of severe toxicity, SBRT provides an alternative for patients with 1-4 liver metastases who cannot undergo surgery or other treatments.
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Coexistence of Minicircular and a Highly Rearranged mtDNA Molecule Suggests That Recombination Shapes Mitochondrial Genome Organization.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Recombination has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain mitochondrial (mt) gene rearrangements, although the issue of whether mtDNA recombination occurs in animals has been controversial. In this study, we sequenced the entire mt genome of the megaspilid wasp Conostigmus sp., which possessed a highly rearranged mt genome. The sequence of the A+T-rich region contained a number of different types of repeats, similar to those reported previously in the nematode Meloidogyne javanica, in which recombination was discovered. In Conostigmus, we detected the end products of recombination: a range of minicircles. However, using isolated (cloned) fragments of the A+T-rich region, we established that some of these minicircles were found to be polymerase chain reaction (PCR) artifacts. It appears that regions with repeats are prone to PCR template switching or PCR jumping. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that one minicircle is real, as amplification primers that straddle the putative breakpoint junction produce a single strong amplicon from genomic DNA but not from the cloned A+T-rich region. The results provide support for the direct link between recombination and mt gene rearrangement. Furthermore, we developed a model of recombination which is important for our understanding of mtDNA evolution.
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Associations of mitochondrial haplogroups b4 and e with biliary atresia and differential susceptibility to hydrophobic bile Acid.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA). This study aimed to determine whether a specific mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of BA. We determined 40 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms in 15 major mitochondrial haplogroups by the use of 24-plex PCR and fluorescent beads combined with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes in 71 patients with BA and in 200 controls in the Taiwanese population of ethnic Chinese background. The haplogroup B4 and E prevalence were significantly lower and higher respectively, in the patients with BA than in the controls (odds ratios, 0.82 [p = 0.007] and 7.36 [p = 0.032] respectively) in multivariate logistic-regression analysis. The 3-year survival rate with native liver was significantly lower in haplogroup E than the other haplogroups (P = 0.037). A cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) was obtained from human 143B osteosarcoma cells devoid of mtDNA (?(0) cell) and was fused with specific mtDNA bearing E and B4 haplogroups donated by healthy Taiwanese subjects. Chenodeoxycholic acid treatment resulted in significantly lower free radical production, higher mitochondrial membrane potential, more viable cells, and fewer apoptotic cybrid B4 cells than parental 143B and cybrid E cells. Bile acid treatment resulted in a significantly greater protective mitochondrial reaction with significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitofusin 1 and 2 concentrations in cybrid B4 and parental cells than in cybrid E cells. The results of the study suggested that the specific mitochondrial DNA haplogroups B4 and E were not only associated with lower and higher prevalence of BA respectively, in the study population, but also with differential susceptibility to hydrophobic bile acid in the cybrid harboring different haplogroups.
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Characteristics and Outcome of Liver Transplantation in Children with Alagille Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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This study was carried out in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Taiwan, with the aim of reviewing the characteristics and the outcome of liver transplantation (LT) in children with Alagille syndrome (AGS).
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Screening miRNA and their target genes related to tetralogy of Fallot with microarray.
Cardiol Young
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Our aim is to screen miRNAs and genes related to tetralogy of Fallot and construct a co-expression network based on integrating miRNA and gene microarrays. We downloaded the gene expression profile GSE35490 (miRNA) and GSE35776 (mRNA) of tetralogy of Fallot from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which includes eight normal and 15 disease samples from infants, and screened differentially expressed miRNAs and genes between normal and disease samples (cut-off: p < 0.05; FDR < 0.05; and log FC > 2 or log FC < -2); in addition, we downloaded human miRNA and their targets, which were collected in the miRNA targets prediction database TargetScan, and selected ones that also appeared in our differentially expressed miRNAs and their predicted targets (score >0.9) and then made a relationship of diff_miRNAs and diff_genes of our results. Finally, we uploaded all the diff_target genes into String, constructed a co-expression network regulated by diff_miRNAs, and performed functional analysis with the software DAVID. Comparing normal and disease lesion tissue, we got 32 and 875 differentially expressed miRNAs and genes, respectively, and found hsa-miR-124 with 34 diff_target genes and hsa-miR-138 with two diff_target genes. Then we constructed a co-expression network that contains 231 pairs of genes. Genes in the network were enriched into 14 function clusters, and the most significant one is protein localisation. We screened the tetralogy of Fallot-related hsa-miR-124 and hsa-miR-138 with their direct and indirect differentially expressed target genes, and found that protein localisation is the significant cause affecting tetralogy of Fallot. Our approach may provide the groundwork for a new therapy approach to treating tetralogy of Fallot.
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Impaired NK cell antiviral cytokine response against influenza virus in small-for-gestational-age neonates.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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The neonates, particularly small-for-gestational-age (SGA) ones, are susceptible to various microbial infections. Natural killer (NK) cells are critical components of host innate immunity system and the main source of the inflammatory cytokines, which provide critical protection during the early phase of viral infections before the development of an appropriate adaptive immune response. However, little is known about the antiviral effects of NK cells in neonates especially the SGA population. Herein, a prospective descriptive study was performed to determine the differences of NK cell immunity among adults, appropriate-for gestational-age (AGA) and SGA neonates. Adults have much higher NK cell number in peripheral blood than that in cord blood from neonates. In response to influenza virus stimulation, neonatal NK cells, especially SGA baby cells, expressed significantly lower antiviral cytokines including perforin, interferon (IFN)-? and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-? responses than adult NK cells. In addition, the antiviral cytokine responses of NK cells were positively correlated with neonatal birth weight. Our data suggested that the depressed antiviral activity and less frequency of NK cells are likely to be responsible for the high susceptibility to microbial infection in neonates, at least in part. Improving the function of innate immunity may provide a new way to defend virus infection.
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Discontinuous microduplications at chromosome 10q24.31 identified in a Chinese family with split hand and foot malformation.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a congenital disorder characterized by a cleft of the hands and/or feet due to dificiency of central rays. Genomic rearrangement at 10q24 has been found to cause nonsyndromic SHFM (SHFM3).
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Effectiveness of a Large-Scale Health and Nutritional Education Program on Anemia in Children Younger Than 5 Years in Shifang, a Heavily Damaged Area of Wenchuan Earthquake.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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This study aimed to explore an ideal way to prevent anemia among children younger than 5 years after disasters especially when health care facilities are not enough. A preliminary survey was carried out involving 13 065 children younger than 5 years. Pretested questionnaires were used for data collection and hemoglobin levels were measured. After 12-month intervention, the impact survey involving 2769 children was conducted. RESULTS: showed that there were some improvements both in feeding knowledge and practice related to anemia. The total prevalence of anemia decreased from 14.3% to 7.8% (P < .001), and the severity of anemia also declined. The hemoglobin concentration increased significantly from 118.8 ± 10.5 to 122.0 ± 9.9 g/L (P < .001). Thus, health and nutritional education could be an ideal way to combat anemia after disasters especially in less developed areas with multiparty cooperation. The methods and experiences of this study may be well worth learning and implementing.
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V?9V?2-T lymphocytes have impaired antiviral function in small-for-gestational-age and preterm neonates.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates are vulnerable groups that are susceptible to various microbial infections. V?9V?2-T cells are critical components of the host immune system and have been demonstrated to play an important role in the defense against viral infection in adults. However, the characteristics of V?9V?2-T cells in children, especially the preterm and SGA populations, are poorly understood. Here, we examined the frequency and antiviral function of V?9V?2-T cells in neonates, including preterm, SGA and full-term babies. When compared to adults, neonates had a significantly lower percentage of V?9V?2-T cells in the blood. Upon influenza virus stimulation, neonatal V?9V?2-T cells, especially from preterm and SGA babies, showed markedly decreased and delayed antiviral cytokine responses than those of adults. In addition, the antiviral responses of neonatal V?9V?2-T cells were positively correlated with gestational age and birth weight. Finally, a weaker expansion of V?9V?2-T cells by isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) was shown in neonates than the expansion in adults. Our data suggest that the depressed antiviral activity and decreased frequency of V?9V?2-T cells may likely account for the high susceptibility to microbial infection in neonates, particularly in preterm and SGA babies. Improving V?9V?2-T-cell function of neonates may provide a new way to defend against virus infection.
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Neuroprotective effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediated by autophagy through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Brain?derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been demonstrated to be a potent growth factor that is beneficial in neuronal functions following hypoxia?ischemia (HI). Mature BDNF triggers three enzymes, mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3?kinase (PI3K) and phosphoinositide phospholipase C-? (PLC?), which are its predominant downstream regulators. The PI3K?Akt signaling pathway is upstream of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is important in the induction of autophagy. However, whether the neuroprotective effect of BDNF is mediated by autophagy through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway remains to be elucidated. Cortical neurons were cultured following isolation from pregnant rats (gestational days 16?18). The induction of autophagy following BDNF treatment was analyzed by microtubule?associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion and autophagosome formation. The phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) was analyzed in cultured cells with or without BDNF treatment. Cell viability was determined by a Cell Counting Kit?8 for estimating the protective effect of BDNF. Results demonstrated that autophagy was induced in cells with oxygen deprivation. BDNF promoted cell viability via the upregulation of autophagy. Moreover, LC3 upregulation was related to Akt/mTOR/p70S6K inhibition by BDNF. In conclusion, the results suggested that the neuroprotective effect of BDNF was mediated by autophagy through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
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Ablative hypofractionated radiotherapy normalizes tumor vasculature in lewis lung carcinoma mice model.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Ablative hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) significantly improves the overall survival of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients compared with conventional radiation therapy. However, the radiobiological mechanisms of ablative HFRT remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes of tumor vessels and perfusion during and after ablative hypofractionated radiotherapy. Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice were treated with sham (control) and ablative hypofractionated radiotherapy of 12 Gy in 1 fraction (12 Gy/1F) and 36 Gy in 3 fractions (36 Gy/3F). Tumor microvessel density (MVD), morphology and function were examined at different times after irradiation. The results showed that, compared to the controls the MVD and hypoxia in ablative HFRT groups decreased, which were accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes and their coverage of vessels. Functional tests revealed that tumor hypoxia and perfusion were improved, especially in the 36 Gy/3F group. Our results revealed that ablative hypofractionated radiotherapy not only repressed MVD and hypoxia, but also increased the vascular perfusion and the number of pericyte-covered vessels, suggesting that ablative HFRT normalized the tumor vasculature.
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Multisource feedback analysis of pediatric outpatient teaching.
BMC Med Educ
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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This study aims to evaluate the outpatient communication skills of medical students via multisource feedback, which may be useful to map future directions in improving physician-patient communication.
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Effect of simultaneous supplementation of vitamin A and iron on diarrheal and respiratory tract infection in preschool children in Chengdu City, China.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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The goal of this study was to investigate whether vitamin A combined with iron supplementation for preschool children resulted in improved changes in childrens infectious morbidity.
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Enhanced radioresponse with a novel recombinant human endostatin protein via tumor vasculature remodeling: experimental and clinical evidence.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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This study aimed to examine the effect of the novel recombinant human endostatin (rh-Endo) protein on tumor vasculature, and to explore and evaluate the optimal scheduling of rh-Endo and radiotherapy (RT).
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Olig2 targets chromatin remodelers to enhancers to initiate oligodendrocyte differentiation.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Establishment of oligodendrocyte identity is crucial for subsequent events of myelination in the CNS. Here, we demonstrate that activation of ATP-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzyme Smarca4/Brg1 at the differentiation onset is necessary and sufficient to initiate and promote oligodendrocyte lineage progression and maturation. Genome-wide multistage studies by ChIP-seq reveal that oligodendrocyte-lineage determination factor Olig2 functions as a prepatterning factor to direct Smarca4/Brg1 to oligodendrocyte-specific enhancers. Recruitment of Smarca4/Brg1 to distinct subsets of myelination regulatory genes is developmentally regulated. Functional analyses of Smarca4/Brg1 and Olig2 co-occupancy relative to chromatin epigenetic marking uncover stage-specific cis-regulatory elements that predict sets of transcriptional regulators controlling oligodendrocyte differentiation. Together, our results demonstrate that regulation of the functional specificity and activity of a Smarca4/Brg1-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex by Olig2, coupled with transcriptionally linked chromatin modifications, is critical to precisely initiate and establish the transcriptional program that promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and subsequent myelination of the CNS.
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Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are associated with improved outcomes over surgery and chemotherapy in the management of limited-stage small cell esophageal carcinoma.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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This retrospective study evaluates the efficacy and safety of surgery and chemotherapy (S +CT) vs. radiotherapy and CT (RT+CT) in patients with limited stage small cell esophageal cancer (LS-SCEC).
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Identification of risk factors and characteristics of supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in patients with small cell lung cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Thoracic radiotherapy provides a survival benefit in patients with limited-stage disease of small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC), but inclusion and exclusion of prophylactic irradiation of the supraclavicular area are still controversial. This study analyses the risk factors and characteristics of lymph node metastases in the supraclavicular area of LS-SCLC patients, which could help in developing a better radiotherapy for the patients. A total of 239 patients with LS-SCLC were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical characteristics and mediastinal lymph node metastasis were analyzed for association with SCM, and the SCM pattern was further analyzed based on the treatment planning CT scans. The SCM incidence was 34.7 % (83 of 239). The multivariate analysis showed that only the mediastinal level 2 (OR = 16.101, P = 0.000) and level 3 (OR = 5.597, P = 0.000) lymph node metastases were significantly associated with SCM. As the most frequently involved region, supraclavicular level I lymph node metastases were identified in 61 of 83 patients (73.5 %), followed by level III, level IV, level V, and level II lymph node metastases, accounting a total of 95.2 % for level I and/or III lymph node metastases, whereas the incidence of skip metastasis was only 4.8 %. SCLC patients with mediastinal level 2 and level 3 lymph node metastasis were at high risk of SCM. If prophylactic irradiation therapy is considered, the nodal clinical target volume of irradiation should include bilateral lower para-recurrent laryngeal neural region (level I) and the para-internal jugular venous region (level III).
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Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition exposure leads to reversal learning deficits and striatal disturbance in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition during pregnancy increases susceptibility to metabolic risks in adulthood, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes; however, whether and how it affects the cognitive system associated with the brain remains elusive. Here, we report that pregnant obesity induced by exposure to excessive high fatty or highly palatable food specifically impaired reversal learning, a kind of adaptive behavior, while leaving serum metabolic metrics intact in the offspring of rats, suggesting a much earlier functional and structural defects possibly occurred in the central nervous system than in the metabolic system in the offspring born in unfavorable intrauterine nutritional environment. Mechanically, we found that above mentioned cognitive inflexibility might be associated with significant striatal disturbance including impaired dopamine homeostasis and disrupted leptin signaling in the adult offspring. These collective data add a novel perspective of understanding the adverse postnatal sequelae in central nervous system induced by developmental programming and the related molecular mechanism through which priming of risk for developmental disorders may occur during early life.
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The apgar score and infant mortality.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To evaluate if the Apgar score remains pertinent in contemporary practice after more than 50 years of wide use, and to assess the value of the Apgar score in predicting infant survival, expanding from the neonatal to the post-neonatal period.
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Absence of association between length variation of an intronic region in the NFATC1 gene and congenital heart defects in a Han Chinese population.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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Congenital heart defects are complicated birth defects due to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Previous research indicated the importance of transcription factors in heart development, which suggested that mutations of transcription factor genes could be genetic determinants of congenital heart defects. Recently, the length variation of an intronic region in the NFATC1 gene was linked to ventricular septal defect (VSD). In this study, we detected the length variation of the region in a Han Chinese population of patients with nonsyndromic VSD, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and control individuals. We found a new allele of the length variation with four repeats of a 44-bp region. At the same time, all the alleles were found in both patient and control groups and there were no significant differences in genotype distribution between the patients and controls. The results suggested no association of the length variation of the intronic region in NFATC1 gene with VSD, atrial septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus.
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Insufficient screening knowledge in Chinese interns: a survey in ten leading medical schools.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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This study aimed to investigate Chinese medical interns cancer knowledge and associated factors, focusing on cancer screening.
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Decreasing rate of biliary atresia in Taiwan: a survey, 2004-2009.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2011
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The pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA) is unclear, but epidemiological studies may help to elucidate possible causes. The goals of this study were to identify BA incidence changes in Taiwan in 2004-2009 and to survey the factors that might influence incidence changes to elucidate the possible causes of BA.
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Neonatal mortality due to preterm birth at 28-36 weeks gestation in China, 2003-2008.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Almost all (99%) neonatal deaths occur in developing countries, where the progress in reducing neonatal mortality rates (NMR) has been small; the Millennium Development Goal for child survival cannot be met if this situation continues. China is among the 10 countries that have the largest numbers of neonatal deaths. In order to provide effective interventions to reduce the national NMR for government policy makers, we analyse the trends, causes and characteristics of the neonatal deaths of preterm babies in different regions of China during the period 2003-2008. The data for this retrospective study were retrieved from the population-based Maternal and Child Health Surveillance System of China. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to analyse the trend of NMRs due to immaturity. The national NMR due to immaturity has decreased by 38.7% in 6 years. However, the proportion of preterm births among the causes of neonatal death has increased significantly from 33.6% in 2003 to 40.9% in 2008. The relative risk of neonatal death among preterm babies has shown significant regional disparity. In 2008, the adjusted relative risk was 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95, 1.78] in the inland regions and 2.37 [95% CI 1.56, 3.60] in the remote regions, both compared with the coastal regions. The proportion of neonatal deaths with a gestational age <32 weeks or a birthweight <1500 g was highest among the coastal regions. Most neonatal deaths of preterm babies in remote areas were born at home and were not treated before death. Our study suggests that preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal death in China and neonatal mortality due to immaturity displayed regional differences. The Chinese government should implement major effective strategies for reducing the mortality of preterm infants to further decrease the total NMR. Priority interventions should be region-specific, depending on the availability of economic and health care resources.
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[Genotype-phenotype analysis of a Chinese family with split hand/split foot and syndactyly].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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To determine the causative gene mutation in a Chinese family with split hand/split foot malformation (SHFM) and explore the genotype-phenotype relationship.
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Factors contributing to prolonged hospitalization of patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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To study the influence of clinical audit on diagnosis, complications, and factors contributing to hospitalization of patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
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Generation of bioactive recombinant Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide c2.
Protein Expr. Purif.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Thrombus formation is a crucial factor in the precipitation of unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Recently, several anticoagulant serine protease inhibitors have been identified from adult Ancylostoma caninum hookworms. One of them, A. caninum anticoagulant peptide c2 (AcAPc2), can inhibit the activity of factor VIIa/tissue factor complex to exert its antithrombotic effect. However, it is difficult to adopt traditional expression and purification systems to yield high-purity recombinant AcAPc2 (rAcAPc2). Here, we employed a simple method to produce high-yield and high-purity rAcAPc2. We obtained the full-length double-stranded cDNA encoding AcAPc2 by overlapping PCR and cloned it into an intein-based expression vector. The AcAPc2 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli and comprised 30% of the total bacterial proteins. The expressed rAcAPc2 was purified by cleaving the fused chitin-binding domain at pH 7.2. Finally, we produced a high yield of rAcAPc2 at a purity of greater than 98%. Importantly, the generated rAcAPc2 prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of human plasma in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, this method to generate the high-purity and bioactive rAcAPc2 may contribute to the scientific research on its biological function and the treatment of thrombotic diseases.
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A novel COMP mutation in a pseudoachondroplasia family of Chinese origin.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2011
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Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is caused exclusively by mutations in the gene for cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Only a small number of studies have documented the clinical phenotype and genetic basis in Chinese PSACH patients.
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Melamine-tainted milk product-associated urinary stones in children.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2011
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An outbreak of urinary stones related to consumption of melamine-tainted milk products (MTMP) occurred in China in 2008. The aim of the present study was to evaluate such children to identify their clinical features and risk factors.
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Epidemiological features of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Taiwan: a national study 1996-2004.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The incidence of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) varies among different countries and is supposed to be lower in Asian countries than in Western countries. However, the incidence of IHPS in Taiwan has not been well investigated.
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Ectopic pelvic kidney with urinary tract infection presenting as lower abdominal pain in a child.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Ectopic pelvic kidney is a rare developmental anomaly. Ectopic pelvic kidney can present without the characteristic symptoms associated with the urinary tract pathology. Ectopic pelvic kidney is usually unknown, and nonspecific vague abdominal comfort maybe the only symptom. Early detection and recognition of an ectopic kidney can prevent long-term complications. We report a 3-year-5-month-old girl with ectopic pelvic kidney who experienced intermittent episodes of lower abdominal pain for about 1 month. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and intravenous pyelography demonstrated a pelvic kidney. Thereafter, the urinalysis showed pyuria (white blood cell 20/high power field), and urine culture grew Escherichia coli. We emphasize that pelvic kidney should be considered in patients presenting unexplained vague abdominal pain, especially in pediatric patients who had intermittent recurrent episodes.
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Birth defects surveillance in China.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China.
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Time trends and geographic variations in the prevalence of hypospadias in China.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Little is known about the main epidemiologic characteristics of hypospadias prevalence in China. We investigated the time trends and geographic variations in the prevalence of hypospadias in China from 1996 to 2008.
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Lack of association between ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and pharmacoresistant epilepsy: an analysis in a western Chinese pediatric population.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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The genetic polymorphisms of the ABCB1 (ATP-binding cassette B1) gene encoding P-glycoprotein have been proposed to be associated with pharmacoresistance phenotype in epilepsy patients. P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, works as an efflux pump by limiting antiepileptic drugs across the blood brain barrier, with correspondingly lowering drug concentrations in epileptogenic loci. In this study, we analyzed whether the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T) in the ABCB1 gene were associated with pharmacoresistant epilepsy in a western Chinese pediatric population.
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented as severe jaundice and hyperferritinemia: a case report.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) frequently present with hepatomegaly and mild liver functional impairment. Severe jaundice is rarely seen as a presenting feature. Such patients often present diagnostic dilemmas and therapeutic difficulties. Here we report a 15-year-old boy presenting with severe jaundice and hyperferritinemia, whose bone marrow smear showed B-lineage precursor ALL. We treated him with intravenous immunoglobulin, steroid, and etoposide; then his condition improved. ALL should be considered as a possible diagnosis in severely jaundiced children. Steroid and etoposide can be used as first aid when many chemotherapeutic drugs are contraindicated.
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Dexamethasone decreases cholestatic liver injury via inhibition of intrinsic pathway with simultaneous enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Mitochondria are known to be involved in cholestatic liver injury. We tested the hypothesis that glucocorticoids can modulate mitochondrial function to alleviate cholestatic liver injury.
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Glucocorticoid modulates high-mobility group box 1 expression and Toll-like receptor activation in obstructive jaundice.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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Obstructive jaundice is associated with bacterial translocation and inflammatory cytokine induction. It is unknown if toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their upstream molecule high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) are involved in the pathogenetic mechanism and if glucocorticoid is effective in modulating the process.
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Clinical significance of erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni in children.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Campylobacter has been recognized as the common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in many countries. Increasing erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni infection is noted recently, but severe case was rarely reported. In this study, we aimed to clarify the clinical significance of the resistant strain of C jejuni in children. We reviewed the charts of children who were diagnosed with C jejuni enteritis in our hospital from January 2000 to December 2005, including 326 patients (117 males and 209 females). All the cases had positive stool culture. We divided them into two groups, the sensitive group (a total of 306 cases) and resistant group (a total of 20 cases), according to the drug sensitivity. We analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory data between the two groups. The mean age was 3.79±3.24 years in the sensitive group and 3.03±2.84 years in the resistant group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in clinical presentations and laboratory examinations. No mortality was found, and one case was initially presented with colonic perforation. This report demonstrates that infection by erythromycin-resistant strains of C jejuni has no clinical significance in children, despite the probably increased emergence of erythromycin resistance.
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Tissue-specific differences in mitochondrial DNA content in type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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To investigate whether the effect of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content is tissue-specific.
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Meta-analysis: traditional Chinese medicine for improving immune response in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
Explore (NY)
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) improves immune response for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (UHCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) by using meta-analysis of data from the literature involving available randomized controlled trials of TCM in combination with TACE compared with that of TACE alone.
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[A comparative study on three models of co-culture of neurons and astrocytes.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
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OBJECTIVE: To find a better method for harvesting highly purified neurons by comparing three methods used for co-culture of neurons and astrocytes. METHODS: The co-culture models of neurons and astrocytes were established by primary culture, Bankers co-culture method or Transwell cell-culture inserts. The neurons and astrocytes cultured in vitro were from neonatal rats. RESULTS: The highly purified neurons were not harvested by primary culture because the neurons and astrocytes grew on the same cover slip and it was difficult to control the growth velocity of astrocytes. The highly purified neurons were harvested by Bankers co-culture method or the method using Transwell cell-culture inserts, but the procedure of the former was more complicated than that of the later. CONCLUSIONS: The culture method using Transwell cell-culture inserts is recommended for the establishment of the co-culture system of neurons and astrocytes.
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Malignant fibrous histiocytoma like pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma with laryngeal cancer as a second primary neoplasm: a case report.
Acta Cytol.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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Leiomyosarcoma is one of the most common sarcomas arising in the soft tissue and somatic organs. Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma (P-LMS) may be easily confused with a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) as both may share nonspecific morphologic features. It is reported that the larynx is the most common site for a second primary neoplasm (SPN) in a patient with a head and neck malignancy, although an SPN of the larynx following a P-LMS is extremely rare.
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LOC387715/HTRA1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration: A HuGE review and meta-analysis.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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To examine the association of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with HtrA serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) gene rs11200638 G?A polymorphism and LOC387715/ ARMS2 gene rs10490924 G?T polymorphisms, and to evaluate the magnitude of the gene effect and the possible genetic mode of action.
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High prevalence of vitamin D and calcium deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in Chengdu, China.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
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Vitamin D and calcium deficiency is common in pregnant women and newborn infants. There are few data about the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D during pregnancy and infancy in China. We assessed vitamin D status of pregnant women and their neonates in Chengdu, Sichuan province, China.
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Comparison of clinical characteristics and neutrophil values in omental infarction and acute appendicitis in children.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Omental infarction is a rare occurrence in children. It is often diagnosed during surgery for suspected appendicitis. This study investigated the use of clinical and laboratory data for distinguishing between omental infarction and acute appendicitis.
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[Relationship between Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor expression and catch-up growth in rats with intrauterine growth restriction].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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To study the relationship between Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) expression and the catch-up growth in rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).
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PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is required for neuroprotection of thalidomide on hypoxic-ischemic cortical neurons in vitro.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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Thalidomide, a derivative of glutamic acid, is used for immunomodulatory therapy in various diseases through inhibition of tumor necrotic factor-? (TNF-?) release. However, the effects of thalidomide in central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as stroke or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are unknown. In this study, we aimed to test whether thalidomide protects against hypoxic-ischemic neuronal damage and the possible signaling pathway involved in neuroprotection. Primary cultured cortical neurons of rats were treated with oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) for 3h to mimic hypoxic-ischemic injury in vivo. Neuronal apoptosis was measured with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. The expression of total caspase-3 (C3), cleaved caspase-3 (CC3), Akt, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt) and Bcl-2 protein were detected by Western blots. We found that OGD treatment increased the expression of CC3 and induced neuronal apoptosis. Both neuronal apoptosis and CC3 expression peaked at 24h after OGD. Furthermore, we found that thalidomide protected neurons against apoptosis by decreasing CC3 and increasing Bcl-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, we found that thalidomide induced p-Akt expression, which could be inhibited by PI3K specific inhibitor, LY294002. In addition, inhibition of PI3K increased CC3 but decreased Bcl-2 expression. In summary, thalidomide has anti-apoptotic effects on cortical neurons after OGD by modulating CC3 and Bcl-2 expression through activation of PI3K/Akt pathway.
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Chinese children at a crossroads: influence of family socioeconomic factors on diet patterns.
Ecol Food Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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This pilot study explores the roles of family socioeconomic status (SES) in influencing dietary consumption patterns in 60 Chinese elementary school-aged children (ages 6-11) in Chengdu, China. Two interviewer-administered questionnaires were specially developed to gather sociodemographic and food frequency data. Children from low SES families consumed rice and traditional staples, and high calcium drinks more frequently, and western fast food less frequently than children from higher SES families. After controlling for family SES, children who were primarily cared for by their mothers or grandparents consumed less healthy snacks less frequently than children who were primarily cared for by other adults (including fathers).
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Analgesic use and the risk for progression of chronic kidney disease.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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The chronic effect of various analgesics on the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is inconclusive. There is also lack of information on the renal safety of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. This study aimed to clarify the renal risk of analgesic use in CKD patients.
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[Telomerase reverse transcriptase expression and cell apoptosis during hypoxia ischemia brain damage in neonatal rats].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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To investigate the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and cell apoptosis in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemia brain damage (HIBD).
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Effects of the infant stool color card screening program on 5-year outcome of biliary atresia in Taiwan.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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In Taiwan, a screening system using an infant stool color card to promote the early diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA) was established in 2002. This study aimed to investigate the 5-year outcome of BA before and after using the screening program. BA patients were divided into three cohorts according to their birth dates. The patients in cohort A (n = 89) were born before the stool card screening program (1990-2000); those in cohort B (n = 28) were screened by the stool card regional screening program (2002-2003); and those in cohort C (n = 74) were screened by the stool card universal screening program (2004-2005). The relative odds ratios were computed using logistic regression to compare the different factors affecting survival time. The rate of age at Kasai operation <60 days was 49.4% and 65.7% in cohorts A and B+C, respectively (P = 0.02). The jaundice-free (total serum bilirubin <2.0 mg/dL) rate 3 months after surgery was 34.8% and 60.8% in cohorts A and B+C, respectively (P < 0.001). The 3-year jaundice-free survival rate with native liver was 31.5% in cohort A and 56.9% in cohort B+C (P < 0.001), whereas the 3-year overall survival rates were 64.0% and 89.2%, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year jaundice-free survival rate with native liver was 27.3% in cohort A and 64.3% in cohort B (P < 0.001), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 55.7% and 89.3%, respectively (P < 0.001).
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Does calcium in drinking water modify the association between trihalomethanes and the risk of death from colon cancer?
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and mortality attributed to colon cancer and (2) to determine whether calcium levels (Ca) in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk to develop colon cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to colon cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All colon cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 1998 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels in drinking water were collected from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Information on the levels of Ca in drinking water was obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subjects TTHM and Ca exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level was <4.9 ppb, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for colon cancer was 1.14 (1.01-1.28) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a TTHM exposure > or =4.9 ppb. Data demonstrated evidence of an interaction between drinking-water TTHM concentrations and Ca intake via drinking water. Our findings showed that the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of colon cancer development is influenced by Ca in drinking water. Increased knowledge of the interaction between Ca and TTHM in reducing colon cancer risk will aid in public policymaking and standard setting.
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Treatment of functional constipation with the Yun-chang capsule: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Functional constipation is a common functional bowel disorder for which there is no reliable medical treatment. This study was designed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the Yun-chang capsule, a Chinese herbal formula, in the treatment of patients with functional constipation.
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[The effects of hypoxic-ischemia on glutamate transporters].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
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Glutamate is a kind of excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system of mammals; at the same time, being with excitatory toxicity, its extracellular concentration is mainly modulated by the glutamate transporters. In the case of hypoxic-ischemia, the energy failure would lead to the generation of lactate and free radical, and to the crash of [Na+] gradient, thus exerting influence on the activity and the expression of glutamate transporters. As a result, the glutamate accumulates in the synaptic cleft, activates the glutamate receptors, and causes the death of neurons.
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Immediate echocardiographic surveillance after transcatheter closure of a patent ductus arteriosus: a feasible method to assess residual shunt.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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To evaluate the feasibility of echocardiography after transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with coils.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.