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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Time-resolved ICP-MS analysis of mineral element contents and distribution patterns in single cells.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Novel single cell techniques are attracting growing interest for clinical applications, because they can elucidate the cellular diversity and heterogeneity instead of the average masked by bulk measurements. Herein, time-resolved ICP-MS for the determination of essential mineral elements in single cells has been developed and is used to analyze the contents and distribution patterns of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, P and S in two types of cancer cells (HeLa and A549) and one type of normal cells (16HBE). The results show that there are obvious differences in contents and distribution patterns of the elements among the three types of cells. The mass of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, P, and S in individual HeLa cells is significantly higher and span a broader range of values than in the single 16HBE and A549 cells. The contents of Fe, Zn, and Cu follow log-normal distributions, and Mn, P, and S follow Poisson distributions with high ? values in single HeLa cells, indicating a large cell-to-cell variance. Comparatively, the contents of Cu, Zn, P, and S in 16HBE cells show the narrowest distribution range among the three tested cells, demonstrating the homogenous distribution of the elements in the cells. The method of single cell ICP-MS (SC-ICP-MS) provides potential applications for the monitoring of the variation of mineral elements at a single cell level.
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Maternal flu or fever, medications use in the first trimester and the risk for neural tube defects: a hospital-based case-control study in China.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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This study aims to evaluate the effects of maternal flu or fever, and medications (antibiotics and antipyretics) use in the first trimester on neural tube defects (NTDs) risk in offspring.
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Which one is better: A comparison of different models with motor dysfunction after traumatic brain injury in adult rats?
J. Integr. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the model that could produce reproducible and persistent motor weakness and define the accurate tasks and testing parameters for longitudinal assessment of neurological deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We compared the effects of two rat models that suffered different controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, as well as extensive motor cortex resection model, on behavior recovery and brain morphology. Behavioral tests including the skilled reaching task, limb-use asymmetry test and the grasping test were employed to evaluate neurofunctional recovery from pre- to 12 weeks after the injury. The results demonstrated that all the rats in four groups showed spontaneous functional improvement with the past of time after surgery, especially in rats with mild and moderate CCI injury. At the end of the experiment, the animals' performance reached preoperative base lines on reaching task and limb-use asymmetry test in mild and moderate groups, while severe motor weakness could be observed in rats with severe CCI injury, as well as rats with extended motor cortex resection. Overall, the results of this study indicated that both models with severe CCI injury and extended resection of the motor cortex developed reproducible and long-lasting motor weakness, comparable in severity and duration and identified skilled reaching task, as well as limb-use asymmetry test, as sensitive assessments for slight neurological deficits after brain injury. This will help to provide the basis for further research of the processes after the TBI and development of novel therapies.
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The Genome of the Myxosporean Thelohanellus kitauei Shows Adaptations to Nutrient Acquisition within its Fish Host.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Members of Myxozoa, a parasitic metazoan taxon, have considerable detrimental effects on fish hosts and also have been associated with human food-borne illness. Little is known about their biology and metabolism. Analysis of the genome of Thelohanellus kitauei and comparative analysis with genomes of its two free-living cnidarian relatives revealed that T. kitauei has adapted to parasitism, as indicated by the streamlined metabolic repertoire and the tendency towards anabolism rather than catabolism. T. kitauei mainly secretes proteases and protease inhibitors for nutrient digestion (parasite invasion), and depends on endocytosis (mainly low-density lipoprotein receptors-mediated type) and secondary carriers for nutrient absorption. Absence of both classic and complementary anaerobic pathways and gluconeogenesis, the lack of de novo synthesis and reduced activity in hydrolysis of fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides indicated that T. kitauei in this vertebrate host-parasite system has adapted to inhabit a physiological environment extremely rich in both oxygen and nutrients (especially glucose), which is consistent with its preferred parasitic site, i.e., the host gut submucosa. Taking advantage of the genomic and transcriptomic information, twenty-three potential nutrition-related T. kitauei-specific chemotherapeutic targets were identified. This first genome sequence of a myxozoan will facilitate development of potential therapeutics for efficient control of myxozoan parasites and ultimately prevent myxozoan-induced fish-borne illnesses in humans.
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Resorcylic Acid Lactone Biosynthesis Relies on a Stereotolerant Macrocyclizing Thioesterase.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Zearalenone and radicicol are highly related resorcylic acid lactones with the rare property of having opposite stereochemical configurations of the secondary alcohol involved in lactone formation. The ability of the thioesterases from the zearalenone and radicicol biosynthetic pathways to macrocyclize both d and l configured synthetic substrate analogs was biochemically characterized and showed that both enzymes were highly stereotolerant, macrocyclizing both substrates with similar kinetic parameters. This observed stereotolerance is consistent with a proposed evolution of both natural products from a common ancestral resorcylic acid lactone.
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Graphene-CdS quantum dots-polyoxometalate composite films for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting and pollutant degradation.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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rGO-CdS-H2W12 nanocomposite film was successfully fabricated by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The composite film was characterized by techniques such as UV-Vis spectra, XPS, and AFM. The composite film showed high photoelectronic response under the illumination of sunlight. Both current-voltage curves and photocurrent transient measurements demonstrated that the photocurrent response of the rGO-CdS-H2W12 composite film was enhanced five-fold compared with CdS film. This can be attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer between CdS, H2W12 and rGO, which promotes the charge separation efficiency of CdS. The introduction of GO enhanced the charge separation and transportation. More importantly, various pollutants can be treated as electron donors, and can thus be degraded and produce hydrogen at the same time, at a low bias voltage under the irradiation of solar light.
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The effect of layer-by-layer assembly coating on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Nanocoating of a single-cell with biocompatible materials creates a defined microenvironment for cell differentiation and proliferation as well as a model for studies in cell biology. In addition, the acidic enviroment in the tissue of stroke victims necessitates drug release upon pH stimuli. Here we report the encapsulation of single neural stem cells (NSCs) using a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique with polyelectrolytes gelatin and alginate. Analysis of the NSCs showed that the LbL encapsulation would not affect the viability, proliferation and differentiation of the cells. When insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) was loaded on the coating material alginate, its release from alginate into the medium presented in a time-dependent and pH-dependent way. IGF-1 significantly enhanced the proliferation of the encapsulated NSCs, demonstrating a drug-carrier function of the LbL single-cell nanocoating. It provided a potential treatment strategy for nervous system disorders such as stroke.
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Prognostic Significance of the Mucin Component in Stage III Rectal Carcinoma Patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Although mucinous adenocarcinoma has been recognized for a long time, whether it is associated with a poorer prognosis in colorectal cancer patients is still controversial. Many studies put emphasis on mucinous adenocarcinoma containing mucin component ?50%. Only a few studies have analyzed cases with a mucin component <50%.
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[Inhibition of MCF-7/ADR cells by DOX-loaded pluronic-attached PAMAM dendrimer conjugate].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Pluronic modified polyamidoamine (PAMAM) conjugate (PF127-PAMAM) was prepared and the inhibiting effect of MDR against MCF-7/ADR was investigated with doxorubicin (DOX) as model drug. 1H NMR and FTIR spectra showed that the conjugate was synthesized successfully. Element analysis accurately measured that 27.63% amino of per PAMAM was modified by pluronic (PAMAM : PF127, 1 : 35.37 mole ratio). PF127-PAMAM showed an increased size and a reduced zeta potential compared to PAMAM. PF127-PAMAM had lower hemolytic toxicity and cytotoxicity due to the reduced zeta potential and the protection of PF127. Each PF127-PAMAM molecular could load 19.58 DOX molecules, and the complex exhibited sustained and pH-sensitive release behavior. PF127-PAMAM/DOX exhibited weaker cytotoxicity than free DOX in MCF-7 cells; while the complex showed much stronger reverse effect of drug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells, and resistance reversion index (RRI) was as high as 33.15.
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Underwater blast wave pressure sensor based on polymer film fiber Fabry-Perot cavity.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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This paper describes the theoretical and experimental aspects of an optical underwater shock wave sensor based on a polymer film optical fiber Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured by vacuum deposition technology. The transduction mechanism of the sensor involves a normally incident acoustic stress wave that changes the thickness of the polymer film, thereby giving rise to a phase shift. This transient interferometric phase is interrogated by a three-phase-step algorithm. Theoretically, the sensor-acoustic-field interaction principle is analyzed, and the phase modulation sensitivity based on the theory of waves in the layered media is calculated. Experimentally, a static calibration test and a dynamic calibration test are conducted using a piston-type pressure calibration machine and a focusing-type electromagnetic shock wave. Results indicate that the repeatability, hysteresis, nonlinearity, and the overall measurement accuracy of the sensor within the full pressure range of 55 MPa are 1.82%, 0.86%, 1.81%, and 4.49%, respectively. The dynamic response time is less than 0.767 ?s. Finally, three aspects that need further study for practical use are pointed out.
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Development of Land Use Regression Models for Elemental, Organic Carbon, PAH, and Hopanes/Steranes in 10 ESCAPE/TRANSPHORM European Study Areas.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Land use regression (LUR) models have been used to model concentrations of mainly traffic-related air pollutants (nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) mass or absorbance). Few LUR models are published of PM composition, whereas the interest in health effects related to particle composition is increasing. The aim of our study was to evaluate LUR models of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hopanes/steranes, and elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) content of PM2.5. In 10 European study areas, PAH, hopanes/steranes, and EC/OC concentrations were measured at 16-40 sites per study area. LUR models for each study area were developed on the basis of annual average concentrations and predictor variables including traffic, population, industry, natural land obtained from geographic information systems. The highest median model explained variance (R(2)) was found for EC - 84%. The median R(2) was 51% for OC, 67% for benzo[a]pyrene, and 38% for sum of hopanes/steranes, with large variability between study areas. Traffic predictors were included in most models. Population and natural land were included frequently as additional predictors. The moderate to high explained variance of LUR models and the overall moderate correlation with PM2.5 model predictions support the application of especially the OC and PAH models in epidemiological studies.
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Selective in vivo targeting of human liver tumors by optimized AAV3 vectors in a murine xenograft model.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Current challenges for recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-based cancer treatment include the low-efficiency and the lack of specificity in vivo. rAAV serotype 3 (rAAV3) vectors have previously been shown to be ineffective in normal mouse tissues following systemic administration. In the present study, we report that rAAV3 vectors can efficiently target and transduce various human liver cancer cells in vivo. Elimination of specific surface-exposed serine and threonine residues on rAAV3 capsids results in further augmentation in the transduction efficiency of these vectors, without any change in the viral tropism and cellular receptor interactions. In addition, we have identified a potential chemotherapy drug, shikonin, as a multifunctional compound to inhibit liver tumor growth as well as to significantly enhance the efficacy of rAAV vector-based gene therapy in vivo. Furthermore, we also document that suppression of tumorigenesis in a human liver cancer xenograft model can be achieved through systemic administration of the optimized rAAV3 vectors carrying a therapeutic gene, and shikonin at a dose that does not lead to severe liver damage. Our research provides a novel means to achieve not only targeted delivery, but also the potential for gene therapy of human liver cancer.
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Comprehensive peptidomic and glycomic evaluation reveals that sweet whey permeate from colostrum is a source of milk protein-derived peptides and oligosaccharides.
Food Res. Int.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Whey permeate is a co-product obtained when cheese whey is passed through an ultrafiltration membrane to concentrate whey proteins. Whey proteins are retained by the membrane, whereas the low-molecular weight compounds such as lactose, salts, oligosaccharides and peptides pass through the membrane yielding whey permeate. Research shows that bovine milk from healthy cows contains hundreds of naturally occurring peptides - many of which are homologous with known antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides - and nearly 50 oligosaccharide compositions (not including structural isomers). As these endogenous peptides and oligosaccharides have low-molecular weight and whey permeate is currently an under-utilized product stream of the dairy industry, we hypothesized that whey permeate may serve as an inexpensive source of naturally occurring functional peptides and oligosaccharides. Laboratory fractionation of endogenous peptides and oligosaccharides from bovine colostrum sweet whey was expanded to pilot-scale. The membrane fractionation methodology used was similar to the methods commonly used industrially to produce whey protein concentrate and whey permeate. Pilot-scale fractionation was compared to laboratory-scale fractionation with regard to the identified peptides and oligosaccharide compositions. Results were interpreted on the basis of whether industrial whey permeate could eventually serve as a source of functional peptides and oligosaccharides. The majority (96%) of peptide sequences and the majority (96%) of oligosaccharide compositions found in the laboratory-scale process were mirrored in the pilot-scale process. Moreover, the pilot-scale process recovered an additional 33 peptides and 1 oligosaccharide not identified from the laboratory-scale extraction. Both laboratory- and pilot-scale processes yielded peptides deriving primarily from the protein ?-casein. The similarity of the laboratory-and pilot-scale's resulting peptide and oligosaccharide profiles demonstrates that whey permeate can serve as an industrial-scale source of bovine milk peptides and oligosaccharides.
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Coping with esophageal cancer approaches worldwide.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on approaches to the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of esophageal cancer in Europe, South Africa, Kenya, Australia, and China; the molecular classification of esophageal cancers (including cancers at the gastroesophageal junction); the Japanese classification; the scope of the Human Variome Project; and the topographic-anatomic subclassification of adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction.
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Quantitative analysis of gold nanoparticles in single cells by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Single cell analysis has become an important field of research in recent years reflecting the heterogeneity of cellular responses in biological systems. Here, we demonstrate a new method, based on laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), which can quantify in situ gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in single cells. Dried residues of picoliter droplets ejected by a commercial inkjet printer were used to simulate matrix-matched calibration standards. The gold mass in single cells exposed to 100 nM NIST Au NPs (Reference material 8012, 30 nm) for 4 h showed a log-normal distribution, ranging from 1.7 to 72 fg Au per cell, which approximately corresponds to 9 to 370 Au NPs per cell. The average result from 70 single cells (15 ± 13 fg Au per cell) was in good agreement with the result from an aqua regia digest solution of 1.2 × 10(6) cells (18 ± 1 fg Au per cell). The limit of quantification was 1.7 fg Au. This paper demonstrates the great potential of LA-ICPMS for single cell analysis and the beneficial study of biological responses to metal drugs or NPs at the single cell level.
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Facilitating Image Search With a Scalable and Compact Semantic Mapping.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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This paper introduces a novel approach to facilitating image search based on a compact semantic embedding. A novel method is developed to explicitly map concepts and image contents into a unified latent semantic space for the representation of semantic concept prototypes. Then, a linear embedding matrix is learned that maps images into the semantic space, such that each image is closer to its relevant concept prototype than other prototypes. In our approach, the semantic concepts equated with query keywords and the images mapped into the vicinity of the prototype are retrieved by our scheme. In addition, a computationally efficient method is introduced to incorporate new semantic concept prototypes into the semantic space by updating the embedding matrix. This novelty improves the scalability of the method and allows it to be applied to dynamic image repositories. Therefore, the proposed approach not only narrows semantic gap but also supports an efficient image search process. We have carried out extensive experiments on various cross-modality image search tasks over three widely-used benchmark image datasets. Results demonstrate the superior effectiveness, efficiency, and scalability of our proposed approach.
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Effects of cobalt addition on the catalytic activity of the Ni-YSZ anode functional layer and the electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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The effects of cobalt (Co) addition in the Ni-YSZ anode functional layer (AFL) on the structure and electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed that the active metallic phase is a Ni(1-x)Co(x) alloy under the operation conditions of the SOFC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicate that the grain size of Ni(1-x)Co(x) increases with increasing Co content. Thermogravimetric analyses on the reduction of the Ni(1-x)Co(x)O-YSZ powders show that there are two processes: the chemical-reaction-controlled process and the diffusion-controlled process. It is found that the reduction peak corresponding to the chemical-reaction-controlled process in the DTG curves moves toward lower temperatures with increasing Co content, suggesting that the catalytic activity of Ni(1-x)Co(x) is enhanced by the doping of Co. It is observed that the SOFC shows the best performance at x = 0.03, and the corresponding maximum power densities are 445, 651, and 815 mW cm(-2) at 700, 750, and 800 °C, respectively. The dependence of the SOFC performance on the Co content can be attributed to the competing results between the decreased three-phase-boundary length in the AFL and the enhanced catalytic activity of the Ni(1-x)Co(x) phase with increasing Co content.
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Hierarchical li1.2 ni0.2 mn0.6 o2 nanoplates with exposed {010} planes as high-performance cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Hierarchical Li1.2 Ni0.2 Mn0.6 O2 nanoplates with exposed {010} planes are designed and synthesized. In combination with the advantages from the hierarchical archi-tecture and the exposed electrochemically active {010} planes of layered materials, this material satisfies both efficient ion and electron transport and thus shows superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability.
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Multimodality treatment for cardiac angiosarcoma.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare and highly malignant condition. Besides performing complete surgical excision, it remains controversial as to whether survival can be improved with additional treatment. We herein describe a 30-year-old man with a right atrial angiosarcoma. He underwent two operations for the resection of the primary lesion, and the patient's metastatic lesions involved an intestinal segment. With chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy, he survived for 33 months. The literature describing adjuvant therapy for cardiac angiosarcoma, which is mostly case reports, is also reviewed. In conclusion, the limited evidence suggests that multimodality treatment for cardiac angiosarcoma is a beacon of hope to improve the survival of such patients.
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[Short-term curative effect of ribavirin combination therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a vs.interferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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To perform a retrospective cohort study in order to determine the differences in short-term curative effect of ribavirin in combination with interferon alfa (IFNa)-2a vs.pegylated (Peg)-IFNa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
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[A meta-analysis on the outcomes and potential benefits of hybrid robotic technique in rectal cancer surgery].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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To assess the efficacy and potential benefits of hybrid robotic technique in rectal cancer surgery.
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FEM-PrEP: adherence patterns and factors associated with adherence to a daily oral study product for pre-exposure prophylaxis.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Several clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), with or without emtricitabine (FTC), as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for reducing the risk of HIV acquisition. Adherence to the study product was insufficient to demonstrate the effectiveness of FTC/TDF in 2 PrEP clinical trials conducted among women (FEM-PrEP and the Vaginal and Oral Interventions to Control the Epidemic study), but further analyses of adherence in these studies may inform PrEP demonstration projects and future HIV prevention clinical trials.
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Quantitative profiling of polar metabolites in herbal medicine injections for multivariate statistical evaluation based on independence principal component analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Botanical primary metabolites extensively exist in herbal medicine injections (HMIs), but often were ignored to control. With the limitation of bias towards hydrophilic substances, the primary metabolites with strong polarity, such as saccharides, amino acids and organic acids, are usually difficult to detect by the routinely applied reversed-phase chromatographic fingerprint technology. In this study, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) profiling method was developed for efficient identification and quantification of small polar molecules, mostly primary metabolites in HMIs. A commonly used medicine, Danhong injection (DHI), was employed as a model. With the developed method, 23 primary metabolites together with 7 polyphenolic acids were simultaneously identified, of which 13 metabolites with fully separated proton signals were quantified and employed for further multivariate quality control assay. The quantitative 1H NMR method was validated with good linearity, precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy. Based on independence principal component analysis (IPCA), the contents of 13 metabolites were characterized and dimensionally reduced into the first two independence principal components (IPCs). IPC1 and IPC2 were then used to calculate the upper control limits (with 99% confidence ellipsoids) of ?2 and Hotelling T2 control charts. Through the constructed upper control limits, the proposed method was successfully applied to 36 batches of DHI to examine the out-of control sample with the perturbed levels of succinate, malonate, glucose, fructose, salvianic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde. The integrated strategy has provided a reliable approach to identify and quantify multiple polar metabolites of DHI in one fingerprinting spectrum, and it has also assisted in the establishment of IPCA models for the multivariate statistical evaluation of HMIs.
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Usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of neurolymphomatosis.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is an uncommon complication of lymphoma and leukemia. Few data have been reported regarding the utilization of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) in this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the role of F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of NL.
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Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Analysis of Adult Patients Who Underwent Transplantation at King's College Hospital.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a recognized complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); it is often refractory to treatment and carries a high mortality. To improve understanding of the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcome of post-transplantation AIHA, we analyzed 533 patients who received allogeneic HSCT, and we identified 19 cases of AIHA after HSCT (overall incidence, 3.6%). The median time to onset, from HSCT to AIHA, was 202 days. AIHA was associated with HSCT from unrelated donors (hazard ratio [HR], 5.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 22.9; P = .026). In the majority (14 of 19; 74%) of AIHA patients, multiple agents for treatment were required, with only 9 of 19 (47%) patients achieving complete resolution of AIHA. Patients with post-transplantation AIHA had a higher overall mortality (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.33 to 4.63; P = .004), with 36% (4 of 11 cases) of deaths attributable to AIHA.
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Liraglutide Exerts Antidiabetic Effect via PTP1B and PI3K/Akt2 Signaling Pathway in Skeletal Muscle of KKAy Mice.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Background. Liraglutide (a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog) was used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) which could produce glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Aim. The aim was to investigate whether liraglutide could improve myofibril and mitochondria injury in skeletal muscle and the mechanisms in diabetic KKAy mice. Method. We divided the male KKAy mice into 2 groups: liraglutide group (250??g/kg/day liraglutide subcutaneous injection) and model group; meanwhile, the male C57BL/6J mice were considered as the control. After 6 weeks, the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle was observed by electron microscope. The gene expressions of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were determined by real-time PCR. The protein levels of the above molecules and phospho-Akt2 (p-Akt2) were measured by Western blot. Results. Liraglutide significantly ameliorated the injury of mitochondria by increasing the number (+441%) and the area (+113%) of mitochondria and mitochondrial area/100?µm(2) (+396%) in skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot showed that liraglutide downregulated PTP1B while it upregulated PI3K and GLUT4 (P < 0.01). The protein level of p-Akt2/Akt2 was also increased (P < 0.01). Conclusion. These results revealed that liraglutide could improve myofibril and mitochondria injury in skeletal muscle against T2DM via PTP1B and PI3K/Akt2 signaling pathway.
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Effect of extended ?-conjugation structure of donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers on the photoelectronic properties.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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New donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers based on alkylthienylbenzodithiophene (BDTT) and alkoxynaphthodithiophene (NDT) have been synthesized and compared with their benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT)-based analogues to investigate the effect of the extended ? conjugation of the polymer main chain on the physicochemical properties of the polymers. A systematic investigation into the optical properties, energy levels, field-effect transistor characteristics, and photovoltaic characteristics of these polymers was conducted. Both polymers demonstrated enhanced photovoltaic performance and increased hole mobility compared with the BDT-based analogue. However, the BDTT-based polymer (with ?-conjugation extension perpendicular to main chain) gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 5.07% for the single-junction polymer solar cell, whereas the NDT-based polymer (with ?-conjugation extension along the main chain) achieved the highest hole mobility of approximately 0.1?cm(2) V(-1) ?s(-1) based on the field-effect transistor; this indicated that extending the ? conjugation in different orientations would have a significant influence on the properties of the resulting polymers.
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Accuracy of Self-Report and Pill-Count Measures of Adherence in the FEM-PrEP Clinical Trial: Implications for Future HIV-Prevention Trials.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) has been evaluated as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We describe the accuracy of self-reported adherence to FTC/TDF and pill counts when compared to drug concentrations in the FEM-PrEP trial. Using drug concentrations of plasma tenofovir (TFV) and intracellular tenofovir diphosphate (TFVdp) among a random sub-sample of 150 participants assigned to FTC/TDF, we estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of four adherence measures. We also assessed factors associated with misreporting of adherence using multiple drug-concentration thresholds and explored pill use and misreporting using semi-structured interviews (SSIs). Reporting use of ?1 pill in the previous 7 days had the highest PPV, while pill-count data consistent with missing ?1 day had the lowest PPV. However, all four measures demonstrated poor PPV. Reported use of oral contraceptives (OR 2.26; p = 0.014) and weeks of time in the study (OR 1.02; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with misreporting adherence. Although most SSI participants said they did not misreport adherence, participant-dependent adherence measures were clearly unreliable in the FEM-PrEP trial. Pharmacokinetic monitoring remains the measure of choice until more reliable participant-dependent measures are developed.
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Pharmacological activation of AMPK ameliorates perivascular adipose/endothelial dysfunction in a manner interdependent on AMPK and SIRT1.
Pharmacol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Adipose and endothelial dysfunction is tightly associated with cardiovascular diseases in obesity and insulin resistance. Because perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds vessels directly and influences vessel functions through paracrine effect, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) show similarities in modulation of metabolic pathway, we hypothesized that activation of AMPK and SIRT1 in PVAT might regulate the endothelial function in pathological settings. Thus, in this study, we focused on the regulation of AMPK and SIRT1 activities implicated in adipocytokine expression and endothelial homeostasis under inflammatory conditions by using salicylate, metformin, AICA riboside (AICAR) and resveratrol as AMPK activating agents. We prepared conditioned medium (CM) by stimulating PVAT with palmitic acid (PA) and observed the effects of AMPK activating agents on adipocytokine expression and vessel vasodilation in rats. Moreover, we explored the effects of resveratrol and metformin in fructose-fed rats. We observed that PA stimulation induced inflammation and dysregulation of adipocytokine expression accompanied with reduced AMPK activity and SIRT1 abundance in PVAT. AMPK activating agents inhibited NF-?B p65 phosphorylation and suppressed gene expression of pro-inflammatory adipocytokines, and upregulated adiponectin and PPAR? expression in PVAT in an AMPK/SIRT1-interdependent manner. Meanwhile, CM stimulation impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to acetylcholine (ACh). Pretreatment of CM with AMPK-activating agents enhanced eNOS phosphorylation in the aorta and restored the loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas this action was abolished by co-treatment with AMPK inhibitor compound C or SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Long-term fructose-feeding in rats induced dysregulation of adipocytokine expression in PVAT and the loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas these alterations were reversed by oral administration of resveratrol and metformin. Altogether, pharmacological activation of AMPK beneficially regulated adipocytokine expression in PVAT and thus ameliorated endothelial dysfunction against inflammatory insult in an AMPK/SIRT1-interdependent manner.
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[Protective effect of alkaloids from Piper longum in rat dopaminergic neuron injury of 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To discuss the protective effect of alkaloids from Piper longum (PLA) in rat dopaminergic neuron injury of 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease and its possible mechanism.
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[Dynamic changes of polysaccharides content in Salvia miltiorrhiza root from different provenances].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To detect the content of polysaccharides in the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza collected from different provenances, and to discover the dynamic change rules of polysaccharides at various growing stages.
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Effect of truncated neurokinin-1 receptor expression changes on the interaction between human breast cancer and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
Genes Cells
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Previous studies in breast cancer cell lines showed that truncated neurokinin receptor-1 (NK1R-Tr) was able to promote malignant transformation of breast cells, and NK1R-Tr may contribute to tumor progression and promote distant metastasis in human breast cancer. A co-culture model of breast cancer and bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem (HMSC-bm) cells showed that HMSC-bm inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells and entered the bone marrow at early stages. Down-regulation of NK1R-Tr may be a key factor in maintaining the quiescent phenotype of breast cancer cells among bone marrow stroma. Stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1? expression was negatively correlated with NK1R-Tr expression in breast cancer cells. Secretion of SDF-1? by HMSC-bm may maintain the quiescent phenotype of breast cancer cells among bone marrow stroma by down-regulating NK1R-Tr expression. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 expression was positively associated with NK1R-Tr expression in breast cancer cells. In a co-culture system, MDA-MB-231-TGF-?1I (TGF-? genes were suppressed using specific shRNA) cells were able to attach to HMSC-bm quickly, indicating that TGF-?1 was also a key factor for maintaining the quiescent phenotype of breast cancer cells in bone marrow stroma. However, the detailed mechanism still remained unclear and could involve other molecules, in addition to NK1R-Tr.
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Learning to Rank Using User Clicks and Visual Features for Image Retrieval.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The inconsistency between textual features and visual contents can cause poor image search results. To solve this problem, click features, which are more reliable than textual information in justifying the relevance between a query and clicked images, are adopted in image ranking model. However, the existing ranking model cannot integrate visual features, which are efficient in refining the click-based search results. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking model based on the learning to rank framework. Visual features and click features are simultaneously utilized to obtain the ranking model. Specifically, the proposed approach is based on large margin structured output learning and the visual consistency is integrated with the click features through a hypergraph regularizer term. In accordance with the fast alternating linearization method, we design a novel algorithm to optimize the objective function. This algorithm alternately minimizes two different approximations of the original objective function by keeping one function unchanged and linearizing the other. We conduct experiments on a large-scale dataset collected from the Microsoft Bing image search engine, and the results demonstrate that the proposed learning to rank models based on visual features and user clicks outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms.
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Numerical analysis of the sub-wavelength fabrication of MTMO grayscale photomasks by direct laser writing.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Metal-transparent-metallic-oxide (MTMO) grayscale photomasks fabricated by direct laser writing have been proposed in recent years. The fabrication mechanism is attributed to light-induced melt-oxidization. The temporal-spatial distribution of temperature fields of indium film-glass samples under a laser pulse have been calculated by the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The laser action area of the indium film is studied based on the oxidation theories and the absorbed laser power density distribution in molten indium films. The calculated average sub-wavelength fabrication diameter of 302 nm is consistent with the experimental fabrication size under a laser power of 6.0 - 8.0 mW.
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New wavelength-fitting algorithm of CCD in the circumstance of grating rotation.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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In order to solve the problem that CCDs cannot measure the full spectral range in a single measurement, we propose a new wavelength-fitting algorithm that combines the polynomial algorithm applied to the fixed grating with grating equation without CCD or spectrum assembling. Both the grating rotating angle and pixel coordinate of the CCD are written in our wavelength-fitting function. With the calibration of the 576.96 and 579.07 nm mercury spectral line, we can determine that wavelength error of 576.96 nm is between 0.002 and 0.1 nm and wavelength error of 579.07 nm is between 0.006 and 0.06 nm. The calculation results show that the new algorithm can gain more precise wavelength accuracy without a complex assembling operation.
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Effects of SSd combined with radiation on inhibiting SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell growth.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Saikosaponin-d (SSd) combined with radiotherapy on SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell lines and its mechanism.
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Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies.
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miR149 rs71428439 polymorphism and risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: a case-control study.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is the most common subtype of renal cell cancer and accounts for 70 % of renal cell cancer. CCRCC remains an enigmatic tumor type, as the molecular genetic mechanisms are still unclear. MicroRNA (miR) 149 functions as a tumor suppressor and plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of renal cells. In this study, we enrolled 1,000 CCRCC patients and 1,000 cancer-free controls to evaluate the association of miR149 rs71428439 with the risk of CCRCC by a case-control study to determine the effects on CCRCC risk. miR149 rs71428439 was significantly associated with increased CCRCC risk (odds ratio (OR) for trend?=?1.53, P for trend?=?4.04?×?10(-11)), with ORs (95 % confidence intervals (CIs)) of 1.42 (1.17-1.72) associated with AG genotype and 2.27 (1.76-2.94) associated with GG genotype, compared with subjects with AA genotype. The expression levels of miR149 in cancer tissues were significantly lower than those in adjacent normal tissues (P?=?0.005), and per G allele has significantly lower miR149 levels in both tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Our data suggest that the GG genotypes of miR149 rs71428439 predispose their carriers to CCRCC, and miR149 rs71428439 may be a new biomarker for predicting the risk of CCRCC.
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Effects of gastrokine?2 expression on gastric cancer cell apoptosis by activation of extrinsic apoptotic pathways.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Gastrokine?2 is a putative gastric cancer?specific tumor suppressor gene, the loss of which is known to be involved in the development and progression of gastric cancer, and restoration of gastrokine?2 expression inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism of these effects requires elucidation. In the present study, expression patterns of gastrokine?2 protein were examined in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Expression of gastrokine?2 was restored in gastric cancer cells in order to assess its effect on cell viability, apoptosis and gene expression. A total of 76 gastric cancer tissues with corresponding normal mucosae samples, and two gastric cancer cell lines (SGC?7901 and AGS) were subjected to western blot analysis of gastrokine?2 expression. SGC?7901 cells were transiently transfected with gastrokine?2 cDNA and then treated with anti?CD95 and/or anti?Fas antibodies prior to analysis of cell viability, apoptosis and gene expression levels. Expression of gastrokine?2 protein was reduced or absent in gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines. Following restoration of gastrokine?2 expression, the protein expression level of Fas was significantly increased, but no marked change was observed in the levels of bcl?2 and Bax proteins. Expression of gastrokine?2 protein reduced gastric cancer cell viability and induced apoptosis. Activity of caspase?3 and caspase?8 was increased, but caspase?9 activity remained unchanged in the SGC?7901 cells. Reduction or knockout of gastrokine?2 protein expression may contribute to gastric cancer development or progression, as the current study demonstrated that restoration of gastrokine?2 expression induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through the extrinsic apoptosis pathway.
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Chronic alcohol ingestion modulates hepatic macrophage populations and functions in mice.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Hepatic Macs, consisting of resident KCs and infiltrating monocytes/IMs, are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Previous work has focused on KCs or studied hepatic Macs as one cell population. The aim of the current study is to distinguish IMs from KCs and to compare their phenotypes and functions. We show here that a 4-week ethanol feeding of C57BL/6J mice causes recruitment of IMs into the liver. KCs and IMs can be distinguished based on their differential expression of F4/80 and CD11b. IMs can be divided further into two subsets based on their differential expression of Ly6C. KCs and two subsets of IMs were separately purified by FACS. The phagocytosis abilities and the expression profiles of genes related to various functions were compared among different populations of hepatic Macs. Ly6C(low) IMs exhibit an anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective phenotype; in contrast, Ly6C(hi) IMs exhibit a proinflammatory, tissue-damaging phenotype. The ratio of Ly6C(hi)/Ly6C(low) increases when mice chronically fed ethanol were binged, which significantly enhanced liver injury. Moreover, upon phagocytosis of apoptotic hepatocytes, Ly6C(hi) IMs switch to Ly6C(low) IMs. Taken together, chronic ethanol feeding induces the recruitment of two subsets of hepatic IMs, which play different or even opposite roles in regulating liver inflammation and repair. These findings may not only increase our understanding of the complex functions of Macs in the pathogenesis of ALD but also help us to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease.
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Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in soils in Northwestern China using a new semi-nested PCR assay.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Background Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic pathogen that can infect a range of animals and humans. Ingestion of T. gondii oocysts in soil is a significant transmission route for humans and animals acquiring toxoplasmosis. In the present study, we developed a new semi-nested PCR method to determine T. gondii oocysts distribution in soils in northwestern China.ResultsThe one tube semi-nested PCR assay was developed to detect the oocysts of T. gondii in soil, targeting the repetitive 529 bp fragment of T. gondii genomic DNA. Then a total of 268 soil samples, including 148 samples from Gansu Province and 120 samples from Qinghai Province, northwestern China, were examined by the semi-nested PCR method. One third of the positive samples were sequenced. The sensitivity of the semi-nested PCR assay was 102¿ T. gondii oocysts in 5 g soil sample. Investigation of soil samples from northwestern China showed that 34 out of 268 soil samples (12.69%) were T. gondii positive. Sequences of the partial 529 bp fragments varied from 0¿1.2% among the sequenced samples. The prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in soil from cities (24/163) was slightly higher than that in soils from pasturing areas (10/105) (P¿=¿0.21). Among the different regions in cities, the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in soils from parks was 14.15%, whereas that in soils from schools was 19.05%.ConclusionsThe present study firstly reported the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in soils in northwest China using a novel semi-nested PCR assay, which provided baseline data for the effective prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this region.
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[Caries prevention effect of resin based sealants and glass ionomor sealants].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To evaluate the effectiveness of resin-based sealants and glass ionomer sealants on caries prevention in the first permanent molars.
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CVD synthesis of large-area, highly crystalline MoSe2 atomic layers on diverse substrates and application to photodetectors.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Synthesis of large-area, atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) on diverse substrates is of central importance for the large-scale fabrication of flexible devices and heterojunction-based devices. In this work, we successfully synthesized a large area of highly-crystalline MoSe2 atomic layers on SiO2/Si, mica and Si substrates using a simple chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method at atmospheric pressure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the as-grown ultrathin MoSe2 layers change from a single layer to a few layers. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy demonstrates that while the multi-layer MoSe2 shows weak emission peaks, the monolayer has a much stronger emission peak at ? 1.56 eV, indicating the transition from an indirect to a direct bandgap. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the single-crystallinity of MoSe2 layers with a hexagonal structure. In addition, the photoresponse performance of photodetectors based on MoSe2 monolayer was studied for the first time. The devices exhibit a rapid response of ? 60 ms and a good photoresponsivity of ? 13 mA/W (using a 532 nm laser at an intensity of 1 mW mm(-2) and a bias of 10 V), suggesting that MoSe2 monolayer is a promising material for photodetection applications.
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Treatment protocols for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas combined with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: A case report of atypical McCune-Albright syndrome.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare, post-zygotic (non-germline) disorder, characterized by hypersecretory endocrinopathies, fibrous dysplasia of the bone and café-au-lait macules. The most common endocrine dysfunction is gonadal hyperfunction; thus, hypersecretion of growth hormones (GHs) as a manifestation of endocrine hyperfunction in MAS is rarely reported. MAS affects both genders, although the majority of cases have been reported in young females. Atypical presentations of MAS, with only one or two of the classic symptoms, have been previously described, but remain particularly challenging due to the lack of a diagnostic phenotype. In patients with atypical MAS, analysis of mutations in the gene of the ?-subunit of the stimulatory G-protein is limited; thus, diagnosis is based on clinical judgment. In the present study, a male with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and GH-secreting pituitary adenomas, diagnosed with atypical MAS, was reported. The pituitary adenoma was effectively treated with radiotherapy and the patient underwent surgery for the polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, with marked improvements observed in appearance.
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Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles electrostatically coupled with photosensitizers for near-infrared-triggered photodynamic therapy.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have recently shown great promise in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Herein, we report a facile strategy to fabricate an efficient NIR-triggered PDT system based on LiYF4:Yb/Er UCNPs coupled with a photosensitizer of a ?-carboxyphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-COOH) molecule via direct electrostatic interaction. Due to the close proximity between UCNPs and ZnPc-COOH, we achieved a high energy transfer efficiency of 96.3% from UCNPs to ZnPc-COOH, which facilitates a large production of cytotoxic singlet oxygen and thus an enhanced PDT efficacy. Furthermore, we demonstrate the high efficacy of such a NIR-triggered PDT agent for the inhibition of tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, thereby revealing the great potential of the UCNP-based PDT systems as noninvasive NIR-triggered PDT agents for deep cancer therapy.
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A deafness-associated tRNAHis mutation alters the mitochondrial function, ROS production and membrane potential.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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In this report, we investigated the molecular genetic mechanism underlying the deafness-associated mitochondrial tRNAHis 12201T>C mutation. The destabilization of a highly conserved base-pairing (5A-68U) by the m.12201T>C mutation alters structure and function of tRNAHis. Using cybrids constructed by transferring mitochondria from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from a Chinese family into mtDNA-less (?o) cells, we showed ?70% decrease in the steady-state level of tRNAHis in mutant cybrids, compared with control cybrids. The mutation changed the conformation of tRNAHis, as suggested by slower electrophoretic mobility of mutated tRNA with respect to the wild-type molecule. However, ?60% increase in aminoacylated level of tRNAHis was observed in mutant cells. The failure in tRNAHis metabolism was responsible for the variable reductions in seven mtDNA-encoded polypeptides in mutant cells, ranging from 37 to 81%, with the average of ?46% reduction, as compared with those of control cells. The impaired mitochondrial translation caused defects in respiratory capacity in mutant cells. Furthermore, marked decreases in the levels of mitochondrial ATP and membrane potential were observed in mutant cells. These mitochondrial dysfunctions caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in the mutant cells. The data provide the evidence for a mitochondrial tRNAHis mutation leading to deafness.
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Rapeseed oil and ginseng saponins work synergistically to enhance Th1 and Th2 immune responses induced by the foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Previous investigations demonstrated that saponins isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (i.e., ginseng root saponin [GS-R]) had adjuvant activity. In the present study, the combined effects of rapeseed oil (RO) and GS-R on the immune responses elicited by foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine were investigated by measuring FMD virus (FMDV)-specific antibody levels, cytokine levels, lymphocyte proliferation, and long-lived IgG-secreting plasma cells from bone marrow in a mouse model. The results indicated that RO in combination with GS-R significantly enhanced serum IgG and isotype concentrations, gamma interferon (IFN-?) and interleukin 5 (IL-5) levels, splenocyte proliferative responses to stimulations with concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and FMDV antigen, and the numbers of IgG-secreting plasma cells in the bone marrow, suggesting that RO/GS-R enhanced both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. In addition, no significant difference was found between RO/GS-R and the commercial adjuvant oil ISA 206 in the promotion of FMD vaccine-induced immune responses. Considering the vegetable origin of RO and GS-R and the potent adjuvant activity, RO/GS-R should be studied further for the development of veterinary vaccines, especially for use in food animals in order to promote food safety.
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Long-term changes in the masseter muscle following reduction gonioplasty.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Many plastic surgeons use mandibular osteotomy (reduction gonioplasty) without masseter resection to correct a square face. However, there is not enough long-term observation of the masseter after reduction gonioplasty, although some researches have already confirmed that the volume of masseter muscle does decrease shortly after reduction gonioplasty.
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Survival analysis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgical resection following 4 lung cancer resection guidelines.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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To compare survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent surgical resection and lymph node sampling based on guidelines proposed by the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), the OSI Pharmaceutical RADIANT trial, and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC).
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FamLBL: detecting rare haplotype disease association based on common SNPs using case-parent triads.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) amassed in genome-wide association studies to investigate rare haplotype effects on complex diseases. Evidence has suggested that rare haplotypes may tag rare causal single-nucleotide variants, making SNP-based rare haplotype analysis not only cost effective, but also more valuable for detecting causal variants. Although a number of methods for detecting rare haplotype association have been proposed in recent years, they are population based and thus susceptible to population stratification.
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Association of the three common SNPs of cyclooxygenase-2 gene (rs20417, rs689466, and rs5275) with the susceptibility of breast cancer: an updated meta-analysis involving 34,590 subjects.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) genes (e.g., -765 G>C (rs20417), -1195G>A (rs689466), and 8473 C>T (rs5275)). The association of these SNPs with the risk of different cancer types is still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the correlation between these SNPs and breast cancer risk in different ethnic groups. We have searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Embase for relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the associations. A total of 13 studies (15,330 cases and 19,260 controls) were eligible for meta-analysis. This meta-analysis showed that COX-2 rs20417 polymorphism was correlated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Caucasians, while rs689466 was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in Caucasians. The rs5275 polymorphism had no association with breast cancer risk.
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Postzygotic single-nucleotide mosaicisms in whole-genome sequences of clinically unremarkable individuals.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Postzygotic single-nucleotide mutations (pSNMs) have been studied in cancer and a few other overgrowth human disorders at whole-genome scale and found to play critical roles. However, in clinically unremarkable individuals, pSNMs have never been identified at whole-genome scale largely due to technical difficulties and lack of matched control tissue samples, and thus the genome-wide characteristics of pSNMs remain unknown. We developed a new Bayesian-based mosaic genotyper and a series of effective error filters, using which we were able to identify 17 SNM sites from ?80× whole-genome sequencing of peripheral blood DNAs from three clinically unremarkable adults. The pSNMs were thoroughly validated using pyrosequencing, Sanger sequencing of individual cloned fragments, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. The mutant allele fraction ranged from 5%-31%. We found that C?T and C?A were the predominant types of postzygotic mutations, similar to the somatic mutation profile in tumor tissues. Simulation data showed that the overall mutation rate was an order of magnitude lower than that in cancer. We detected varied allele fractions of the pSNMs among multiple samples obtained from the same individuals, including blood, saliva, hair follicle, buccal mucosa, urine, and semen samples, indicating that pSNMs could affect multiple sources of somatic cells as well as germ cells. Two of the adults have children who were diagnosed with Dravet syndrome. We identified two non-synonymous pSNMs in SCN1A, a causal gene for Dravet syndrome, from these two unrelated adults and found that the mutant alleles were transmitted to their children, highlighting the clinical importance of detecting pSNMs in genetic counseling.
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HLA Disparity is not crucial for the survival rate and severity of chronic health conditions in adult recipients following family donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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The shortage of HLA-identical siblings or unrelated donors has restricted the application of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Few studies have systematically assessed survival and chronic health conditions (CHCs) in the same cohort of patients after HLA-mismatched/haploidentical (mismatched) family donor transplantation. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the survival of 127 adult patients receiving either HLA-matched (71 cases) or HLA-mismatched (56 cases) family donor transplantation. Of 127 patients, 81 patients survived at least 2 years after HSCT and were still alive until the present investigation. We evaluated the CHCs in 76 survivors (41 matched and 35 mismatched). CHC-related information was scored according to the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor Study questionnaire. There was no significant difference in overall survival or disease-free survival between HLA-matched and -mismatched transplant recipients. The CHCs were less severe in HLA-mismatched recipients than in matched cohorts. Multivariate analysis identified that age over 40 years at transplantation and presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease were independent risk factors for CHCs, while anti-thymocyte globulin-containing conditioning regimens might be protective. However, HLA disparity was not crucial for either the survival rate or CHCs. In conclusion, HLA-mismatched family donor transplantation can achieve comparable therapeutic effects to HLA-identical sibling transplantation.
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Picomolar detection of mercury (II) using a three-dimensional porous graphene/polypyrrole composite electrode.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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A polypyrrole (PPy)-functionalized three-dimensional (3D) porous electrode of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) has been prepared by electrochemical deposition. This PPy-modified 3D-ErGO electrode was used for the electrochemical detection of Hg(2+) ions, and it exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity. Furthermore, the limit of detection (LOD) was measured to be as low as 0.03 nM (30 ppt), and this value is much lower than the guideline value of 2 ppb for drinking water given by the World Health Organization.
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Protein design with a comprehensive statistical energy function and boosted by experimental selection for foldability.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The de novo design of amino acid sequences to fold into desired structures is a way to reach a more thorough understanding of how amino acid sequences encode protein structures and to supply methods for protein engineering. Notwithstanding significant breakthroughs, there are noteworthy limitations in current computational protein design. To overcome them needs computational models to complement current ones and experimental tools to provide extensive feedbacks to theory. Here we develop a comprehensive statistical energy function for protein design with a new general strategy and verify that it can complement and rival current well-established models. We establish that an experimental approach can be used to efficiently assess or improve the foldability of designed proteins. We report four de novo proteins for different targets, all experimentally verified to be well-folded, solved solution structures for two being in excellent agreement with respective design targets.
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Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression.
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Molecular cloning and expression of a novel MYB transcription factor gene in rubber tree.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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MYB family proteins regulate a variety of cellular processes in plants. Tapping panel dryness (TPD) in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) affects latex biosynthesis and causes serious losses to rubber producers. In this study, a novel SANT/MYB transcription factor gene down-regulated in TPD rubber tree, named as HbSM1, was isolated from rubber tree. The complete HbSM1 open reading frame (ORF) was 948 bp in length. The deduced HbSM1 protein is 315 amino acids. HbSM1 belonged to 1RMYB subfamily with a single SANT domain. Sequence alignment revealed that HbSM1 had high homology with MYB members from Ricinus communis and Manihot esculenta, with 72 and 78 % identity, respectively. Moreover, HbSM1 shared 56 % identity with Glycine max GmMYB176. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbSM1, GmMYB176, rice OsMYBS2, and OsMYBS3 fell into the same cluster with 93 % bootstrap support value. Comparing expression among different tissues demonstrated that HbSM1 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, but it appeared to be preferentially expressed in leaf and latex. Furthermore, HbSM1 transcripts were significantly induced by various phytohormones (including gibberellic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid) and wounding treatments. These results suggested that HbSM1 might play multiple roles in plant development via different phytohormones signaling pathways.
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The association of LUR modeled PM2.5 elemental composition with personal exposure.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Land use regression (LUR) models predict spatial variation of ambient concentrations, but little is known about the validity in predicting personal exposures. In this study, the association of LUR modeled concentrations of PM2.5 components with measured personal concentrations was determined. The elements of interest were copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn).
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Associations between particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Evidence for a role of long-term particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infections is growing. However, which components of particulate matter may be causative remains largely unknown. We assessed associations between eight particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohort studies (N total=15,980): BAMSE (Sweden), GASPII (Italy), GINIplus and LISAplus (Germany), INMA (Spain), MAAS (United Kingdom) and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Annual average exposure to copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc, each respectively derived from particles with aerodynamic diameters ? 10 ?m (PM10) and 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), were estimated using standardized land use regression models and assigned to birth addresses. Cohort-specific associations between these exposures and parental reports of physician-diagnosed pneumonia between birth and two years were assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for host and environmental covariates and total PM10 or PM2.5 mass. Combined estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. There was substantial within and between-cohort variability in element concentrations. In the adjusted meta-analysis, pneumonia was weakly associated with zinc derived from PM10 (OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.18) per 20 ng/m(3) increase). No other associations with the other elements were consistently observed. The independent effect of particulate matter mass remained after adjustment for element concentrations. In conclusion, associations between particulate matter mass exposure and pneumonia were not explained by the elements we investigated. Zinc from PM10 was the only element which appeared independently associated with a higher risk of early-life pneumonia. As zinc is primarily attributable to non-tailpipe traffic emissions, these results may suggest a potential adverse effect of non-tailpipe emissions on health.
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Solanine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Steroid alkaloids have been suggested as potential anticancer compounds. However, the underlying mechanisms of how steroid alkaloids inhibit the tumor growth are largely unknown. Here, we reported that solanine, a substance of steroid alkaloids, has a positive effect on the inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In pancreatic cancer cells and nu/nu nude mice model, we found that solanine inhibited cancer cells growth through caspase-3 dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. Mechanically, solanine promotes the opening of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP) by downregulating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio; thereafter, Cytochrome c and Smac are released from mitochondria into cytosol to process the caspase-3 zymogen into an activated form. Moreover, we found that the expression of tumor metastasis related proteins, MMP-2 and MMP-9, was also decreased in the cells treated with solanine. Therefore, our results suggested that solanine was an effective compound for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
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The genetic and biochemical basis of FANCD2 monoubiquitination.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinkers. The molecular defect in FA is an impaired DNA repair pathway. The critical event in activating this pathway is monoubiquitination of FANCD2. In vivo, a multisubunit FA core complex catalyzes this step, but its mechanism is unclear. Here, we report purification of a native avian FA core complex and biochemical reconstitution of FANCD2 monoubiquitination. This demonstrates that the catalytic FANCL E3 ligase subunit must be embedded within the complex for maximal activity and site specificity. We genetically and biochemically define a minimal subcomplex comprising just three proteins (FANCB, FANCL, and FAAP100) that functions as the monoubiquitination module. Residual FANCD2 monoubiquitination activity is retained in cells defective for other FA core complex subunits. This work describes the in vitro reconstitution and characterization of this multisubunit monoubiquitin E3 ligase, providing key insight into the conserved FA DNA repair pathway.
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Electrochemical nonenzymatic sensor based on CoO decorated reduced graphene oxide for the simultaneous determination of carbofuran and carbaryl in fruits and vegetables.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A novel nonenzymatic sensor based on cobalt (II) oxide (CoO)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was developed for the detection of carbofuran (CBF) and carbaryl (CBR). Two well-defined and separate differential pulse voltammetric peaks for CBF and CBR were obtained with the CoO/rGO sensor in a mixed solution, making the simultaneous detection of both carbamate pesticides possible. The nonenzymatic sensor demonstrated a linear relationship over a wide concentration range of 0.2-70 ?M (R=0.9996) for CBF and 0.5-200 ?M (R=0.9995) for CBR. The lower detection limit of the sensor was 4.2 ?g/L for CBF and 7.5 ?g/L for CBR (S/N=3). The developed sensor was used to detect CBF and CBR in fruit and vegetable samples and yielded satisfactory results.
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A rhodamine derivative as selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor for mercury (II) in buffer solution, test strips and living cells.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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In this paper, we reported a new rhodamine derivative bearing 2,4-dichloroquinazoline as a selective fluorescent chemosensor for Hg(2+). The ring-opening process of spirolactam enabled the large fluorescent enhancement and colorimetric change by Hg(2+) induced configuration transformation of the rhodamine. Moreover, the fluorescence changes of the chemosensor were dramatically specific for Hg(2+) in the presence of other metal ions, which could meet the selective requirements for practical application. Under optimized experimental conditions, the linear response range covered the concentration range of Hg(2+) from 0 to 1.0×10(-6)M, and the limit of detection was calculated to be 2.7×10(-8)M. In addition, the probe was also successfully applied to the determination of Hg(2+) in water samples, test strips and living cells.
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Association between genetic polymorphisms in AURKA (rs2273535 and rs1047972) and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis involving 37,221 subjects.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Published data on the association between AURKA polymorphisms and breast cancer (BC) risk are inconclusive. This meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation on the relationship between AURKA polymorphisms (rs2273535 and rs1047972) and BC risk.
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The sexual risk context among the FEM-PrEP study population in Bondo, Kenya and Pretoria, South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Incidence rates in the FEM-PrEP and VOICE trials demonstrate that women from diverse sub-Saharan African communities continue to be at substantial HIV risk.
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A descriptive analysis of perceptions of HIV risk and worry about acquiring HIV among FEM-PrEP participants who seroconverted in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Risk perception is a core construct in many behaviour change theories in public health. Individuals who believe they are at risk of acquiring an illness may be more likely to engage in behaviours to reduce that risk; those who do not feel at risk may be unlikely to engage in risk reduction behaviours. Among participants who seroconverted in two FEM-PrEP sites - Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa - we explored perceived HIV risk and worry about acquiring HIV prior to HIV infection.
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An unsupervised text mining method for relation extraction from biomedical literature.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The wealth of interaction information provided in biomedical articles motivated the implementation of text mining approaches to automatically extract biomedical relations. This paper presents an unsupervised method based on pattern clustering and sentence parsing to deal with biomedical relation extraction. Pattern clustering algorithm is based on Polynomial Kernel method, which identifies interaction words from unlabeled data; these interaction words are then used in relation extraction between entity pairs. Dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing are combined for relation extraction. Based on the semi-supervised KNN algorithm, we extend the proposed unsupervised approach to a semi-supervised approach by combining pattern clustering, dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing rules. We evaluated the approaches on two different tasks: (1) Protein-protein interactions extraction, and (2) Gene-suicide association extraction. The evaluation of task (1) on the benchmark dataset (AImed corpus) showed that our proposed unsupervised approach outperformed three supervised methods. The three supervised methods are rule based, SVM based, and Kernel based separately. The proposed semi-supervised approach is superior to the existing semi-supervised methods. The evaluation on gene-suicide association extraction on a smaller dataset from Genetic Association Database and a larger dataset from publicly available PubMed showed that the proposed unsupervised and semi-supervised methods achieved much higher F-scores than co-occurrence based method.
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Biological role of Trichoderma harzianum-derived platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) on stress response and antagonism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated the properties of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) derived from Trichoderma harzianum. The enzyme, comprised of 572 amino acids, shares high homology with PAF-AH proteins from T. koningii and other microbial species. The optimum enzymatic activity of PAF-AH occurred at pH 6 in the absence of Ca2+ and it localized in the cytoplasm, and we observed the upregulation of PAF-AH expression in response to carbon starvation and strong heat shock. Furthermore, PAF-AH knockout transformant growth occurred more slowly than wild type cells and over-expression strains grown in SM medium at 37°C and 42°C. In addition, PAF-AH expression significantly increased under a series of maize root induction assay. Eicosanoic acid and ergosterol levels decreased in the PAF-AH knockouts compared to wild type cells, as revealed by GC/MS analysis. We also determined stress responses mediated by PAF-AH were related to proteins HEX1, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and cytochrome c. Finally, PAF-AH exhibited antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani in plate confrontation assays. Our results indicate PAF-AH may play an important role in T. harzianum stress response and antagonism under diverse environmental conditions.
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Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nanosilver particles (NSPs), are among the most attractive nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a range of biomedical applications, including diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, medical device coating, and for personal health care. With the increasing application of NSPs in medical contexts, it is becoming necessary for a better understanding of the mechanisms of NSPs' biological interactions and their potential toxicity. In this review, we first introduce the synthesis routes of NSPs, including physical, chemical, and biological or green synthesis. Then the unique physiochemical properties of NSPs, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activity, are discussed in detail. Further, some recent applications of NSPs in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in medical fields are described. Finally, potential toxicology considerations of NSPs, both in vitro and in vivo, are also addressed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.