A simple and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of clevidipine and its primary metabolite H152/81 in dog plasma after protein precipitation with acetonitrile using felodipine as the internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a XB C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 3.5?m) under isocratic conditions with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 20mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 7.0) (40:60, v/v) at the flow rate of 0.3ml/min. The run time was 5.5min. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the transitions of m/z 473.0?338.2 for clevidipine, m/z 356.1?324.0 for H152/81 and m/z 383.9?338.2 for the IS. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, stability, matrix effect and recovery over a concentration range of 0.15-200ng/ml for clevidipine and 10-2000ng/ml for H152/81, respectively. The analytical method was applied to support a pharmacokinetic study of simultaneous determination of clevidipine and H152/81 in ten healthy beagle dogs.
A mitomycin C (MMC)-soybean phosphatidyhlcholine complex loaded in phytosomes was previously reported for the purpose of developing a MMC drug delivery system (Mol. Pharmaceutics 2013, 10, 90-101), but this approach was limited by rapid elimination from the body and lack of target specificity. In this article, to overcome these limitations, MMC-soybean phosphatidyhlcholine complex-loaded phytosomes (MMC-loaded phytosomes) as drug carriers were surface-functionalized with folate-PEG (FA-PEG) to achieve reduced toxicity and a superior MMC-mediated therapeutic effect. For this purpose, FA was conjugated to DSPE-PEG-NH2, and the resultant DSPE-PEG-FA was introduced into the lipid moiety of the phytosomes via a postinsertion technique. The prepared FA-PEG-functionalized MMC-loaded phytosomes (FA-PEG-MMC-loaded phytosomes) have a particle size of 201.9 ± 2.4 nm, a PDI of 0.143 ± 0.010, a zeta potential of -27.50 ± 1.67 mV, a spherical shape, and sustained drug release. The remarkable features of FA-PEG-MMC-loaded phytosomes included increased cellular uptake in HeLa cells and higher accumulation in H22 tumor-bearing mice over that of the PEG-MMC-loaded phytosomes. Furthermore, FA-PEG-MMC-loaded phytosomes were associated with enhanced cytotoxic activity in vitro and an improved antitumor effect in vivo compared to that resulting from free MMC injection. These results suggest that FA-PEG-MMC-loaded phytosomes may be useful drug delivery systems for widening the therapeutic window of MMC in clinical trials.
Recently, methotrexate (MTX) has been used to target to folate (FA) receptor-overexpressing cancer cells for targeted drug delivery. However, the systematic evaluation of MTX as a Janus-like agent has not been reported before. Here, we explored the validity of using MTX playing an early-phase cancer-specific targeting ligand cooperated with a late-phase therapeutic anticancer agent based on the PEGylated chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) as drug carriers. Some advantages of these nanoscaled drug delivery systems are as follows: (1) the NPs can ensure minimal premature release of MTX at off-target site to reduce the side effects to normal tissue; (2) MTX can function as a targeting ligand at target site prior to cellular uptake; and (3) once internalized by the target cell, the NPs can function as a prodrug formulation, releasing biologically active MTX inside the cells. The (MTX?+?PEG)-CS-NPs presented a sustained/proteases-mediated drug release. More importantly, compared with the PEG-CS-NPs and (FA?+?PEG)-CS-NPs, the (MTX?+?PEG)-CS-NPs showed a greater cellular uptake. Furthermore, the (MTX?+?PEG)-CS-NPs demonstrated a superior cytotoxicity compare to the free MTX. Our findings therefore validated that the MTX-loaded PEGylated CS-NPs can simultaneously target and treat FA receptor-overexpressing cancer cells.
Most present drug-phospholipid delivery systems were based on a water-insoluble drug-phospholipid complex but rarely water-soluble drug-phospholipid complex. Mitomycin C (MMC) is a water-soluble anticancer drug extensively used in first-line chemotherapy but is limited by its poor aqueous stability in vitro, rapid elimination from the body, and lack of target specificity. In this article, we report the MMC-soybean phosphatidylcholine complex-loaded PEG-lipid-PLA hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) with Folate (FA) functionalization (FA-PEG-PE-PLA NPs@MMC-SPC) for targeted drug delivery and dual-controlled drug release. FA-PEG-PE-PLA NPs@MMC-SPC comprise a hydrophobic core (PLA) loaded with MMC-SPC, an amphiphilic lipid interface layer (PE), a hydrophilic shell (PEG), and a targeting ligand (FA) on the surface, with a spherical shape, a nanoscaled particle size, and high drug encapsulation efficiency of almost 95%. The advantage of the new drug delivery systems is the early phase controlled drug release by the drug-phospholipid complex and the late-phase controlled drug release by the pH-sensitive polymer-lipid hybrid NPs. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolysis assays demonstrated that the drug carriers were cytocompatible and hemocompatible. The pharmacokinetics study in rats showed that FA-PEG-PE-PLA NPs@MMC-SPC significantly prolonged the blood circulation time compared to that of the free MMC. More importantly, FA-PEG-PE-PLA NPs@MMC-SPC presented the enhanced cell uptake/cytotoxicity in vitro and superior tumor accumulation/therapeutic efficacy in vivo while reducing the systemic toxicity. A significant accumulation of MMC in the nuclei as the site of MMC action achieved in FA-PEG-PE-PLA NPs@MMC-SPC made them ideal for MMC drug delivery. This study may provide an effective strategy for the design and development of the water-soluble drug-phospholipid complex-based targeted drug delivery and sustained/controlled drug release.
Codelivery of multiple drugs with one kind of drug carriers provided a promising strategy to suppress the drug resistance and achieve the synergistic therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. In this paper, we successfully developed both methotrexate (MTX) and mitomycin C (MMC) loaded PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) as drug delivery systems, in which MTX, as a folic acid analogue, was also employed as a tumor-targeting ligand. The new drug delivery systems can coordinate the early phase targeting effect with the late-phase anticancer effect. The (MTX+MMC)-PEG-CS-NPs possessed nanoscaled particle size, narrow particle size distribution, and appropriate multiple drug loading content and simultaneously sustained drug release. In vitro cell viability tests indicated that the (MTX+MMC)-PEG-CS-NPs exhibited concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Moreover, in vitro cellular uptake suggested that the (MTX+MMC)-PEG-CS-NPs could be efficiently taken up by cancer cells by FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. On the other hand, the (MTX+MMC)-PEG-CS-NPs can codelivery MTX and MMC to not only achieve the high accumulation at the tumor site but also more efficiently suppress the tumor cells growth than the delivery of either drug alone, indicating a synergistic effect. In fact, the codelivery of two anticancer drugs with distinct functions and different anticancer mechanisms was key to opening the door to their targeted drug delivery and synergistic anticancer effect. Therefore, the (MTX+MMC)-PEG-CS-NPs as targeted drug codelivery systems might have important potential in clinical implications for combination cancer chemotherapy.
Monodispersed magnetite (Fe3O4) particles were synthesized using a high-temperature hydrolysis reaction with the assistance of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as capping ligands. These particles were composed of small primary nanocrystals and their sizes could be tuned from about 400 to about 800 nm by simply changing the EDTA or precursor concentration. Surface-tethered EDTA made the particles highly water-dispersible. The as-prepared magnetite particles also showed superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and their magnetic properties were size dependent. In addition, the particles had a strong response to external magnetic field due to their high magnetization saturation values. These properties were very important for some potential biomedical applications, such as magnetic separation and magnetic-targeted substrate delivery.
Mitomycin C is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for a wide spectrum of cancers, but its clinical use is still hindered by the mitomycin C (MMC) delivery systems. In this study, the MMC-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a single-step assembly (ACS Nano 2012, 6:4955 to 4965) of MMC-soybean phosphatidyhlcholine (SPC) complex (Mol. Pharmaceutics 2013, 10:90 to 101) and biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) polymers for intravenous MMC delivery. The advantage of the MMC-SPC complex on the polymer-lipid hybrid NPs was that MMC-SPC was used as a structural element to offer the integrity of the hybrid NPs, served as a drug preparation to increase the effectiveness and safety and control the release of MMC, and acted as an emulsifier to facilitate and stabilize the formation. Compared to the PLA NPs/MMC, the PLA NPs/MMC-SPC showed a significant accumulation of MMC in the nuclei as the action site of MMC. The PLA NPs/MMC-SPC also exhibited a significantly higher anticancer effect compared to the PLA NPs/MMC or free MMC injection in vitro and in vivo. These results suggested that the MMC-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid NPs might be useful and efficient drug delivery systems for widening the therapeutic window of MMC and bringing the clinical use of MMC one step closer to reality.
We present a dialysis technique to direct the self-assembly of paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) using methoxypolyethylene glycol-poly(d,l-lactide) (MPEG-PLA) and PLA, respectively. The composition, morphology, particle size and zeta potential, drug loading content, and drug encapsulation efficiency of both PTX-PLA NPs and PTX-MPEG-PLA NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The passive targeting effect and in vitro cell viability of the PTX-MPEG-PLA NPs on HeLa cells were demonstrated by comparative cellular uptake and MTT assay of the PTX-PLA NPs. The results showed that the PTX-MPEG-PLA NPs and PTX-PLA NPs presented a hydrodynamic particle size of 179.5 and 441.9 nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.172 and 0.189, a zeta potential of -24.3 and -42.0 mV, drug encapsulation efficiency of 18.3% and 20.0%, and drug-loaded content of 1.83% and 2.00%, respectively. The PTX-MPEG-PLA NPs presented faster release rate with minor initial burst compared to the PTX-PLA NPs. The PTX-MPEG-PLA NPs presented superior cell cytotoxicity and excellent cellular uptake compared to the PTX-PLA NPs. These results suggested that the PTX-MPEG-PLA NPs presented more desirable characteristics for sustained drug delivery compared to PTX-PLA NPs.
A sensitive, simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with positive ion electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine, atorvastatin and its metabolites ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin and para-hydroxy atorvastatin in human plasma. The analytes were extracted from human plasma through liquid-liquid extraction method. A mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl acetate (50:50, v/v) was used as the extractant. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a CAPCELLPAK CR 1:4 (5 ?m, 150 mm × 2.0 mm i.d.) column within 6.0 min with the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer (20mM) containing 0.3% formic acid (50:50, v/v). Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was validated and was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study of combination tablets containing AM and AT with coadministered individual drugs in 50 healthy Chinese male volunteers.
A selective, sensitive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic- tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of iloperidone and its two active metabolites, P88 and P95, in human plasma has been first developed and validated. The analytes and internal standard (IS), pioglitazone hydrochloride, were extracted from human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and separated on a CAPCELL PAK C18 MG IIIcolumn (150mm×2.0mm, 5?m) set at 40°C. The mobile phase was acetonitrile: 5mM ammonium formate containing 0.3% formic acid (pH 4.8) (25:75, v/v), with a flow rate of 0.35mL/min. The mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the transitions m/z 427.2?261.2 for iloperidone, m/z 429.1?261.1 for P88 and P95, and m/z 357.1?133.7 for the I.S. (pioglitazone hydrochloride). The method was validated to be linear over the concentration range of 10-10,000pg/mL for iloperidone and P88, 50-15,000pg/mL for P95. The mean recoveries were more than 78.88%, and the intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 10.24% and accuracy was -5.78 to 5.40%, which indicated that the quantitative method was reliable and accurate. The validated method has been successfully applied to a human pharmacokinetic study of iloperidone and two active metabolites, P88 and P95, after oral administration of 4mg iloperidone tablets in 12 healthy Chinese volunteers.
A novel formulation system of phytosomes loaded with mitomycin C-soybean phosphatidylcholine (MMC-SPC) complex (MMC-loaded phytosomes) was prepared by a solvent evaporation method combined with a nanoprecipitation technique for the purpose of development of an MMC drug delivery system. The MMC-loaded phytosomes were evaluated by average particle size, zeta-potential, and residual drug-loading content as well as an in vitro drug release profile. Furthermore, in vitro stability tests and in vitro/vivo biological evaluations of the MMC-loaded phytosomes were performed. DSC, FTIR, and XRD demonstrated that MMC interacted physically with SPC within the phytosomes. DLS and ELS described a dispersion with an average particle size of 210.87 nm, a narrow size distribution (PDI 0.251), and a zeta-potential of -33.38 mV. SEM, TEM, and AFM images showed that the MMC-loaded phytosomes were spherical and intact vesicles. In vitro stability tests demonstrated that the average particle size and residual drug-loading content of the MMC-loaded phytosomes had no evident change at different storage conditions. In vitro drug release profiles indicated biphasic behavior with an initial burst release, followed by a subsequent prolonged sustained release. In vitro cytotoxicity assays with H(22) cells showed that the MMC-loaded phytosomes had remarkable cytotoxicity. In vivo antitumor effect of the MMC-loaded phytosomes also revealed a dose-dependent and superior curative inhibitory effect on tumor growth without loss of body weight compared to free MMC. Histopathological analysis of specimens taken from tumor tissues indicated that MMC-loaded phytosomes had lethal effect to hepatoma cell. These findings suggested that the MMC-loaded phytosomes can serve as a promising and effective formulation for drug delivery and cancer therapy.
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