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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chemoselective Intramolecular Wittig Reactions for the Synthesis of Oxazoles and Benzofurans.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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A chemoselective approach was developed for the synthesis of highly functionalized oxazoles and benzofurans using an intramolecular Wittig reaction as the key step. By choosing proper trapping reagent or method of addition of reagents, chemoselectivity can be controlled toward either oxazole or benzofuran derivatives.
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Microfiber-based, highly nonlinear graphene saturable absorber for formation of versatile structural soliton molecules in a fiber laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We reported on the generation of versatile soliton molecules in a fiber laser mode-locked by a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber (GSA). By virtue of the highly nonlinear effect of the microfiber-based GSA, the soliton molecules could be easily observed. In addition to regular soliton molecules, it is found that the "soliton atoms" in molecules could exhibit different characteristics and show ultra-narrow pulse separations, which was termed as 'structural soliton molecule'. The pulse profiles of 'structural soliton molecules' were further reconstructed theoretically. The obtained results would give further insight towards understanding the dynamics of soliton molecules in fiber lasers.
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Calcified Shadow of Hilus Pulmonis Followed with Finger-in-glove Sign of Lingular Bronchus on the left side.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Tracheobronchial aspiration of foreign body (FB) in adults is not as common as in children. The clinical manifestations are highly variable under different circumstances,considering the state of the patient, the influence of the FB and incipient medical intervention,etc. The lodgement of FB in adults ,as in almost all the reports around the world, is dominantly in the right bronchial tree ,especially the intermediate and the basal bronchus due to the anatomical reasons. In this case we reported, a 75-year old female with a dental piece in her lingular bronchus,not the right side as usual, for at least 10 years ,had no symptoms or any notice of the aspiration, surgery and biopsy eventually help to make definite diagnose and the removal.
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The Roles of Egr-2 in Autoimmune Diseases.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Being a member of the early growth response (Egr) family of transcription factors, Egr-2 is expressed in a variety of cell types of the immune system. Recent findings imply that Egr-2 is important in the development and function of T helper (Th) 17 cell, regulatory T (Treg) cell, as well as dendritic cell (DC). Although these cells perform significantly in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis, the roles of Egr-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases can not be neglected. In this article, we will discuss recent findings about the important roles of Egr-2 in immune cells and the possible pathological roles of Egr-2 in autoimmune diseases.
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Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We reported on the generation of high-order harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser using a microfiber-based molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber (SA). Taking advantage of both the saturable absorption and large third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of the few-layer MoS2, up to 2.5 GHz repetition rate HML pulse could be obtained at a pump power of 181 mW, corresponding to 369th harmonic of fundamental repetition frequency. The results provide the first demonstration of the simultaneous applications of both highly nonlinear and saturable absorption effects of the MoS2, indicating that the microfiber-based MoS2 photonic device could serve as high-performance SA and highly nonlinear optical component for application fields such as ultrafast nonlinear optics.
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Prioritizing Genes Related to Nicotine Addiction Via a Multi-source-Based Approach.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Nicotine has a broad impact on both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Over the past decades, an increasing number of genes potentially involved in nicotine addiction have been identified by different technical approaches. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction remain largely unknown. Under such situation, prioritizing the candidate genes for further investigation is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we presented a multi-source-based gene prioritization approach for nicotine addiction by utilizing the vast amounts of information generated from for nicotine addiction study during the past years. In this approach, we first collected and curated genes from studies in four categories, i.e., genetic association analysis, genetic linkage analysis, high-throughput gene/protein expression analysis, and literature search of single gene/protein-based studies. Based on these resources, the genes were scored and a weight value was determined for each category. Finally, the genes were ranked by their combined scores, and 220 genes were selected as the prioritized nicotine addiction-related genes. Evaluation suggested the prioritized genes were promising targets for further analysis and replication study.
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Systematically labeling developmental stage-specific genes for the study of pancreatic ?-cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The applications of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cells in regenerative medicine has encountered a long-standing challenge: how can we efficiently obtain mature cell types from hPSCs? Attempts to address this problem are hindered by the complexity of controlling cell fate commitment and the lack of sufficient developmental knowledge for guiding hPSC differentiation. Here, we developed a systematic strategy to study hPSC differentiation by labeling sequential developmental genes to encompass the major developmental stages, using the directed differentiation of pancreatic ? cells from hPSCs as a model. We therefore generated a large panel of pancreas-specific mono- and dual-reporter cell lines. With this unique platform, we visualized the kinetics of the entire differentiation process in real time for the first time by monitoring the expression dynamics of the reporter genes, identified desired cell populations at each differentiation stage and demonstrated the ability to isolate these cell populations for further characterization. We further revealed the expression profiles of isolated NGN3-eGFP(+) cells by RNA sequencing and identified sushi domain-containing 2 (SUSD2) as a novel surface protein that enriches for pancreatic endocrine progenitors and early endocrine cells both in human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived pancreatic cells and in the developing human pancreas. Moreover, we captured a series of cell fate transition events in real time, identified multiple cell subpopulations and unveiled their distinct gene expression profiles, among heterogeneous progenitors for the first time using our dual reporter hESC lines. The exploration of this platform and our new findings will pave the way to obtain mature ? cells in vitro.
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Role of P14 and MGMT gene methylation in hepatocellular carcinomas: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between methylation of the P14 and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) genes and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Spirometry effects on conventional and multiple flow exhaled nitric oxide in children.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Abstract Objective: Clinical and research settings often require sequencing multiple respiratory tests in a brief visit. Guidelines recommend measuring the concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) before spirometry, but evidence for a spirometry carryover effect on FeNO is mixed. Only one study has investigated spirometry carryover effects on multiple flow FeNO analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate evidence for carryover effects of recent spirometry on three exhaled NO summary measures: FeNO at 50?ml/s, airway wall NO flux [J'awNO] and alveolar NO concentration [CANO] in a population-based sample of schoolchildren. Methods: Participants were 1146 children (191 with asthma), ages 12-15, from the Southern California Children's Health Study who performed spirometry and multiple flow FeNO on the same day. Approximately, half the children performed spirometry first. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate differences in exhaled NO summary measures associated with recent spirometry testing, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: In the population-based sample, we found no evidence of spirometry carryover effects. However, for children with asthma, there was a suggestion that exhaled NO summary measures assessed ?6?min after spirometry were lower (FeNO: 25.8% lower, 95% CI: -6.2%, 48.2%; J'awNO: 15.1% lower 95% CI: -26.5%, 43.0%; and CANO 0.43 parts per billion lower, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.98). Conclusions: In clinical settings, it is prudent to assess multiple flow FeNO before spirometry. In studies of healthy subjects, it may not be necessary to assess FeNO first.
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In situ wetting state transition on micro- and nanostructured surfaces at high temperature.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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We studied the in situ transition of the droplets' wetting state on the heated solid surfaces. The wetting behaviors of four micro- and nanostructured surfaces with different chemical components were studied. These parameters included the maximum contact areas (MCA), the maximum evaporation areas (MEA) and the wetting transition temperature (T(trans)). The reduction in MEAs has a specific transition process from wetting (Wenzel state) or partial wetting (Wenzel-Cassie intermediate state) to nonwetting (Cassie State) as the surface temperature rises. When the MEAs drop to zero at a critical temperature (T(trans)), the droplets rebound from the heated surfaces to complete the wetting transition process. The chemical compounds and the surfaces' rough structure play an important role in the droplets' wetting transition behavior. Before FAS-modification, microstructures can increase the MCAs, MEAs, and T(trans). However, the microstructures are less effective at increasing the MEAs and T(trans) than changes to nanostructures. After FAS-modification, both the nano- and microstructures reduce the T(trans). On the FAS-MNSi surfaces, the MEAs are always zero--the droplets rebounded at room temperature, and the wetting transition did occur. We propose two high-temperature mechanisms to explain these transition phenomena.
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[Expressive changes of CD4(+)T cell subset transcription factors in patients with aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia and their clinical significances].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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This study was aimed to compare the expressions of specific transcription factors of CD4(+) T cell subset ( T-bet, GATA-3, ROR?t and FoxP3 mRNA) in peripheral blood of patients with aplastic anemia(AA), myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia(AML), and investigate their immune status and pathogenesis, so as to provide experimental basis for the choice of clinical treatment. The expression of T-box (T-bet), GATA-3, ROR-?t and Foxp3 mRNA in PBMNC were examined by RT-PCR in 42 cases of MDS, including 22 refractory anemia(MDS-RA) and 20 refractory anemia with excess blasts (MDS-RAEB), in 23 cases of AA, 17 cases of AML patients and 16 healthy volunteers respectively. The results indicated that, compared with normal control group, expressions of T-bet and ROR?t mRNA in AA patient group were significantly higher (P < 0.01), expression levels of GATA3 Foxp3 mRNA were lower (both P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in expression of T-bet and GATA3 mRNA between MDS group and normal control group, but the expression levels of Foxp3 and ROR?t mRNA were higher than those in normal controls (P < 0.05); T-bet and ROR?t in MDS-RA group were higher than those in the normal controls(P < 0.01), and GATA3 expression significantly reduced (P < 0.05), however, there was no significant difference in expression of Foxp3 between MDS-RA and the controls. Expression levels of T-bet and ROR?t mRNA in patients with MDS-RAEB and AML were lower than those in normal controls (P < 0.05), but the expression levels of GATA3 and Foxp3 mRNA were significantly higher than those in normal controls (P < 0.01). It is concluded that the transcription factor expressions are different in PBMNC of patients among these three diseases. Immune-mediated excessive apoptosis may play an important role in pathogenesis, bone marrow failure in patients with AA and MDS-RA, and abnormal clones of immature cells may be one of main reasons for bone marrow failure in AML and late stage of MDS.
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Is there a benefit in receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy for elderly patients with inoperable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The benefit of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in elderly patients with inoperable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is controversial. This study aimed to assess the efficiency and safety of CCRT in elderly thoracic esophageal cancer patients.
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Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS(2) saturable absorber.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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We report on the generation of a femtosecond pulse in a fiber ring laser by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) saturable absorber (SA). With a saturable optical intensity of 34??MW/cm(2) and a modulation depth of ?4.3%, the PVA-based MoS(2) SA had been employed with an erbium-doped fiber ring laser as a mode locker. The mode-locking operation could be achieved at a low pump threshold of 22 mW. A ?710??fs pulse centered at 1569.5 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 12.09 MHz had been achieved with proper cavity dispersion. With the variation of net cavity dispersion, output pulses with durations from 0.71 to 1.46 ps were obtained. The achievement of a femtosecond pulse at 1.55 ?m waveband demonstrates the broadband saturable absorption of MoS(2), and also indicates that the filmy PVA-based MoS(2) SA is indeed a good candidate for an ultrafast saturable absorption device.
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Digital controlled luminescent emission via patterned deposition of lanthanide coordination compounds.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Presented here is a new direct patterning method, printer-type lithography technology, for the formation of lanthanide coordination compounds (LCCs) single crystal in different spatial locations. We first integrate this technology in digital controlled emission by patterned deposition of LCCs. We demonstrate its usefulness in the control of emission intensity by regulating print cycles, so that the emission intensity can be digitally controlled. This printer technology can also be used to precisely control the location at which a single LCC crystal is grown, which provides great promise in the application of anticounterfeiting barcode. Besides, by varying the stoichiometric ratio of the lanthanide ions in the identical cartridge, a fluent change of emission colors from white, orange, pink, to blue green was achieved. Therefore, this low-cost and high-throughput patterning technique can be readily applied to a wide range of areas including micro-/nanofabrication, optics, and electronics studies.
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A General Strategy to Create RNA Aptamer Sensors Using "Regulated" Graphene Oxide Adsorption.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Aptamers have been used as molecular recognition elements for sensor development in combination with graphene oxide (GO), a nanomaterial with properties including fluorescence quenching, and selective adsorption of single-stranded nucleic acids. However, previous sensor designs based on aptamer-GO adsorption have not demonstrated wide applicability, and few studies have explored the potential of RNA aptamers. Herein, we present a new sensing strategy based on "regulated" GO adsorption that can accommodate various RNA aptamers. First, adsorption of a fluorophore-labeled RNA aptamer to GO results in fluorescence quenching due to close proximity of the fluorophore to GO. The addition of a complementary, "blocking" DNA strand (BDNA) that hybridizes to the 3'-end of the aptamer, weakens aptamer-GO interaction, and enables increased fluorescent signal generation upon the addition of target, as the sensing system becomes completely separated from GO. Our findings can be applied toward different aptamers, and adapted to enhance generality of existing sensing applications.
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Increased antitumor activity of tumor-specific peptide modified thymopentin.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Thymopoietin pentapeptide (thymopentin, TP5), an immunomodulatory peptide, has been successfully used as an immune system enhancer for treating immune deficiency, cancer, and infectious diseases. However, poor penetration into tumors remains a key limitation to the efficacy and application of TP5. iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC) has been introduced to certain anticancer agents, and increased specific tumor penetrability of drugs and cell internalization have been observed. In the present study, we fused this iRGD fragment with the C-terminal of TP5 to yield a new product, TP5-iRGD. Cell attachment assay showed that TP5-iRGD exhibits more extensive attachment to the melanoma cell line B16F10 than wild-type TP5. Tumor cell viability assay showed that iRGD conjugation with the TP5 C-terminus increases the basal antiproliferative activity of the pentapeptide against the melanoma cell line B16F10, the human lung cancer cell line H460, and the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Subsequent injections of TP5-iRGD inhibited in vivo melanoma progression more efficiently than the native TP5. Murine spleen lymphocyte proliferation assay also showed that TP5-iRGD and the parent pentapeptide feature nearly identical spleen lymphocyte proliferation activities. We built an integrin ?v?3 and TP5-iRGD computational binding model to investigate the mechanism by which TP5-iRGD promotes increased activity further. Conjugation with iRGD promotes binding to integrin ?v?3, thereby increasing the tumor-homing efficiency of the resultant peptide. These experimental and computational observations of increased TP5-iRGD activity help broaden the usage of TP5 and reflect the great application potential of the peptide as an anticancer agent.
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Dual-wavelength rectangular pulse Yb-doped fiber laser using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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We reported on the generation of dual-wavelength rectangular pulses in a Yb-doped fiber laser (YDFL) by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber (GSA). The duration of dual-wavelength rectangular pulse could be varied from 1.41 ns to 4.23 ns with the increasing pump power. With a tunable bandpass filter, it was found that the characteristics of the rectangular pulses centered at 1061.8 nm and 1068.8 nm are similar to each other. Moreover, the dual-wavelength switchable operation was also realized by properly rotating the polarization controllers (PCs). The demonstration of the dual-wavelength rectangular pulses from a YDFL would open some applications for fields such as spectroscopy, biomedicine and sensing research.
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A graphene-based biosensing platform based on the release of DNA probes and rolling circle amplification.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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We report a versatile biosensing platform capable of achieving ultrasensitive detection of both small-molecule and macromolecular targets. The system features three components: reduced graphene oxide for its ability to adsorb single-stranded DNA molecules nonspecifically, DNA aptamers for their ability to bind reduced graphene oxide but undergo target-induced conformational changes that facilitate their release from the reduced graphene oxide surface, and rolling circle amplification (RCA) for its ability to amplify a primer-template recognition event into repetitive sequence units that can be easily detected. The key to the design is the tagging of a short primer to an aptamer sequence, which results in a small DNA probe that allows for both effective probe adsorption onto the reduced graphene oxide surface to mask the primer domain in the absence of the target, as well as efficient probe release in the presence of the target to make the primer available for template binding and RCA. We also made an observation that the circular template, which on its own does not cause a detectable level of probe release from the reduced graphene oxide, augments target-induced probe release. The synergistic release of DNA probes is interpreted to be a contributing factor for the high detection sensitivity. The broad utility of the platform is illustrated though engineering three different sensors that are capable of achieving ultrasensitive detection of a protein target, a DNA sequence and a small-molecule analyte. We envision that the approach described herein will find useful applications in the biological, medical, and environmental fields.
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Complications and predictors associated with persistent hemodynamic depression after carotid artery stenting.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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We aimed to investigate the complications and predictors associated with persistent hemodynamic depression (PHD) after carotid artery stenting (CAS). A total of 204 patients undergoing CAS in two centers between January 2011 and November 2013 were enrolled for study into two cohorts: PHD (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg and heart beat rate <60/min, which lasted more than 1h) and non-PHD according to their periprocedure detections. The complications were recorded and compared between the two groups. The predictors of PHD were analyzed by univariate analysis and logistic regression model. 43 patients developed PHD, which lasted for 17.22 h on average. The complications occurred in 9 patients of PHD group (angina pectoris 2, myocardial infarction 1, cerebral infarction 3, transient ischemic attack 2 and intestinal obstruction 1), which was significantly more than non- PHD group (angina pectoris 1, cerebral infarction 1, transient ischemic attack 5, p=0.001). Regression analysis revealed that diabetes, severe calcified plaque and a balloon dilation pressure of more than 8 atmospheres (atm) were the independent predictors for PHD after CAS. We concluded that PHD may be related to increased complications of CAS. Patients with diabetes, more severe calcified plaque and more balloon dilation pressure are more prone to develop PHD after CAS.
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Corin mutations K317E and S472G from preeclamptic patients alert zymogen activation and cell surface targeting.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Corin is a membrane-bound serine protease that acts as the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) convertase in the heart. Recent studies show that corin also activates ANP in the pregnant uterus to promote spiral artery remodeling and prevent pregnancy-induced hypertension. Two CORIN gene mutations, K317E and S472G, were identified in preeclamptic patients and shown to have reduced activity in vitro. In this study, we carried out molecular modeling and biochemical experiments to understand how these mutations impair corin function. By molecular modeling, the mutation K317E was predicted to alter corin LDL receptor-2 module conformation. Western blot analysis of K317E mutant in HEK293 cells showed that the mutation did not block corin expression on the cell surface but inhibited corin zymogen activation. In contrast, the mutation S472G was predicted to abolish a ?-sheet critical for corin frizzled-2 module structure. In Western blot analysis and flow cytometry, S472G mutant was not detected on the cell surface in transfected HEK293 cells. By immunostaining, the S472G mutant was found in the ER, indicating that the mutation S472G disrupted the ?-sheet, causing corin misfolding and ER retention. Thus, these results show that mutations in the CORIN gene may impair corin function by entirely different mechanisms. Together, our data provide important insights into the molecular basis underlying corin mutations that may contribute to preeclampsia in patients.
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Analysis on the association between PPAR?/? polymorphisms and lipoprotein(a) in a Chinese Han population.
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a low-density lipoprotein-like particle, is recognized as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetic vascular diseases. Our recent studies revealed that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR?/?/?) gene are involved in the regulation of lipid storage and metabolism. In order to investigate the relationships between the SNPs of PPAR?/? gene and plasma levels of Lp(a), 644 participants were randomly selected from Chinese Han population in the present study. As the results shown, Lp(a) was significantly associated with L162V (rs1800206) in PPAR?. Compared with those subjects with widetype (LL), significantly higher Lp(a) concentration was determined in the individuals with mutant (LV + VV) (mean difference: 49.07 mg/l, 95% CI 23.32-74.82 mg/l, p = 0.0002). Moreover, with generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, our present results indicated that there was a significant association between plasma Lp(a) level and gene-gene interaction among the polymorphisms rs1800206, rs135539 in PPAR? and rs10865710, rs1805192, and rs4684847 in PPAR?. Therefore, our presented study indicated that PPAR?/? polymorphisms should be involved in the regulation of plasma Lp(a) in independently and/or in an interactive manner, suggesting that PPAR?/? gene may influence the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and dyslipidemia by regulating Lp(a) level.
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[Responses of vegetation changes to climatic variations in Panxi area based on the MODIS multispectral data].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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It is an important research area to quantitatively studying the relationship between global climatic change and vegetation change based on the remote sensing technology. Panxi area is the ecological barrier of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, and it is essential for the stability of the ecological environment of Sichuan as well as that of the whole China. The present article analyzes the vegetation change in 2001-2008 and the relationship between vegetation change and climatic variations of Panxi area, based on MODIS multispectral data and meteorological data. The results indicate that NDVI is positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. The precipitation is the major factor that affects the change of vegetation in the Panxi region and the trend of NDVI is similar with autumn precipitation; while at the same time the influence of climate has a one-month-time-lag.
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Beneficial synergistic effects of microdose lithium with pyrroloquinoline quinone in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated, neurodegenerative disorder involving multifactorial pathogeneses and still lacks effective clinical treatment. Recent studies show that lithium exerts disease-modifying effects against AD. However, the intolerant side effects at conventional effective dosage limit the clinical use of lithium in treating AD. To explore a novel AD treatment strategy with microdose lithium, we designed and synthesized a new chemical, tri-lithium pyrroloquinoline quinone (Li3PQQ), to study the synergistic effects of low-dose lithium and pyrroloquinoline quinone, a native compound with powerful antioxidation and mitochondrial amelioration. The results showed that Li3PQQ at a relative low dose (6 and 12 mg/kg) exhibited more powerful effects in restoring the impairment of learning and memory, facilitating hippocampal long-term potentiation, and reducing cerebral amyloid deposition and phosphorylated tau level in APP/PS1 transgenic mice than that of lithium chloride at both low and high dose (5 and 100 mg/kg). We further found that Li3PQQ inhibited the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and increased the activity of ?-amyloid-binding alcohol dehydrogenase, which might underlie the beneficial effects of Li3PQQ on APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Our study demonstrated the efficacy of a novel AD therapeutic strategy targeting at multiple disease-causing mechanisms through the synergistic effects of microdose lithium and pyrroloquinoline quinone.
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Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica).
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9?mg m(-2), respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting.
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Interleukin-22 Regulates the Complement System to Promote Resistance against Pathobionts after Pathogen-Induced Intestinal Damage.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Pathobionts play a critical role in disease development, but the immune mechanisms against pathobionts remain poorly understood. Here, we report a critical role for interleukin-22 (IL-22) in systemic protection against bacterial pathobionts that translocate into the circulation after infection with the pathogen Clostridium difficile. Infection with C. difficile induced IL-22, and infected Il22(-/-) mice harbored high numbers of pathobionts in extraintestinal organs despite comparable pathogen load and intestinal damage in mutant and wild-type mice. Pathobionts exhibited increased resistant against complement-mediated phagocytosis, and their intravenous administration resulted in high animal mortality. Selective removal of translocated commensals rescued Il22(-/-) mice, and IL-22 administration enhanced the elimination of pathobionts. Mechanistically, IL-22 augmented bacterial phagocytosis by increasing the expression and bacterial binding of complement C3. Our study demonstrates an unexpected role for IL-22 in controlling the elimination of pathobionts that enter the systemic circulation through the regulation of the complement system.
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Dendritic changes in rat visual pathway associated with experimental ocular hypertension.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Increasing evidence shows that structural changes in dendrites play an important role in neuronal degenerative processes. The aims of this study were to characterize and delineate morphological changes of dendrites in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their central target neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in experimental rat glaucoma.
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Lack of effects of dietary folate intake on risk of breast cancer: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Epidemiological findings are controversial relating to the relationship between dietary folate intake and the risk of breast cancer. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to clarify this association.
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Towards in vivo regulon kinetics: PurR activation by 5-phosphoribosyl-?-1-pyrophosphate during purine depletion in Lactococcus lactis.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Short-term adaptation to changing environments relies on regulatory elements translating shifting metabolite concentrations into a specifically optimized transcriptome. So far the focus of analyses has been divided between regulatory elements identified in vivo and kinetic studies of small molecules interacting with the regulatory elements in vitro. Here we describe how in vivo regulon kinetics can describe a regulon through the effects of the metabolite controlling it, exemplified by temporal purine exhaustion in Lactococcus lactis. We deduced a causal relation between the pathway precursor 5-phosphoribosyl-?-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and individual mRNA levels, whereby unambiguous and homogeneous relations could be obtained for PurR regulated genes, thus linking a specific regulon to a specific metabolite. As PurR activates gene expression upon binding of PRPP, the pur mRNA curves reflect the in vivo kinetics of PurR PRPP binding and activation. The method singled out the xpt-pbuX operon as kinetically distinct, which was found to be caused by a guanine riboswitch whose regulation was overlaying the PurR regulation. Importantly, genes could be clustered according to regulatory mechanism and long-term consequences could be distinguished from transient changes--many of which would not be seen in a long-term adaptation to a new environment. The strategy outlined here can be adapted to analyse the individual effects of members from larger metabolomes in virtually any organism, for elucidating regulatory networks in vivo.
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Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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We reported on the generation of femtosecond pulse in a fiber ring laser by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based topological insulator (TI), Bi2Se3 saturable absorber (SA). The PVA-TI composite has a low saturable optical intensity of 12 MW/cm2 and a modulation depth of ~3.9%. By incorporating the fabricated PVA-TISA into a fiber laser, mode-locking operation could be achieved at a low pump threshold of 25 mW. After an optimization of the cavity parameters, optical pulse with ~660 fs centered at 1557.5 nm wavelength had been generated. The experimental results demonstrate that the PVA could be an excellent host material for fabricating high-performance TISA, and also indicate that the filmy PVA-TISA is indeed a good candidate for ultrafast saturable absorption device.
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The complex jujube genome provides insights into fruit tree biology.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans 437.65?Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45?Mb anchored to the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit trees.
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Association of IL-23 and its receptor gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with multiple sclerosis in Chinese southern population.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The subunit of IL-23 (IL12B) and its receptor (IL23R) gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be associated with several autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. However, the association studies between multiple sclerosis (MS) and SNPs of IL12B or IL23R gene have been reported with inconsistent results in Caucasian population. These discrepancies prompted us to investigate whether IL12B and IL23R variants are associated with susceptibility to MS in Chinese southern population. In this study, we investigated four SNPs (rs2201841, rs10889677, rs7517847 in IL23R and rs3212227 in IL12B) in 178 MS patients and 221 health controls in southern China using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. There was no difference of genotype or allele distribution of these SNPs between MS patients and controls. No association was found between gene polymorphisms and clinical characteristics in MS patients. Furthermore, haplotypes analysis showed similar distribution of haplotype frequencies in MS patients and controls. Our study showed that the IL12B and IL23R gene SNPs does not seem to be associated with MS susceptibility in Chinese southern population.
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Pullulan encapsulation of labile biomolecules to give stable bioassay tablets.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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A simple and inexpensive method is reported for the long-term stabilization of enzymes and other unstable reagents in premeasured quantities in water-soluble tablets (cast, not compressed) made with pullulan, a nonionic polysaccharide that forms an oxygen impermeable solid upon drying. The pullulan tablets dissolve in aqueous solutions in seconds, thereby facilitating the easy execution of bioassays at remote sites with no need for special reagent handling and liquid pipetting. This approach is modular in nature, thus allowing the creation of individual tablets for enzymes and their substrates. Proof-of-principle demonstrations include a Taq polymerase tablet for DNA amplification through PCR and a pesticide assay kit consisting of separate tablets for acetylcholinesterase and its chromogenic substrate, indoxyl acetate, both of which are highly unstable. The encapsulated reagents remain stable at room temperature for months, thus enabling the room-temperature shipping and storage of bioassay components.
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[Quality characteristics of human spermatozoa with hyaluronic acid receptors].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To analyze the quality characteristics of human spermatozoa with hyaluronic acid (HA) receptors and search for a new indicator for the assessment of sperm quality.
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Dysregulated miR1254 and miR579 for cardiotoxicity in patients treated with bevacizumab in colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Methods for detecting circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), small RNAs that control gene expression, at high sensitivity and specificity in the blood have been reported in recent studies. The goal of this study was to determine if detectable levels of specific miRNAs are released into the circulation for bevacizumab-induced cardiotoxicity. A miRNA array analysis was performed using RNA isolated from 10 control patients in bevacizumab treatment, and n=10 patients have been confirmed to have bevacizumab-induced cardiotoxicity. From the array, we selected 19 candidate miRNA for a second validation study in 90 controls and 88 patients with bevacizumab-induced cardiotoxicity. Consistent with the data obtained from the microRNA array, circulating levels of five miRNAs were significantly increased in patients with bevacizumab-induced cardiotoxicity compared with controls. To confirm these data, we compared selected miRNAs in the plasma of patients with bevacizumab-induced cardiotoxicity with those of 66 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Moreover, we went on to analyze what factors may influence the levels of potential biomarker miRNAs. Consistent with the data obtained from the microRNA array, circulating levels of five miRNAs were significantly increased in patients with bevacizumab-induced cardiotoxicity compared with those of healthy bevacizumab treatment controls. However, only miRNA1254 and miRNA579 showed high specificity in the validation experiments. Moreover, we went on to analyze what factors may influence the levels of potential biomarker miRNAs. We identify two miRNAs that are specifically elevated in patients with bevacizumab-induced cardiotoxicity, miR1254 and miRNA579, and miRNA1254 shows the strongest correlation to the clinical diagnosis of bevacizumab-induced cardiotoxicity.
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Improving the secretion of cadaverine in Corynebacterium glutamicum by cadaverine-lysine antiporter.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Cadaverine (1,5-pentanediamine, diaminopentane), the desired raw material of bio-polyamides, is an important industrial chemical with a wide range of applications. Biosynthesis of cadaverine in Corynebacterium glutamicum has been a competitive way in place of petroleum-based chemical synthesis method. To date, the cadaverine exporter has not been found in C. glutamicum. In order to improve cadaverine secretion, the cadaverine-lysine antiporter CadB from Escherichia coli was studied in C. glutamicum. Fusion expression of cadB and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene confirmed that CadB could express in the cell membrane of C. glutamicum. Co-expression of cadB and ldc from Hafnia alvei in C. glutamicum showed that the cadaverine secretion rate increased by 22 % and the yield of total cadaverine and extracellular cadaverine increased by 30 and 73 %, respectively. Moreover, the recombinant strain cultured at acid and neutral pH separately hardly had any difference in cadaverine concentrations. These results suggested that CadB could be expressed in the cell membrane of C. glutamicum and that recombinant CadB could improve cadaverine secretion and the yield of cadaverine. Moreover, the pH value did not affect the function of recombinant CadB. These results may be a promising metabolic engineering strategy for improving the yield of the desired product by enhancing its export out of the cell.
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Observation of the middle intestinal tight junction structure, cloning and studying tissue distribution of the four Claudin genes of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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To confirm the existence of the tight junction (TJ) in middle intestine and obtain the genetic information of Claudin-3, Claudin-15a, Claudinb and Claudinc of grass carp, we observed the physical structure of TJ by transmission electron microscopy and cloned the partial cDNAs of the four Claudins using reverse transcriptase PCR technique. The four partial cDNAs consist of 1,261, 490, 776 and 662 bp encoded 131, 150, 195 and 171 amino acids, respectively. Homology analysis showed that the grass carp Claudin shared high homology with other teleost species, especially with Danio rerio and Carassius auratus. Multi-alignments of the four Claudin amino acid sequences have seen the two conserved cysteines existing in the first extracellular loop of Claudin-15a, Claudinb and Claudinc, and the sequence diversity of the four Claudins mainly lies within the C-terminal tails, which usually end with the -Y-V motif, except the -F-V motif in Claudinb. Tissue distributions of the four Claudins were measured by applying quantitative real-time PCR technique. Results showed that Claudin-3 was mainly expressed in liver and middle intestine and Claudinb was ubiquitously expressed with a higher expression in middle intestine while Claudin-15a and Claudinc were mainly expressed in middle intestine. Our study revealed the existence of the TJ in the middle intestinal and obtained the genetic information of Claudin-3, Claudin-15a, Claudinb and Claudinc of grass carp, aiming to found the molecular biology basis for the further study of the intestinal barrier function of grass carp.
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Zeolitic BIF crystal directly producing noble-metal nanoparticles in its pores for catalysis.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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As an integral part of a porous framework and uniformly distributed throughout the internal pore space, the high density of the exposed B-H bond in zeolite-like porous BIF-20 (BIF = Boron Imidazolate Framework) is shown here to effectively produce nanoparticles within its confined pore space. Small noble-metal nanoparticles (Ag or Au) are directly synthesized into its pores without the need for any external reducing agent or photochemical reactions, and the resulting Ag@BIF-20 (or Au@BIF-20) samples show high catalytic activities for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.
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The role of fucosylation in the promotion of endothelial progenitor cells in neovascularization and bone repair.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are being tested as a therapy to treat a variety of ischemic diseases. Poor homing to targeted tissues is one of the major factors limiting the therapeutic efficacy of EPCs. Here, we show that human cord blood-derived EPCs expressed little sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x)) antigen that is necessary for selectin-mediated cell-cell interactions. Expression of ?1,3-fucosyltransferase VI (FucT VI) in the EPCs enhanced sLe(x) synthesis, E- and P-selectin-binding, and EPC adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-?-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture. In a mouse model of hind limb ischemia, in which EPCs were injected intravenously, FucT VI expression increased EPC homing, neovascularization, and blood flow in ischemic muscles. In another mouse model of femoral fracture, FucT VI-expressing EPCs were more efficient than control EPCs in targeting to peri-fracture tissues to enhance angiogenesis, blood flow and bone repair. These results indicate that fucosylated EPCs may be used to as an improved cellular source to treat ischemic diseases.
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Equine adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) expresses BAFF and its receptors, which may be associated with the differentiation process of ASC towards adipocyte.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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B cell activating factor (BAFF) and its receptors were regarded as elements of the immune system, regulating the fate of B cell. In recent years, these molecules were identified in a number of normal and pathological tissues, expanding their potential functions beyond the immune system. In this study, on the basis of molecular clone and prokaryotic expression of equine BAFF, we reported that equine adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) expressed BAFF and its receptors, which exhibited the increased expression during ASC adipogenic differentiation in vitro. Moreover, with the addition of recombinant protein His6-sBAFF, an increased differentiation of equine ASC towards adipocyte was detected. These results suggested that BAFF and its receptors might be associated with the differentiation process of ASC towards adipocyte in horse.
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Sfmbt2 10th intron-hosted miR-466(a/e)-3p are important epigenetic regulators of Nfat5 signaling, osmoregulation and urine concentration in mice.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Sfmbt2-hosted miR-466a-3p and its close relatives are often among the most significantly up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in responses to numerous deleterious environmental stimuli. The exact roles of these miRNAs in cellular stress responses, however, are not clear. Here we showed that many Sfmbt2-hosted miRNAs were highly hypertonic stress responsive in vitro and in vivo. In renal medulla, water deprivation induced alterations in the expression of miR-466(a/b/c/e/p)-3p in a pattern similar to that of miR-200b-3p, a known regulator of osmoresponsive transcription factor Nfat5. Remarkably, exposure of mIMCD3 cells to an arginine vasopressin analog time-dependently down-regulated the expression of miR-466(a/b/c/e/p)-3p and miR-200b-3p, which provides a novel regulatory mechanism for these osmoresponsive miRNAs. In cultured mIMCD3 cells we further demonstrated that miR-466a-3p and miR-466g were capable of targeting Nfat5 by interacting with its 3'UTR. In transgenic mice overexpressing miR-466a-3p, significant down-regulation of Nfat5 and many other osmoregulation-related genes was observed in both the renal cortex and medulla. Moreover, sustained transgenic over-expression of miR-466a-3p was found to be associated with polydipsia, polyuria and disturbed ion homeostasis and kidney morphology. Since the mature sequence of miR-466a-3p is completely equivalent to that of miR-466e-3p and that the seed sequence of miR-466a-3p is completely equivalent to that of miR-297(a/b/c)-3p, miR-466d-3p, miR-467g and miR-669d-3p, and that miR-466a-3p differs from miR-466(b/c/p)-3p only in a 5' nucleotide, we propose that miR-466a-3p and many of its close relatives are important epigenetic regulators of renal Nfat5 signaling, osmoregulation and urine concentration in mice.
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Comparison of Serological Response to Doxycycline versus Benzathine Penicillin G in the Treatment of Early Syphilis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Multi-Center Observational Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While doxycycline is recommended as an alternative treatment of syphilis in patients with penicillin allergy or intolerance, clinical studies to compare serological response to doxycycline versus benzathine penicillin in treatment of early syphilis among HIV-infected patients remain sparse.
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Direct pro-inflammatory effects of prorenin on microglia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Neuroinflammation has been implicated in hypertension, and microglia have been proposed to play an important role in the progression of this disease. Here, we have studied whether microglia are activated within cardiovascular regulatory area(s) of the brain during hypertension, especially in high blood pressure that is associated with chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-system. In addition, we determined whether prorenin, an essential component of the renin-angiotensin-system, exerts direct pro-inflammatory effects on these microglia. Our data indicate that two rodent models which display neurogenic hypertension and over activation of the renin-angiotensin-system in the brain (sRA mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats) exhibit microglial activation, and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an area crucial for regulation of sympathetic outflow. Further, the renin-angiotensin-system component prorenin elicits direct activation of hypothalamic microglia in culture and induction of pro-inflammatory mechanisms in these cells, effects that involve prorenin receptor-induced NF?B activation. In addition, the prorenin-elicited increases in cytokine expression were fully abolished by microglial inhibitor minocycline, and were potentiated by pre-treatment of cells with angiotensin II. Taken together with our previous data which indicate that pro-inflammatory processes in the paraventricular nucleus are involved in the hypertensive action of renin-angiotensin-system, the novel discovery that prorenin exerts direct stimulatory effects on microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production provides support for the idea that renin-angiotensin-system -induced neurogenic hypertension is not restricted to actions of angiotensin II alone.
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A Soybean C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Gene GmZF1 Enhanced Cold Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Zinc finger proteins were involved in response to different environmental stresses in plant species. A typical Cys2/His2-type (C2H2-type) zinc finger gene GmZF1 from soybean was isolated and was composed of 172 amino acids containing two conserved C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GmZF1 was clustered on the same branch with six C2H2-type ZFPs from dicotyledonous plants excepting for GsZFP1, and distinguished those from monocotyledon species. The GmZF1 protein was localized at the nucleus, and has specific binding activity with EP1S core sequence, and nucleotide mutation in the core sequence of EPSPS promoter changed the binding ability between GmZF1 protein and core DNA element, implying that two amino acid residues, G and C boxed in core sequence TGACAGTGTCA possibly play positive regulation role in recognizing DNA-binding sites in GmZF1 proteins. High accumulation of GmZF1 mRNA induced by exogenous ABA suggested that GmZF1 was involved in an ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Over-expression of GmZF1 significantly improved the contents of proline and soluble sugar and decreased the MDA contents in the transgenic lines exposed to cold stress, indicating that transgenic Arabidopsis carrying GmZF1 gene have adaptive mechanisms to cold stress. Over-expression of GmZF1 also increased the expression of cold-regulated cor6.6 gene by probably recognizing protein-DNA binding sites, suggesting that GmZF1 from soybean could enhance the tolerance of Arabidopsis to cold stress by regulating expression of cold-regulation gene in the transgenic Arabidopsis.
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The modified glasgow prognostic score is an independent prognostic factor in patients with inoperable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing chemoradiotherapy.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is increasing evidence that the presence of an inflammation-based prognostic score (modified Glasgow prognostic score, mGPS) is associated with survival in patients with advanced cancer. This study aimed to assess whether the mGPS has prognostic value in patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing chemoradiotherapy.
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Unilateral cervical nodal metastasis is an independent prognostic factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy: a retrospective study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine the prognostic significance of unilateral cervical lymph nodal metastasis (CLNM) in patients with inoperable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to identify significant prognostic factors in these patients.
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[Value of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer patients with ypT1-4N0 after neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of postoperative chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer patients who reached pathological ypT1-4N0 after neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy.
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2??GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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We report on the generation of passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber laser using a microfiber-based topological insulator (TI) Bi2Te3 saturable absorber (SA). The optical deposition method was employed to fabricate the microfiber-based TISA. By virtue of the excellent nonlinear optical property of the proposed TISA, the fiber laser could operate at the pulse repetition rate of 2.04 GHz under a pump power of 126 mW, corresponding to the 418th harmonic of fundamental repetition frequency. The results demonstrate that the microfiber-based TI photonic device can operate as both the high nonlinear optical component and the SA in fiber lasers, and could also find other applications in the related fields of photonics.
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[Retrospective analysis of effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy or not for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To analyze the effectiveness and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with chemotherapy or not for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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[Effect of different primers on microbial community of activated sludge].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different primers in PCR-DGGE and PCR-RFLP on the analysis of microbial community in activated sludge. 8 pairs of primers were chosen to amplify the variable region of 16S rDNA for PCR-DGGE analysis, while 11 pairs of primers were used to amplify the total length of 16S rDNA for PCR-RFLP analysis. The effect of different primers on the analysis of microbial community in activated sludge was determined by electrophoresis analysis of the PCR products. The microbial community of the activated sludge was different when different primers were used. For PCR-DGGE analysis, the primers B341F/B534R had good amplification results and the bands were excessive; while for PCR-RFLP, the primers 27f/8f and 1500R had good amplification results and the bands digested by the two enzymes had the highest diversity. The primers B341F/B534R and 27f/8f/ 1500R were relatively good for PCR-DGGE and PCR-RFLP, respectively, in the analysis of microbial community in activated sludge.
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Effect of backpack load on the head, cervical spine and shoulder postures in children during gait termination.
Ergonomics
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Twelve boys with an average age of 9.9 years were instructed to carry backpacks that weighed 0%, 10% and 15% of their body weights (BWs) to complete planned and unplanned gait termination experiments. The craniohorizontal, craniovertebral and sagittal shoulder posture angles at the sagittal plane as well as the anterior head alignment and coronal shoulder posture angles at the coronal plane were analysed. Results revealed significantly smaller craniohorizontal and sagittal shoulder posture angles during planned gait termination and a significantly smaller sagittal shoulder posture angle during unplanned gait termination under loaded conditions compared with those at 0% BW backpacks. Furthermore, the coronal shoulder posture angles at 10% and 15% BW during planned and unplanned gait terminations were significantly larger than those at 0% BW. Therefore, subjects were more likely to have a forward head posture, rounded shoulder posture and increased lateral tilting of the shoulders during gait termination as backpack loads were increased. However, gait termination, whether planned or unplanned, did not elicit a remarkable effect on posture.
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[Influence of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on pulmonary function and postoperative pulmonary complication in esophageal cancer patients].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To study the influence of preoperative chemoradiotherapy(CRT) on pulmonary function and postoperative pulmonary complications in esophageal cancer patients.
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Molecular imaging and pharmacokinetics of (99m) Tc-hTERT antisense oligonucleotide as a potential tumor imaging probe.
J Labelled Comp Radiopharm
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Targeting and visualization of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) represents a promising approach for providing diagnostic value. The uptake kinetics and imaging results of (99m) Tc-hTERT antisense oligonucleotides (ASON) in hTERT-expressing cells were examined in vitro and in vivo. The pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity studies of (99m) Tc-hTERT ASON were also performed. The labeling efficiencies of radiolabeled oligonucleotide reached 76?±?5%, the specific activity was up to 1850?kBq/µg, and the radiochemical purity was above 96%. Radioactivity accumulated to a higher concentration in hTERT-expressing cells with antisense probe than with sense control (p??0.05). Radioactivity counts per minute versus time profiles for (99m) Tc-hTERT ASON were biphasic, indicative of a three-compartment model. The pharmacokinetics parameters of half-life of distribution (T1/2? ), half-life of elimination (T1/2? ), total apparent volume of distribution (Vd), and total rate of clearance were 2.04?±?0.48?min, 24?±?4.8?min, 109.83?±?17.20?mL, and 3.19?±?0.17?mL/min, respectively. The acute toxicity study results showed the safe application of (99m) Tc-hTERT ASON in vivo. This study provides further evidences that (99m) Tc-hTERT ASON should be developed as a safe, potential molecular image-guided diagnostic agent.
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Construction of an engineering strain producing high yields of ?-transglucosidase via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Asperillus niger.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used in breeding industrial strains for the purpose of improving ?-transglucosidase production. Firstly, an efficient ATMT system for Asperillus niger was established by optimization of several influencing factors, in which transformation efficiency was improved up to 14-fold compared with the initial conditions. Furthermore, binary vector pBI-Glu containing an ?-transglucosidase expression cassette was constructed and transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 in order to infect A. niger. By the efficient ATMT method, the gene for ?-transglucosidase, driven by strong promoter PglaA (the glucoamylase gene promoter), had a high expression level in A. niger A-8 (25.02 U/mL). The optimized ATMT system was found to be effective and suitable for A. niger, and should be a useful tool for studying the function of A. niger genes and for industrial breeding of this strain.
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[Effect of aspirin on function of human umbilical cord blood-derived late endothelial progenitor cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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This study was aimed to investigate whether aspirin has effect on function of late endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Cord blood CD34(+) cells were purified using the ficoll density gradient centrifugation and human CD34 positive selection kit, then the cells were inoculated on fibronectin-coated culture plate. After culture for 2 weeks, adherent cells were identified as EPC by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, uptake of Dil-Ac-LDL and matrigel tube formation assay. EPC were treated with different concentrations of aspirin (0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1 000, 10 000 µmol/L) for 24 h, then the proliferation, adhesion and migration ability of these cells were analyzed by CCK-8 assay and transwell methods. The results indicated that the low concentrations of aspirin (0.1 and 1 000 µmol/L) promoted late EPC adhesive and migratory capacity, but no obvious effect on proliferation of late EPC were observed. On the other hand, the high concentrations of aspirin (10 000 µmol/L) inhibited proliferation and migratory capacity of EPC, but had no obvious effect on adhesive ability of EPC. It is concluded that low concentration of aspirin promotes migration and adhesion of late EPC, while the high concentration of aspirin decreases EPC proliferation and migratory capacity of EPC.
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[Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization.
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Reduced serum corin levels in patients with osteoporosis.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Corin is a cardiac protease that activates the natriuretic peptides. Corin is also expressed in chondrocytes and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells that undergo osteogenic differentiation, suggesting a potential role of corin in bone formation and homeostasis.
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Exogenous phosphorus inputs alter complexity of soil-dissolved organic carbon in agricultural riparian wetlands.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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High-strengthened farmland fertilization leads to mass inputs of nutrients and elements to agricultural riparian wetlands. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of such wetland sediments is an important intermediate in global carbon (C) cycling due to its role in connecting soil C pools with atmospheric CO2. But the impact of phosphorus (P) on sediment DOC is still largely unknown, despite increasing investigations to emphasize P interception by riparian wetlands. Here, we simulated the temporal influences of exogenous P on sediment DOC of riparian wetlands by integrating gradient P loading at rates of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 60% relative to the initial total phosphorus content of the sediment with the purpose of illustrating the role of external P on the complexity of soil DOC in terms of its amount and composition. After incubating for nine months, a dramatic linear correlation between Olsen-P and fluorescent and ultraviolet spectral indices considered DOC skeleton was observed. Together with a more microbial-derived origin of DOC and a reduction of DOC aromaticity or humicity, the excitation-emission matrix had shown a blue shift reflecting a trend towards a simpler molecular structure of sediment DOC after P addition. Meanwhile, the content of soil DOC and its ratio with total organic carbon (TOC) were also increased by P loading, coupled with enhanced values of highly labile organic carbon and two C-related enzymes. While TOC and recalcitrant organic carbon decreased significantly. Such implications of DOC amounts and composition stimulated by external P loading may enhance its bioavailability, thereby inducing an accelerated effect on soil C cycling and a potential C loss in response to global climate change.
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Optogenetic stimulation of MCH neurons increases sleep.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic neuropeptide present in the hypothalamus of all vertebrates. MCH is implicated in a number of behaviors but direct evidence is lacking. To selectively stimulate the MCH neurons the gene for the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, was inserted into the MCH neurons of wild-type mice. Three weeks later MCH neurons were stimulated for 1 min every 5 min for 24 h. A 10 Hz stimulation at the start of the night hastened sleep onset, reduced length of wake bouts by 50%, increased total time in non-REM and REM sleep at night, and increased sleep intensity during the day cycle. Sleep induction at a circadian time when all of the arousal neurons are active indicates that MCH stimulation can powerfully counteract the combined wake-promoting signal of the arousal neurons. This could be potentially useful in treatment of insomnia.
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Molecular characterization and evolutionary analysis of horse BAFF-R, a tumor necrosis factor receptor related to B-cell survival.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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B-cell survival depends on signals induced by B-cell activating factor (BAFF) that binds to the BAFF receptor (BAFF-R). Herein, a BAFF-R homolog was identified in a horse (Equus caballus). The horse BAFF-R gene, located on chromosome 28, spans 1444 base pairs and encodes a 183-amino acid protein. The protein is structurally conserved, in which the DxL motif plays an important role in binding to BAFF. Furthermore, the horse BAFF-R extracellular domain was expressed and purified, which specifically bound to His6-sBAFF and had the capability of blocking the function of His6-sBAFF in vitro. Finally, evolutionary analyses indicated that some codon sites of BAFF-R evolve with positive selection and that the genetic relationship among a horse, Chiroptera, and Caniformia are the closest.
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[Comparison of different template matching methods of automatic stellar spectrum parameter measurement].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Template matching is one of the most commonly used methods of automatic stellar spectrum parameter measurement The present paper made comparisons among the three commonly used template matching methods K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), the Chi-square minimization and cross correlation method. The Continuum normalization and flux normalization were made first. Then the three mentioned methods were compared in measurement results of stellar spectrum parameters. Experiments on SDSS DR8 large sample spectra showed that the cross correlation method had comparable advantages.
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Targeting isoprenylcysteine methylation ameliorates disease in a mouse model of progeria.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Several progeroid disorders, including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and restrictive dermopathy (ZMPSTE24 deficiency), arise when a farnesylated and methylated form of prelamin A accumulates at the nuclear envelope. Here, we found that a hypomorphic allele of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) increased body weight, normalized grip strength, and prevented bone fractures and death in Zmpste24-deficient mice. The reduced ICMT activity caused prelamin A mislocalization within the nucleus and triggered prelamin A-dependent activation of AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which abolished the premature senescence of Zmpste24-deficient fibroblasts. ICMT inhibition increased AKT-mTOR signaling and proliferation and delayed senescence in human HGPS fibroblasts but did not reduce the levels of misshapen nuclei in mouse and human cells. Thus, targeting ICMT might be useful for treating prelamin A-associated progeroid disorders.
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Antituberculosis Treatment and Hepatotoxicity in Patients with Chronic Viral Hepatitis.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Whether antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment in patients with chronic viral hepatitis affects the incidence and onset time of drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) is still controversial. The aim of this retrospective study was to find out whether chronic viral hepatitis affects the incidence and onset time of DIH.
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Modulation of P-glycoprotein in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells under oxygen glucose deprivation.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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To investigate modulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD).
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Changing epidemiology of candidemia in a medical center in middle Taiwan.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care setting, and the epidemiology of Candida infection is changing.
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Glycine site N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist 7-CTKA produces rapid antidepressant-like effects in male rats.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists exert fast-acting antidepressant effects, providing a promising way to develop a new classification of antidepressant that targets the glutamatergic system. In the present study, we examined the potential antidepressant action of 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-CTKA), a glycine recognition site NMDA receptor antagonist, in a series of behavioural models of depression and determined the molecular mechanisms that underlie the behavioural actions of 7-CTKA.
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Purification and Identification of an ACE Inhibitory Peptide from Walnut Protein.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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In the present study, a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide, P-2a2, was purified to homogeneity from walnut protein hydrolysate by ultrafiltration, consecutive column chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified peptide was characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrophotometry and a liquid-phase peptide sequencer. The molecular mass of P-2a2 was tested to be 1033.42 D. Its amino acid sequence was determined to be Trp-Pro-Glu-Arg-Pro-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro. The potent ACE-inhibitory peptide is an enneapeptide and shows a high ACE-inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 25.67 ?g/mL.
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[In-vivo tumor imaging by radiolabeled RNA probe targeting telomerase].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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To explore the value of telomerase targeted radiolabeled small interference RNA (siRNA) in tumor imaging in vivo.
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Characterization and expression of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) gene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with implications for GILT in innate immune response.
Immunogenetics
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The interferon-?-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) has been demonstrated to play an important role in the processing and presentation of MHC class II-restricted antigen (Ag) by catalyzing disulfide bond reduction. In this study, a rainbow trout cDNA (designated as rGILT) was cloned and identified from Oncorhynchus mykiss. The open reading frame of rGILT consists of 759 bases encoding a protein of 253 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 28.23 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.94. The rGILT exhibited a characteristic GILT signature sequence CQHGX?ECX?NX?C and CXXC motif. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that rGILT had been derived from a common ancestor with other GILT proteins. RT-PCR results showed that rGILT and rIFN-? (rainbow trout IFN-?) mRNA was expressed in a tissue-specific manner and obviously up-regulated in splenocytes and the cells from head kidney after induction with LPS. Recombinant rGILT fused with His6 tag was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Further study revealed that rGILT was capable of catalyzing the reduction of the interchain disulfide bonds from intact IgG. This study shows that rGILT may be involved in the immune response to bacteria challenge and maintain first line of innate immune defense at basal level in O. mykiss. It also provides the basis for investigating on the role of GILT using O. mykiss as an animal model for related studies.
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Identification of interferon-?-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) gene from Mefugu (Takifugu obscures) and its immune response to LPS challenge.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Interferon-?-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) plays a key role in the processing and presentation of MHC class II-restricted antigen (Ag) by catalyzing disulfide bond reduction. In this study, a Mefugu cDNA (ToGILT) encodes a deduced protein of 242 amino acids with a putative molecular weight of 28.6 kDa. It contains typical features of GILT proteins including the signature sequence CQHGX2ECX2NX4C, CXXC motif and other five cysteines. Genomic analysis revealed that ToGILT gene exhibited a similar exon-intron organization to human and mouse GILT. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ToGILT derived from a common ancestor with other vertebrate GILT proteins. The ToGILT mRNA was expressed in a tissue-specific manner and obviously up-regulated in spleen and kidney after LPS induction. These results suggest that ToGILT may be involved in the immune response to bacteria challenge in Takifugu obscurus.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.