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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Discovery and Characterization of the Tuberculosis Drug Lead Ecumicin.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The new tuberculosis (TB) lead ecumicin (1), a cyclic tridecapeptide, was isolated from Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123, following a high-throughput campaign for anti-TB activity. The large molecular weight of 1599 amu detected by LC-HR-MS precluded the initial inference of its molecular formula. The individual building blocks were identified by extensive NMR experiments. The resulting two possible planar structures were distinguished by LC-MS(2). Determination of absolute configuration and unambiguous structural confirmation were carried out by X-ray crystallography and Marfey's analysis.
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A synergistic effect of pretreatment on cell-wall structural changes in barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) for efficient bioethanol production.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an attractive lignocellulosic material and is one of the most abundant renewable resources for fuel-ethanol production. Although it contains high cellulose and hemicellulose contents, it has several challenges and limitations in the process of converting barley straw (BS) to fuel-ethanol. High ash, silica, and lignin contents in barley straw make it an inferior feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreatment plays an important role for structural and compositional changes in increasing the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and makes the whole process economically viable.
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Associations between Genetic Variants and Angiographic Characteristics in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Aim: In this study, we investigated the genetic determinants of lesion characteristics and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and replication genotyping. Methods: The discovery set for GWAS consisted of 667 patients exhibiting angiographically diagnosed CAD with symptoms. For replication genotyping, 837 age- and sex-matched CAD patients were selected. Genetic determinants of lesion characteristics (diffuse vs. non-diffuse lesions), the number of diseased vessels (multi-vessel vs. single vessel disease) and the modified Duke score (high vs. low), which indicates the severity of CAD, were analyzed after adjusting for confounding factors. Results: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs12917449, rs10152898 and rs231150 were associated with diffuse lesions, while rs1225006 and rs6745588 were associated with multi-vessel disease. However, on replication genotyping, no significant associations were found between any of these five SNPs and the lesion characteristics or CAD severity. In contrast, in the combined population of both the discovery and replication sets, genotypes rs125006 of CPNE4 and rs231150 of TRPS1 were found to be significantly associated with the modified Duke score. The addition of rs1225006 to conventional risk factors had significant incremental value in the model of the score. Conclusions: The associations between five SNPs identified using GWAS and angiographic characteristics were not significant in the current replication study. However, two variants, particularly rs1225006, were found to be associated with the severity of CAD in the combined set. These results indicate the potential clinical implication of these variants with respect to the risk of CAD.
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Astaxanthin lowers plasma TAG concentrations and increases hepatic antioxidant gene expression in diet-induced obesity mice.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significantly associated with hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress. We have previously reported that astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, lowers plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in apoE knockout mice. To investigate whether ASTX supplementation can prevent the development of NAFLD in obesity, male C57BL/6J mice (n 8 per group) were fed a high-fat diet (35 %, w/w) supplemented with 0, 0·003, 0·01 or 0·03 % of ASTX (w/w) for 12 weeks. The 0·03 % ASTX-supplemented group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant decrease in plasma TAG concentrations, suggesting that ASTX at a 0·03 % supplementation dosage exerts a hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect. Although there was an increase in the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and diglyceride acyltransferase 2, the mRNA levels of acyl-CoA oxidase 1, a critical enzyme in peroxisomal fatty acid ?-oxidation, exhibited an increase in the 0·03 % ASTX-supplemented group. There was a decrease in plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) concentrations in the 0·03 % ASTX-supplemented group. There was a significant increase in the hepatic mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and its downstream genes, which are critical for endogenous antioxidant mechanism, in the 0·03 % ASTX-supplemented group. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the mRNA abundance of IL-6 in the primary splenocytes isolated from the 0·03 % ASTX-supplemented group upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation when compared with that in the splenocytes isolated from the control group. In conclusion, ASTX supplementation lowered the plasma concentrations of TAG, ALT and AST, increased the hepatic expression of endogenous antioxidant genes, and rendered splenocytes less sensitive to LPS stimulation. Therefore, ASTX may prevent obesity-associated metabolic disturbances and inflammation.
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Genomic Alterations in the RB Pathway Indicate Prognostic Outcomes of Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Purpose: To better understand the complete genomic architecture of lung adenocarcinoma (LA). Experimental Design: We used array experiments to determine copy number variations and sequenced the complete exomes of the 247 LA tumor samples along with matched normal cells obtained from the same patients. Fully annotated clinical data were also available, providing an unprecedented opportunity to assess the impact of genomic alterations on clinical outcomes. Results: We discovered that genomic alternations in the RB pathway are associated with significantly shorter disease-free survival in early-stage LA patients. This association was also observed in our independent validation cohort. The current treatment guidelines for early-stage LA patients recommend follow-up without adjuvant therapy after complete resection, except for high-risk patients. However, our findings raise the interesting possibility that additional clinical interventions might provide medical benefits to early-stage LA patients with genomic alterations in the RB pathway. When examining the association between genomic mutation and histological subtype, we uncovered the characteristic genomic signatures of various histological subtypes. Notably, the solid and the micropapillary subtypes demonstrated great diversity in the mutated genes, while the mucinous subtype exhibited the most unique landscape. This suggests that a more tailored therapeutic approach should be used to treat LA patients. Conclusion: Our analysis of the genomic and clinical data for 247 LAs should help provide a more comprehensive genomic portrait of LA, define molecular signatures of LA subtypes, and lead to the discovery of useful prognostic markers that could be used in personalized treatments for early-stage LA patients.
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Correlation Between Helicobacter pylori Infection, IgE Hypersensitivity, and Allergic Disease in Korean Adults.
Helicobacter
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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The correlation between allergic disease and Helicobacter pylori infection is still controversial in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to determine whether H. pylori infection is related to allergic disease and/or immunoglobulin E (IgE) hypersensitivity in Korean adults.
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Heterolayered, one-dimensional nanobuilding block mat batteries.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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The rapidly approaching smart/wearable energy era necessitates advanced rechargeable power sources with reliable electrochemical properties and versatile form factors. Here, as a unique and promising energy storage system to address this issue, we demonstrate a new class of heterolayered, one-dimensional (1D) nanobuilding block mat (h-nanomat) battery based on unitized separator/electrode assembly (SEA) architecture. The unitized SEAs consist of wood cellulose nanofibril (CNF) separator membranes and metallic current collector-/polymeric binder-free electrodes comprising solely single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-netted electrode active materials (LiFePO4 (cathode) and Li4Ti5O12 (anode) powders are chosen as model systems to explore the proof of concept for h-nanomat batteries). The nanoporous CNF separator plays a critical role in securing the tightly interlocked electrode-separator interface. The SWNTs in the SEAs exhibit multifunctional roles as electron conductive additives, binders, current collectors and also non-Faradaic active materials. This structural/physicochemical uniqueness of the SEAs allows significant improvements in the mass loading of electrode active materials, electron transport pathways, electrolyte accessibility and misalignment-proof of separator/electrode interface. As a result, the h-nanomat batteries, which are easily fabricated by stacking anode SEA and cathode SEA, provide unprecedented advances in the electrochemical performance, shape flexibility and safety tolerance far beyond those achievable with conventional battery technologies. We anticipate that the h-nanomat batteries will open 1D nanobuilding block-driven new architectural design/opportunity for development of next-generation energy storage systems.
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Exploratory investigation of genetic associations with basal cell carcinoma risk: genome-wide association study in Jeju Island, Korea.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Little is known about the genetic associations with Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) risk in non-Caucasian populations, in which BCC is rare, as in Korea. We here conducted a pilot genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 12 patients and 48 standard controls.
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Arabidopsis AtERF71/HRE2 functions as transcriptional activator via cis-acting GCC box or DRE/CRT element and is involved in root development through regulation of root cell expansion.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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AtERF71/HRE2 binds to GCC box or DRE/CRT as transcription activator and plays an important role in root development via root cell expansion regulation. AtERF71/HRE2 transcription factor, a member of the AP2/ERF family, plays a key role in the stress response. GCC box and DRE/CRT, both essential cis-acting elements, have been shown to be recognized by AP2/ERF family transcription factors. However, it remains unclear whether or not AtERF71/HRE2 directly interacts with GCC box and/or DRE/CRT. Here, we showed that AtERF71/HRE2 binds to GCC box and DRE/CRT by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Binding of AtERF71/HRE2 to GCC box and DRE/CRT was also detected by fluorescence measurement and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (BIAcore) experiments. Folding properties of AtERF71/HRE2 proteins were characterized by CD spectroscopy, and AtERF71/HRE2 showed thermal stability as evidenced by two endothermic peaks (T d) at 53 and 65 °C. In addition, AtERF71/HRE2 showed transcriptional activation activity via GCC box and DRE/CRT in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Interestingly, AtERF71/HRE2 OXs showed increased primary root length due to elevated root cell expansion. Our data indicate that AtERF71/HRE2 binds to both GCC box and DRE/CRT, transactivates expression of genes downstream via GCC box or DRE/CRT, and plays an important role in root development through regulation of root cell expansion.
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Orange juice intake reduces patient discomfort and is effective for bowel cleansing with polyethylene glycol during bowel preparation.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Many patients report discomfort because of the unpleasant taste of bowel preparation solutions.
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Relationship Between Oxidative Stress and Bone Mass in Obesity and Effects of Berry Supplementation on Bone Remodeling in Obese Male Mice: An Exploratory Study.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Abstract Berry consumption can prevent bone loss. However, the effects of different berries with distinct anthocyanin composition have not been thoroughly examined. The present study compared the effects of blueberry, blackberry, and black currant on bone health using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. To investigate the effect of different berry supplements against a high-fat (HF) diet in vivo, 40 HF diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL mice were assigned into four groups and fed a HF diet (35% w/w) with or without berry supplementation for 12 weeks (n=10). We measured adipose tissue mass (epididymal and retroperitoneal), plasma antioxidant, bone-related biomarkers, femur bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (proximal and distal). Adipose masses were negatively correlated with proximal BMD, but positively associated with plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations (P<.001). Berry supplementation did not change the plasma ferric reducing antioxidant power, SOD, and insulin-like growth factor-1. However, the black currant group exhibited greater plasma alkaline phosphatase compared with the control group (P<.05). BMD in the distal epiphysis was significantly different between the blueberry and blackberry group (P<.05). However, berry supplementation did not affect bone mass compared with control. The present study demonstrates a negative relationship between fat mass and bone mass. In addition, our findings suggest that the anthocyanin composition of berries will affect bone turnover, warranting further research to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
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Upregulation of miR-760 and miR-186 is associated with replicative senescence in human lung fibroblast cells.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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We have previously shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-760, miR-186, miR-337-3p, and miR-216b stimulate premature senescence through protein kinase CK2 (CK2) down-regulation in human colon cancer cells. Here, we examined whether these four miRNAs are involved in the replicative senescence of human lung fibroblast IMR-90 cells. miR-760 and miR-186 were significantly upregulated in replicatively senescent IMR-90 cells, and their joint action with both miR-337-3p and miR-216b was necessary for efficient downregulation of the ? subunit of CK2 (CK2?) in IMR-90 cells. A mutation in any of the four miRNA-binding sequences within the CK2? 3'-untranslated region (UTR) indicated that all four miRNAs should simultaneously bind to the target sites for CK2? downregulation. The four miRNAs increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) staining, p53 and p21(Cip1/WAF1) expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in proliferating IMR-90 cells. CK2? over-expression almost abolished this event. Taken together, the present results suggest that the upregulation of miR-760 and miR-186 is associated with replicative senescence in human lung fibroblast cells, and their cooperative action with miR-337-3p and miR-216b may induce replicative senescence through CK2? downregulation-dependent ROS generation.
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Apolipoprotein e likely contributes to a maturation step of infectious hepatitis C virus particles and interacts with viral envelope glycoproteins.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The assembly of infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles is tightly linked to components of the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) pathway. We and others have shown that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays a major role in production of infectious HCV particles. However, the mechanism by which ApoE contributes to virion assembly/release and how it gets associated with the HCV particle is poorly understood. We found that knockdown of ApoE reduces titers of infectious intra- and extracellular HCV but not of the related dengue virus. ApoE depletion also reduced amounts of extracellular HCV core protein without affecting intracellular core amounts. Moreover, we found that ApoE depletion affected neither formation of nucleocapsids nor their envelopment, suggesting that ApoE acts at a late step of assembly, such as particle maturation and infectivity. Importantly, we demonstrate that ApoE interacts with the HCV envelope glycoproteins, most notably E2. This interaction did not require any other viral proteins and depended on the transmembrane domain of E2 that also was required for recruitment of HCV envelope glycoproteins to detergent-resistant membrane fractions. These results suggest that ApoE plays an important role in HCV particle maturation, presumably by direct interaction with viral envelope glycoproteins.
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Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.
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The relationship of dietary sodium, potassium, fruits, and vegetables intake with blood pressure among Korean adults aged 40 and older.
Nutr Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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The inverse relationships of combined fruits and vegetables intake with blood pressure have been reported. However, whether there are such relationships with salty vegetables has rarely been investigated in epidemiologic studies. We evaluated the relation of combined and separate intake of fruits, vegetable intakes, and salty vegetables, as well as sodium and potassium, with blood pressure among the middle-aged and elderly populations.
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Endoscopic flushing with pronase improves the quantity and quality of gastric biopsy: a prospective study.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Pronase, a proteolytic enzyme, is known to improve mucosal visibility during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), but little is known about its effects on gastric biopsy. This study assessed whether endoscopic flushing with pronase improves the quality of gastric biopsy.
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Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of Ski7 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Ski7 (superkiller protein 7) plays a critical role in the mRNA surveillance pathway. The C-terminal fragment of Ski7 (residues 520-747) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. It was successfully crystallized and preliminary X-ray data were collected to 2.0?Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to a trigonal space group, either P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.5, c = 83.6?Å. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of the C-terminal fragment of Ski7 with a corresponding crystal volume per protein mass (VM) of 2.61?Å(3)?Da(-1) and a solvent content of 52.8% by volume. The merging R factor is 6.6%. Structure determination by MAD phasing is under way.
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Development of colistin resistance in pmrA-, phoP-, parR- and cprR-inactivated mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Colistin susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure that is controlled by the modulation of several two-component regulatory systems. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the role of these two-component systems in the development of colistin resistance in P. aeruginosa.
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Immunoglobulin G4-Related Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis with Skull Involvement.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related hypertrophic pachymeningitis, defined as focally or diffusely thickened dura mater and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with increased IgG4 bearing plasma cells, is a rare disease. Moreover, cases involving bone are even rarer. In this report, the authors describe a case of IgG4-related hypertrophic pachymeningitis involving the skull in a 65-year-old man presenting with generalized tonic seizures. There is a 2.4 cm diameter extra-axial mass at the vertex of the left frontal convexity and thickened dura mater with contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In addition, the skull adjacent to the mass was focally enhanced. He underwent surgical resection of the enhanced mass and skull. Histopathological findings revealed chronic inflammation with fibrosis, and idiopathic hypertrophic intracranial pachymeningitis was considered. However, eight months after surgery, partial seizures developed and brain MR imaging revealed a recurrence adjacent to the previous mass. We decided to perform additional immunohistochemical staining of the previous specimen, instead of a re-excision. Immunohistochemical staining showed markedly increased IgG4 (+) plasma cells. Consequently, IgG4-related hypertrophic meningitis was confirmed. Since then, steroids and immunosuppressant medications were started. Follow-up MR imaging at 3 months after medication initiation demonstrated complete remission. In conclusion, IgG4-related hypertrophic pachymeningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis.
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ID1201, the ethanolic extract of the fruit of Melia toosendan ameliorates impairments in spatial learning and reduces levels of amyloid beta in 5XFAD mice.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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A previous study has demonstrated the anti-amyloidogenic effects of the ethanolic extract of Meliae Fructus (ID1201) using cell lines with stably expressed human Swedish mutant APP695 and ?-secretase 1, and 5Xfamilial AD (FAD) mice carrying five mutations. Here, we investigated the effects of ID1201 on cognitive impairment in 5XFAD mice. Daily administration of ID1201 was commenced at 3 months of age and continued for 3 months. Mice were serially trained in cued/response and place/spatial training tasks in the Morris water maze. After this training, testing for strategy preference was conducted. Non-transgenic control mice with vehicle treatment, vehicle-treated 5XFAD, and ID1201-treated 5XFAD mice showed equivalent performance in cued/response training. However, as training progressed to the subsequent place/spatial learning, vehicle-treated control and ID1201-treated 5XFAD mice differed significantly from vehicle-treated 5XFAD mice in measures of spatial learning (search error and adaptive spatial learning strategy). In the strategy preference test that followed, control mice preferred a place/spatial strategy relative to vehicle-treated 5XFAD mice, but differences between ID1201-treated 5XFAD mice and vehicle-treated 5XFAD mice were not significant. Additionally, ID1201 treatment reduced hippocampal levels of insoluble A?42 and increased cortical levels of soluble amyloid precursor protein ?. These results indicate that ID1201 may possess potential as a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease by decreasing A? deposits.
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Growth characteristics and biofilm formation of various spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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This study investigated the characteristics of spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce including growth at various temperatures, biofilm formation, cell hydrophobicity, and colony spreading. The number of spoilage bacteria present when stored at 35 °C was significantly greater than when stored at lower temperatures, and maximum population size was achieved after 10 h. However, Bacillus pumilus, Dickeya zeae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum Pcc21, and Bacillus pumilus (RDA-R) did not grow at the storage temperature of 5 °C. The biofilm formation by Clavibacter michiganensis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and A. calcoaceticus (RDA-R) are higher than other spoilage bacteria. Biofilm formation showed low correlation between hydrophobicity, and no significant correlation with colony spreading. These results might be used for developing safe storage guidelines for fresh produce at various storage temperatures, and could be basic information on the growth characteristics and biofilm formation properties of spoilage bacteria from fresh produce.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index.
Wanqing Wen, Wei Zheng, Yukinori Okada, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yasuharu Tabara, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Huaixing Li, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Xiaobo Yang, Jiang He, Ying Wu, Meian He, Yi Zhang, Jun Liang, Xiuqing Guo, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Ryan Delahanty, Xingyi Guo, Michiaki Kubo, Ken Yamamoto, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Min Jin Go, Jian Jun Liu, Wei Gan, Ching-Chu Chen, Yong Gao, Shengxu Li, Nanette R Lee, Chen Wu, Xueya Zhou, Huaidong Song, Jie Yao, I-Te Lee, Jirong Long, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Koichi Akiyama, Naoyuki Takashima, Yoon Shin Cho, Rick Th Ong, Ling Lu, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Aihua Tan, Treva K Rice, Linda S Adair, Lixuan Gui, Matthew Allison, Wen-Jane Lee, Qiuyin Cai, Minoru Isomura, Satoshi Umemura, Young Jin Kim, Mark Seielstad, James Hixson, Yong-Bing Xiang, Masato Isono, Bong-Jo Kim, Xueling Sim, Wei Lu, Toru Nabika, Juyoung Lee, Wei-Yen Lim, Yu-Tang Gao, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Dae-Hee Kang, Tien Yin Wong, Chao Agnes Hsiung, I-Chien Wu, Jyh-Ming Jimmy Juang, Jiajun Shi, Bo Youl Choi, Tin Aung, Frank Hu, Mi Kyung Kim, Wei Yen Lim, Tzung-Dao Wang, Min-Ho Shin, Jeannette Lee, Bu-Tian Ji, Young-Hoon Lee, Terri L Young, Dong Hoon Shin, Byung-Yeol Chun, Myeong-Chan Cho, Bok-Ghee Han, Chii-Min Hwu, Themistocles L Assimes, Devin Absher, Xiaofei Yan, Eric Kim, Jane Z Kuo, Soonil Kwon, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der I Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Lu Qi, Dingliang Zhu, Tangchun Wu, Karen L Mohlke, Dongfeng Gu, Zengnan Mo, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Xu Lin, Tetsuro Miki, E Shyong Tai, Jong-Young Lee, Norihiro Kato, Xiao-Ou Shu, Toshihiro Tanaka.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ?2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
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Sex-related differences in the association between waist circumference and bone mineral density in a Korean population.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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Large waist circumference is linked to poor health. Investigations of the relationship between waist circumference, as an index of abdominal fat, and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated the association between abdominal obesity measured using waist circumference and BMD in a large-scale population-based study.
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Digital panoramic radiographs are useful for diagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women.
Gerodontology
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether digital panoramic radiographs could be used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis through evaluation of the radiographs based on the correlation with bone mineral density (BMD).
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Self-reported snoring and carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older adults: the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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We investigated the relation of self-reported snoring with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.
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Egg intake during carbohydrate restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis in metabolic syndrome.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Egg yolk contains bioactive components that improve plasma inflammatory markers and HDL profiles in metabolic syndrome (MetS) under carbohydrate restriction. We further sought to determine whether egg yolk intake affects peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis in MetS, as HDL and its associated lipid transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) reduce the inflammatory potential of leukocytes through modulation of cellular cholesterol content and distribution. Thirty-seven men and women classified with MetS consumed a moderate carbohydrate-restricted diet (25%-30% of energy) for 12 weeks, in addition to consuming either three whole eggs per day (EGG) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB). Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide-induced PBMC IL-1? and TNF? secretion increased from baseline to week 12 in the SUB group only, despite increases in PBMC toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression in the EGG group. Compared to baseline, ABCA1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase mRNA expression increased by week 12 in the EGG group only, whereas changes in PBMC total cholesterol positively correlated with changes in lipid raft content. Together, these findings suggest that intake of whole eggs during carbohydrate restriction alters PBMC inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis in MetS.
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Phospholipase D2 downregulation induces cellular senescence through a reactive oxygen species-p53-p21Cip1/WAF1 pathway.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The expression of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) and PLD2 were found to decrease at the transcription level during both replicative and premature senescence in human lung fibroblast IMR-90 cells. Knockdown of PLD2 dramatically induced senescent phenotype in proliferating IMR-90 cells and wild-type HCT116 colon cancer cells, whereas this response was nearly abolished in p53- or p21(Cip1/WAF1)-null HCT116 cells. PLD2 knockdown increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, and p22(phox) small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced ROS generation and thus suppressed the appearance of senescence markers. Elevated CK2 ? subunit (CK2?) expression repressed PLD2 downregulation-mediated senescence. PLD2 overexpression increased protein kinase CK2 (also known as casein kinase 2) (CK2) activity. Taken together, these results show that PLD2 downregulation causes senescence through the p53-p21(Cip1/WAF1) pathway by stimulating ROS production, which is induced by CK2 inhibition.
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Targeted exon sequencing fails to identify rare coding variants with large effect in rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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IntroductionAlthough it has been suggested that rare coding variants could explain the substantial missing heritability, very few sequencing studies have been performed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to identify novel functional variants with rare to low frequency using targeted exon sequencing of RA in Korea.MethodsWe analyzed targeted exon sequencing data of 398 genes selected from a multifaceted approach in Korean RA patients (n¿=¿1,217) and controls (n¿=¿717). We conducted a single-marker association test and a gene-based analysis of rare variants. For meta-analysis or enrichment test, we also used ethnically matched independent samples of Korean genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (n¿=¿4,799) or immunochip data (n¿=¿4,722).ResultsAfter stringent quality control, we analyzed 10,588 variants of 398 genes from 1,934 Korean RA case-controls. We identified 13 non-synonymous variants with nominal association in single variant association tests. In a meta-analysis, we did not find any novel variant with genome-wide significance for RA risk. Using a gene-based approach, we identified 17 genes with nominal burden signals. Among them, VSTM1 showed the greatest association with RA (P¿=¿7.80¿×¿10¿4). In the enrichment test using Korean GWAS, although the significant signal appeared to be driven by total genic variants, we found no evidence for enriched association of coding variants only with RA.ConclusionsWe were unable to identify rare coding variants with large effect to explain the missing heritability for RA in the current targeted resequencing study. Our study raises skepticism about exon sequencing of targeted genes for complex diseases like RA.
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Rebleeding after initial endoscopic hemostasis in peptic ulcer disease.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Endoscopic hemostasis is the first-line treatment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Although several factors are known to be risk factors for rebleeding, little is known about the use of antithrombotics. We tried to verify whether the use of antithrombotics affects rebleeding rate after a successful endoscopic hemostasis for peptic ulcer disease (PUD). UGIB patients who underwent successful endoscopic hemostasis were included. Rebleeding was diagnosed when the previously treated lesion bled again within 30 days of the initial episode. Of 522 UGIB patients with PUD, rebleeding occurred in 93 patients (17.8%). The rate of rebleeding was higher with aspirin medication (P=0.006) and after a long endoscopic hemostasis (P<0.001). Of all significant variables, procedure time longer than 13.5 min was related to the rate of rebleeding (OR, 2.899; 95% CI, 1.768-4.754; P<0.001) on the logistic regression analysis. The rate of rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis for PUD is higher in the patients after a long endoscopic hemostasis. Endoscopic hemostasis longer than 13.5 min is related to rebleeding after a successful endoscopic hemostasis for PUD.
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Development of cyclobutene- and cyclobutane-functionalized fatty acids with inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Eleven fatty acid analogues incorporating four-membered carbocycles (cyclobutenes, cyclobutanes, cyclobutanones, and cyclobutanols) were investigated for the ability to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). A number of the analogues displayed inhibitory activity against both mycobacterial species in minimal media. Several of the molecules displayed potent levels of inhibition against Mtb, with MIC values equal to or below those observed with the anti-tuberculosis drugs D-cycloserine and isoniazid. In contrast, two of the analogues that display the greatest activity against Mtb failed to inhibit E.?coli growth under either set of conditions. Thus, the active molecules identified herein may provide the basis for the development of anti-mycobacterial agents against Mtb.
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Polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract prevents inflammation in diet-induced obese mice.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Obesity is closely associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation. We investigated if polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent inflammation in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a modified AIN-93M control diet containing high fat/high cholesterol (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol by weight) or the control diet supplemented with 0.1% BCE (wt/wt) for 12 weeks. In BCE-fed mice, the percentage of body weight and adipocyte size of the epididymal fat were significantly lower than those of control mice. There were fewer crown-like structures (CLS) with concomitant decreases in F4/80, cluster of differentiation 68 and inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B kinase ? (IKK?) mRNA in the epididymal adipose of BCE-fed mice. F4/80 and IKK? mRNA levels were positively correlated with CLS number. In the skeletal muscle of mice fed with BCE, mRNA expression of genes involved in energy expenditure and mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPAR?, PPAR?, UCP-2, UCP-3 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, were significantly increased. When splenocytes from BCE-fed mice were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides, tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin-1? mRNA were significantly lower than control splenocytes. Together, the results suggest that BCE supplementation decreases obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue and splenocytes, at least in part, by modulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle.
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The effect of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption on serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Caffeine, a commonly consumed food constituent, is known to exert beneficial physiological effects in humans. There is a lack of comprehensive population data for the effects of caffeine intake on urate metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether coffee, tea, and caffeine intake influences serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. We enrolled 9,400 participants in this study. An assessment of various dietary intake amounts of substances such as coffee and tea was performed using a food frequency questionnaire. The content of caffeine was calculated from coffee (74 mg/cup) and tea (15 mg/cup) intake information from the past year. Multivariate logistic regression models, multiple linear regression models, and analysis of covariance were applied to identify any association of dietary intake with serum uric acid levels or the risk of hyperuricemia. No trends for coffee, tea, or caffeine intake were found according to each quintile with serum uric acid in males, although there were weak, marginally significant trends between the content of coffee and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level in females (p = 0.07 for both). Tea intake in males and caffeine intake in females were significantly different between non-hyperuricemia and hyperuricemia (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively). In addition, a significant association of serum uric acid level with tea intake in males (? = 0.0006, p = 0.02) and with tea intake and caffeine intake in females (? = 0.0003, p = 0.04 and ? = 0.0006, p = 0.02, respectively) was observed. There was no effect of coffee, tea, or caffeine intake on the risk of hyperuricemia in either males or females. This study suggests that caffeine consumption might have an effect on serum uric acid in females. However, coffee, tea, and caffeine intake amounts were not associated with the risk of hyperuricemia.
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Combining the serum pepsinogen level and Helicobacter pylori antibody test for predicting the histology of gastric neoplasm.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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To determine whether the combination test of serum pepsinogen (PG) levels and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibody was effective for predicting the incidence and histology of gastric neoplasms.
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Upregulation of FGFR1 expression is associated with parathyroid carcinogenesis in HPT-JT syndrome due to an HRPT2 splicing mutation.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Mutations of the HRPT2 gene, which are responsible for hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, have been implicated in the development of a high proportion of parathyroid carcinomas. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in expression of the most important genes connected with parathyroid carcinoma between HPT-JT syndrome due to an HRPT2 splicing mutation, normal parathyroid tissue and sporadic parathyroid adenoma. Total RNAs were extracted from parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome harbouring HRPT2 splicing mutation or sporadic parathyroid adenoma and normal parathyroid gland, and subjected to Illumina DASL-based gene expression assay. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis was used to compare gene expression in HPT-JT syndrome, sporadic parathyroid adenoma and normal parathyroid glands. We identified differentially regulated genes in HPT-JT syndrome and sporadic parathyroid adenoma relative to normal parathyroid glands using a combination of Welch's t-test and fold-change analysis. Quantitative PCR, RT-PCR and IHC were used for validation. Sixteen genes differentially regulated in the parathyroid carcinoma were associated with signal pathways, MAPK, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, prostate cancer and apoptosis. FGFR1 expression was confirmed to be significantly upregulated by validation experiments. Our gene expression profiling experiments suggest that upregulated FGFR1 expression appears to be associated with parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome due to an HRPT2 splicing mutation.
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Nutlin-3 induces BCL2A1 expression by activating ELK1 through the mitochondrial p53-ROS-ERK1/2 pathway.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Nutlin-3 which occupies the p53 binding pocket in HDM2, has been reported to activate apoptosis through both the transcriptional activity-dependent and -independent programs of p53. Transcription-independent apoptosis by nutlin-3 is triggered by p53 which is translocated to mitochondria. However, we previously demonstrated that the nutlin-3-induced mitochondrial translocation of p53 stimulates ERK1/2 activation, an anti-apoptosis signal, via mitochondrial ROS generation. We report on how nutlin-3-stimulated ERK1/2 activity inhibits p53-induced apoptosis. Among the anti-apoptotic BCL2 family proteins, BCL2A1 expression was increased by nutlin-3 at both the mRNA and protein levels, and this increase was prevented by the inhibition of ERK1/2. TEMPO, a ROS scavenger, and PFT-? , a blocker of the mitochondrial translocation of p53, also inhibited BCL2A1 expression as well as ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, nutlin-3 stimulated phosphorylation of ELK1, which was prevented by all compounds that inhibited nutlin-3-induced ERK1/2 such as U0126, PFT-? and TEMPO. Moreover, an increase in BCL2A1 expression was weakened by the knockdown of ELK1. Finally, nutlin-3-induced apoptosis was found to be potentiated by the knockdown of BCL2A1, as demonstrated by an increase of in hypo-diploidic cells and Annexin V-positive cells. Parallel to the increase in apoptotic cells, the knockdown of BCL2A1 augmented the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. It is noteworthy that the augmented levels of apoptosis induced by the knockdown of BCL2A1 were comparable to those of apoptosis induced by U0126. Collectively, these results suggest that nutlin-3-activated ERK1/2 may stimulate the transcription of BCL2A1 via the activation of ELK1, and BCL2A1 expression may contribute to the inhibitory effect of ERK1/2 on nutlin-3-induced apoptosis, thereby constituting a negative feedback loop of p53-induced apoptosis.
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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 genotype-specific reference values for plasma homocysteine and serum folate concentrations in korean population aged 45 to 74 years: the Namwon study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The reference interval for plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and serum folate concentrations were estimated. Total of 3,154 reference individuals (1,029 men and 2,125 women) were selected based on stringent exclusion criteria. For plasma tHcy concentration (µM/L), reference values (median [5-95 percentile]) were 7.72 (5.03 to 13.80) and 6.09 (3.95-10.19) in men and women, respectively. For serum folate concentration (nM/L), reference values were 23.71 (11.73-38.44) and 28.95 (15.23-40.44) in men and women, respectively. The tHcy levels of both genders in the present study were lower than those in previous reports from other countries and Korea.
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Lack of association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and carotid atherosclerosis: The Namwon study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Objectives: There is little evidence for an association between gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and carotid atherosclerosis, an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between serum GGT and carotid atherosclerotic parameters, including carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques, in a large general population. Methods: The study population consisted of community-dwelling adults who participated in the baseline survey of the Namwon Study. A total of 9120 subjects aged 45-74 years were included in the analyses. High-resolution B-mode ultrasound was used to measure carotid IMT and to evaluate the presence of carotid plaques. A mean carotid IMT of ?1.0 mm was classified as 'high carotid IMT'. Results: Serum GGT levels were classified into quartiles. In a fully adjusted model, we found no linear trend between GGT quartile and mean carotid IMT (P for trend = 0.167). Compared with the first quartile (the reference category), the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for high carotid IMT were 0.89 (0.68-1.16), 1.10 (0.84-1.43), and 0.97 (0.71-1.33) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles (P for trend = 0.754), respectively. The ORs (95% CIs) for carotid plaques were 0.89 (0.77-1.02), 0.95 (0.82-1.10), and 0.94 (0.79-1.11) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively, in the fully adjusted model (P for trend = 0.644). Conclusions: No significant association of GGT concentration with carotid IMT or plaques was found in this large cross-sectional study. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.
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Gender Differences in the Association between Depressive Symptoms and Carotid Atherosclerosis among Middle-Aged and Older Koreans: The Namwon Study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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We investigated the association of depressive symptoms with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques in the general Korean population. A total of 7,554 Korean males and females aged 45-74 yr who were free from cardiovascular diseases were included in the analyses. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Subjects with a score of ?16 were classified as having clinically significant depressive symptoms. Carotid ultrasonography was used to measure mean carotid IMT (C-IMT) and to determine the presence of plaques. A significant association between depressive symptoms and C-IMT was observed only in females. After adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors, females with depressive symptoms had significantly greater C-IMT than females without depressive symptoms (mean difference 0.011±0.004 mm; 95% confidence interval, 0.003-0.019 mm). Compared with controls, the fully adjusted risk of females with depressive symptoms for abnormal C-IMT (?1.0 mm) was significant (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.30). No significant association between depressive symptoms and carotid plaques was observed in either gender. This study shows a significant association between depressive symptoms and C-IMT in middle-aged and older females.
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Berry anthocyanins suppress the expression and secretion of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-?B independent of NRF2-mediated mechanism.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The objectives of this study were to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins from blueberry (BBA), blackberry (BKA), and blackcurrant (BCA) and to determine the relationship between their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory effect in macrophages. Major anthocyanins in BBA, BKA and BCA were malvidin-3-glucoside (16%), cyanidin-3-glucoside (98%) and delphinidin-3-rutinoside (44%), respectively. BKA showed higher total antioxidant capacity than BBA and BCA. RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated with 0-20 ?g/ml of BBA, BKA and BCA, and subsequently activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to measure proinflammatory cytokine production. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were significantly decreased by all berry anthocyanins at 10 ?g/ml or higher. Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) mRNA levels and secretion were also significantly decreased in LPS-treated macrophages. The levels of the repression were comparable for all berry anthocyanins. LPS-induced nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) p65 translocation to the nucleus was markedly attenuated by all of the berry anthocyanins. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) from nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) mice, BBA, BKA and BCA significantly decreased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels with a concomitant decrease in IL-1? mRNA levels upon LPS stimulation. However, in the BMM from Nrf2(-/-) mice, the anthocyanin fractions were able to significantly decrease IL-1? mRNA despite the fact that ROS levels were not significantly affected. In conclusion, BBA, BKA and BCA exert their anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages, at least in part, by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-?B independent of the NRF2-mediated pathways.
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Arabidopsis HRE1?, a splicing variant of AtERF73/HRE1, functions as a nuclear transcription activator in hypoxia response and root development.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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HRE1? shows transcriptional activation activity in its C-terminal region via GCC box but not DRE/CRT and plays an important role in root development via root meristem cell division regulation. AtERF73/HRE1 protein, a member of the Arabidopsis AP2/ERF family, contains a conserved AP2/ERF DNA-binding domain. Here, we studied the molecular function of HRE1?, a splicing variant of AtERF73/HRE1, as well as its role in root development. HRE1?-overexpressing transgenic plants (OXs) showed tolerance to submergence. HRE1? showed transcriptional activation activity via GCC box but not DRE/CRT. The 121-211 aa region of HRE1? was responsible for the transcriptional activation activity, and the region was conserved among homologs of other species but was not found in other Arabidopsis proteins. HRE1? OXs showed increased primary root length due to elevated root cell division. Our results suggest that HRE1? functions as a transcription activator in the nucleus, and plays an important role in root development through regulation of root meristem cell division.
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The effect of preceding biopsy on complete endoscopic resection in rectal carcinoid tumor.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Biopsy of rectal carcinoid tumor is commonly taken before endoscopic resection. However the preceding biopsy can inhibit complete resection by causing blurred tumor border and fibrosis of the tissue. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of preceding biopsy on complete endoscopic resection in rectal carcinoid tumor. It was also determined if rectal carcinoid tumors can be macroscopically distinguished by endoscopy. We reviewed retrospectively the records of patients with rectal carcinoid tumor who had undergone an endoscopic treatment at our hospital, during a 7-yr period. The resection margin was clear in 57 of 98 cases. The preceding biopsy was taken in 57 cases and the biopsy was significantly associated with the risk of incomplete tumor resection (OR, 3.696; 95% CI, 1.528-8.938, P = 0.004). In 95.9% of the cases, it was possible to suspect a carcinoid tumor by macroscopic appearance during initial endoscopy. The preceding biopsy may disturb complete resection of rectal carcinoid tumor. In most cases, the carcinoid tumor could be suspected by macroscopic appearance. Therefore the preceding biopsy is not essential, and it may be avoided for the complete resection.
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The effect of vitamin C intake on the risk of hyperuricemia and serum uric acid level in Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort.
Joint Bone Spine
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the association between vitamin C intake and risk of hyperuricemia or serum uric acid levels in male and female subjects in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Prospective Cohort.
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Normative and mean carotid intima-media thickness values according to metabolic syndrome in Koreans: the Namwon study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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We determined the gender- and age-specific normative values of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a healthy Korean population. We also present the mean age-specific carotid IMT values according to the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the number of MetS components.
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The association between liver enzymes and risk of type 2 diabetes: the Namwon study.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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We examined the association between liver enzymes and development of type 2 diabetes in a general Korean population.
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Effect of pronase premedication on narrow-band imaging endoscopy in patients with precancerous conditions of stomach.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy improves the detection of intestinal metaplasia. However, strategies to improve the visibility and diagnostic performance of NBI should be sought, as endoscopic views are often obscured by the presence of mucus.
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Transcription factor AP2 epsilon (Tfap2e) regulates neural crest specification in xenopus.
Dev Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Transcription factors Pax3 and Zic1 are two important regulators of cell fate decision at the neural plate border, where they act synergistically to promote neural crest (NC) formation. To understand the role of these factors in NC development, we performed a microarray analysis to identify downstream targets of Pax3 and Zic1 in Xenopus embryos. Among the genes identified was a member of transcription factor activator protein 2 (Tfap2) family, Tfap2 epsilon (Tfap2e). Tfap2e is first expressed at early neurula stage in NC progenitors and Rohon-Beard sensory neurons, and persists in a subset of migrating cranial NC cells as they populate the pharyngeal arches. This is in contrast to other species in which Tfap2e is not detected in the early NC lineage. Tfap2e morpholino-mediated knockdown results in a loss of NC progenitors and an expansion of the neural plate. Tfap2e is also sufficient to activate NC-specific genes in animal cap explants, and gain-of-function experiments in the whole embryo indicate that Tfap2e can promote NC formation. We propose that Tfap2e is a novel player in the gene regulatory network controlling NC specification in Xenopus downstream of Pax3 and Zic1.
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High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in adults aged 50 years and older in Gwangju, Korea: the Dong-gu Study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Vitamin D plays an important role in bone metabolism and maintaining bone health. Recently, new evidence has revealed that vitamin D affects chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in an urban Korean population. This study included 8,976 participants (3,587 men and 5,389 women) aged 50 yr and older. Serum 25(OH)D level was measured by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL] was 59.7% and 86.5% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased significantly with age in men, but not in women and it decreased from April to July, more prominently in men than in women. These results suggest that sun exposure, intake of vitamin D supplement, and regular physical activities is recommended in an urban Koreans, especially in women.
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Periodontal disease associated with blood glucose levels in urban Koreans aged 50 years and older: the Dong-gu study.
Gerodontology
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To investigate the association of periodontal disease and the number of teeth present with the risk of prediabetes and diabetes as well as with blood glucose and HbA1c levels in adult Koreans.
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Mutations and expression of PmrAB and PhoPQ related with colistin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To comprehend the resistance of colistin resistance, we investigated the relationships between amino acid alterations and expression of PmrAB and PhoPQ and colistin resistance in 16 colistin-nonsusceptible clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. In addition, we obtained induced colistin-resistant mutants and their colistin-susceptible revertants. Expression levels of the pmrA, phoP, parR, cprR, and pmrH genes were determined for them. Nine amino acid substitutions unique to 10 colistin-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa (CNPA) isolates were identified: 7 in PmrB and 1 each in PmrA and PhoQ. However, 6 CNPA isolates did not show amino acid substitutions compared with colistin-susceptible P. aeruginosa isolates. Among 16 CNPA isolates, 7 and 8 isolates displayed activated expression of pmrA and phoP, respectively. Activated expression of pmrA and/or phoP was identified in 13 isolates of CNPA isolates, but some had no noticeable PmrAB and PhoPQ amino acid substitutions. In addition, in vitro selected colistin-resistant mutants (P5R and P155R) showed higher expression level in pmrA, phoP, and pmrH than their parent strains (P5 and P155) and colistin-susceptible, revertant strains (P5R-rev and P155R-rev). However, expression of the parR and cprR genes was not consistent. Our data may indicate that amino acid substitutions of PmrAB or PhoPQ do not have an immediate connection with decreased susceptibility of colistin in P. aeruginosa isolates, although activated expression of pmrAB and/or phoPQ resulting in overexpression of pmrH may be required for colistin resistance. Expression of pmrAB or phoPQ related with colistin nonsusceptibility may not explained by a single mechanism, which may suggest that colistin resistance appears easily by diverse pathways in clinical settings as well as in laboratory.
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The Arabidopsis chloroplast protein S-RBP11 is involved in oxidative and salt stress responses.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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S-RBP11, a chloroplast protein, which was isolated using activation tagging system, is shown to be the first Arabidopsis small RNA-binding group protein involved in oxidative and salt stress responses. Activation tagging is one of the most powerful tools in reverse genetics. In this study, we isolated S-RBP11, encoding a small RNA-binding protein in Arabidopsis, by salt-resistant activation tagging line screen and then characterized its function in the abiotic stress response. The isolated activation tagging line of S-RBP11 as well as transgenic plants overexpressing S-RBP11 showed increased tolerance to salt and MV stresses compared to WT plants, whereas s-rbp11 mutants were more sensitive to salt stresses. Transcription of S-RBP11 was elevated upon MV treatment but not NaCl or cold treatment. Interestingly, S-RBP11 protein was localized in the chloroplast and the N-terminal 34 amino acid region of S-RBP11 was necessary for its chloroplast targeting. Our results suggest that S-RBP11 is a chloroplast protein involved in the responses to salt and oxidative stresses.
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APOE polymorphism and carotid atherosclerosis in Korean population: the Dong-gu Study and the Namwon Study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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We evaluated the association between APOE polymorphism and carotid atherosclerosis in two large independent cohorts from South Korea.
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Current progress toward eradicating Helicobacter pylori in East Asian countries: differences in the 2013 revised guidelines between China, Japan, and South Korea.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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New 2013 guidelines on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been published in China, Japan, and South Korea. Like the previous ones, these new guidelines differ between the three countries with regard to the indications for H. pylori eradication, diagnostic methods, and treatment regimens. The most profound change among all of the guidelines is that the Japanese national health insurance system now covers the expenses for all infected subjects up to second-line treatment. This makes the Japanese indications for eradication much wider than those in China and South Korea. With regard to the diagnosis, a serum H. pylori antibody test is not recommended in China, whereas it is considered to be the most reliable method in Japan. A decrease relative to the initial antibody titer of more than 50% after 6-12 mo is considered to be the most accurate method for determining successful eradication in Japan. In contrast, only the urea breath test is recommended after eradication in China, while either noninvasive or invasive methods (except the bacterial culture) are recommended in South Korea. Due to the increased rate of antibiotics resistance, first-line treatment is omitted in China and South Korea in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Notably, the Japanese regimen consists of a lower dose of antibiotics for a shorter duration (7 d) than in the other countries. There is neither 14 d nor bismuth-based regimen in the first-line and second-line treatment in Japan. Such differences among countries might be due to differences in the approvals granted by the governments and national health insurance system in each country. Further studies are required to achieve the best results in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection based on cost-effectiveness in East Asian countries.
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The associations between immunity-related genes and breast cancer prognosis in Korean women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated the role of common genetic variation in immune-related genes on breast cancer disease-free survival (DFS) in Korean women. 107 breast cancer patients of the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS) were selected for this study. A total of 2,432 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 283 immune-related genes were genotyped with the GoldenGate Oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA). A multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model and polygenic risk score model were used to estimate the effects of SNPs on breast cancer prognosis. Harrell's C index was calculated to estimate the predictive accuracy of polygenic risk score model. Subsequently, an extended gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA-SNP) was conducted to approximate the biological pathway. In addition, to confirm our results with current evidence, previous studies were systematically reviewed. Sixty-two SNPs were statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. The most significant SNPs were rs1952438 in SOCS4 gene (hazard ratio (HR)?=?11.99, 95% CI?=?3.62-39.72, P?=?4.84E-05), rs2289278 in TSLP gene (HR?=?4.25, 95% CI?=?2.10-8.62, P?=?5.99E-05) and rs2074724 in HGF gene (HR?=?4.63, 95% CI?=?2.18-9.87, P?=?7.04E-05). In the polygenic risk score model, the HR of women in the 3rd tertile was 6.78 (95% CI?=?1.48-31.06) compared to patients in the 1st tertile of polygenic risk score. Harrell's C index was 0.813 with total patients and 0.924 in 4-fold cross validation. In the pathway analysis, 18 pathways were significantly associated with breast cancer prognosis (P<0.1). The IL-6R, IL-8, IL-10RB, IL-12A, and IL-12B was associated with the prognosis of cancer in data of both our study and a previous study. Therefore, our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in immune-related genes have relevance to breast cancer prognosis among Korean women.
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?-Lapachone ameliorates lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA synthase transgenic mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lipotoxic cardiomyopathy is caused by myocardial lipid accumulation and often occurs in patients with diabetes and obesity. This study investigated the effects of ?-lapachone (?-lap), a natural compound that activates Sirt1 through elevation of the intracellular NAD+ level, on acyl CoA synthase (ACS) transgenic (Tg) mice, which have lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. Oral administration of ?-lap to ACS Tg mice significantly attenuated heart failure and inhibited myocardial accumulation of triacylglycerol. Electron microscopy and measurement of mitochondrial complex II protein and mitochondrial DNA revealed that administration of ?-lap restored mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis in ACS Tg hearts. Accordingly, ?-lap administration significantly increased the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid metabolism that were down-regulated in ACS Tg hearts. ?-lap also restored the activities of Sirt1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the two key regulators of metabolism, which were suppressed in ACS Tg hearts. In H9C2 cells, ?-lap-mediated elevation of AMPK activity was retarded when the level of Sirt1 was reduced by transfection of siRNA against Sirt1. Taken together, these results indicate that ?-lap exerts cardioprotective effects against cardiac lipotoxicity through the activation of Sirt1 and AMPK. ?-lap may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy.
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A randomized controlled clinical trial of two types of tapered implants on immediate loading in the posterior maxilla and mandible.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes and stability following immediate loading of two types of tapered implants in the partially edentulous posterior maxilla and mandible. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial with 1 year of follow-up was performed on participants missing two consecutive teeth in a posterior quadrant with tapered implants with a hybrid textured surface. Group 1 received Osstem TSIII HA implants, and group 2 received Zimmer TSV implants. Group 1 implants were 4.5 or 5.0 mm in diameter, and group 2 implants were 4.7 mm in diameter; all implants were 10 mm long. Subjects received provisional restorations within 48 hours. Definitive restorations were provided 3 months (mandible) or 6 months (maxilla) later. Outcome measures were survival and success rates, marginal bone level change, implant stability quotient, and peri-implant soft tissue indices. Results: Fifty participants completed the trial (group 1: 52 implants in 26 patients; group 2: 48 implants in 24 patients). The success rates were similar-98.1% in group 1 and 97.9% in group 2-at 12 months after immediate loading, but marginal bone loss was significantly different according to the implant design. Implant stability increased significantly in both arches. There were no significant differences in soft tissue indices between implant systems. Conclusion: If high primary stability is acquired, tapered implants with hybrid textured surfaces are predictable for immediate loading in the posterior maxilla and mandible. In spite of the influence of implant design on marginal bone loss, all tapered implants showed successful clinical outcomes and stability in immediate loading.
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Relationship between periodontal disease and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Dong-gu study.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2013
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We assessed the association of periodontal disease and number of missing teeth with subclinical atherosclerosis in an adult Korean population.
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Anosmin-1 contributes to brain tumor malignancy through integrin signal pathways.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Anosmin-1, encoded by the KAL1 gene, is an extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated protein which plays essential roles in the establishment of olfactory and GNRH neurons during early brain development. Loss-of-function mutations of KAL1 results in Kallmann syndrome with delayed puberty and anosmia. There is, however, little comprehension of its role in the developed brain. As reactivation of developmental signal pathways often takes part in tumorigenesis, we investigated if anosmin-1-mediated cellular mechanisms associated with brain tumors. Our meta-analysis of gene expression profiles of patients samples and public microarray datasets indicated that KAL1 mRNA was significantly upregulated in high-grade primary brain tumors compared with the normal brain and low-grade tumors. The tumor-promoting capacity of anosmin-1 was demonstrated in the glioblastoma cell lines, where anosmin-1 enhanced cell motility and proliferation. Notably, anosmin-1 formed a part of active ?1 integrin complex, inducing downstream signaling pathways. ShRNA-mediated knockdown of anosmin-1 attenuated motility and growth of tumor cells and induced apoptosis. Anosmin-1 may also enhance the invasion of tumor cells within the ECM by modulating cell adhesion and activating extracellular proteases. In a mouse xenograft model, anosmin-1-expressing tumors grew faster, indicating the role of anosmin-1 in tumor microenvironment in vivo. Combined, these data suggest that anosmin-1 can facilitate tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival. Therefore, although the normal function of anosmin-1 is required in the proper development of GNRH neurons, overexpression of anosmin-1 in the developed brain may be an underlying mechanism for some brain tumors.
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[Cytomegalovirus jejunitis diagnosed with single-balloon enteroscopy].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are usually diagnosed in immunocompromised patients. A 74-year-old male without any significant medical history visited our center because of abdominal pain and diarrhea which began about a month ago. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental enhanced bowel wall thickening on jejunum and single-balloon enteroscopy showed multiple geographic shaped ulcerations covered with exudates on proximal jejunum. Biopsy samples taken during endoscopic examination demonstrated necrotic fibrinopurulent tissue debris and benign ulcer. Nested-PCR analysis of CMV DNA from jejunal tissue was positive. The patient was finally diagnosed with CMV jejunitis and was treated by intravenous ganciclovir for 14 days after which, abdominal pain and diarrhea improved. Our case shows that CMV jejunitis can occur in an immunocompetent adult as multiple jejunal ulcers which can be diagnosed using a single-balloon enteroscope.
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Dose-Response Relationship Between Serum ?-Glutamyltransferase and Arterial Stiffness in Korean Adults: The Namwon Study.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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Background: The results of epidemiologic studies of the association between serum ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) have been inconsistent. We examined the association between serum GGT and arterial stiffness in a general population of Korean adults.Methods: The study population consisted of 6314 community-dwelling Koreans who participated in the baseline survey of the Namwon Study. We analyzed sex-specific association between serum GGT and arterial stiffness, as measured by baPWV.Results: There was a significant progressive increase in age-adjusted mean baPWV across quartiles of GGT in both sexes. In fully adjusted analysis, as compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios (95% CI) for high baPWV (ie, sex-specific fifth quintile) were 1.51 (1.03-2.23), 1.82 (1.22-2.72), and 2.80 (1.79-4.40) among men (P-trend <0.001), and 1.11 (0.81-1.52), 1.29 (0.94-1.76), and 1.47 (1.04-2.08) among women (P-trend <0.001), for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of GGT, respectively.Conclusions: This population-based study examined the dose-response relationship between GGT and arterial stiffness as measured by baPWV in both sexes. The association between GGT and arterial stiffness was stronger among men. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to examine the relationship between GGT and arterial stiffness and clarify the mechanism underlying the association.
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Premature senescence in human breast cancer and colon cancer cells by tamoxifen-mediated reactive oxygen species generation.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Cellular senescence is an important tumor suppression process in vivo. Tamoxifen is a well-known anti-breast cancer drug; however, its molecular function is poorly understood. Here, we examined whether tamoxifen promotes senescence in breast cancer and colon cancer cells for the first time.
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Nutlin-3 induces HO-1 expression by activating JNK in a transcription-independent manner of p53.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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A recent study reported that p53 can induce HO-1 by directly binding to the putative p53 responsive element in the HO-1 promoter. In this study, we report that nutlin-3, a small molecule antagonist of HDM2, induces the transcription of HO-1 in a transcription-independent manner of p53. Nutlin-3 induced HO-1 expression at the level of transcription in human cancer cells such as U2OS and RKO cells. This induction of HO-1 did not occur in SAOS cells in which p53 was mutated and was prevented by knocking down the p53 protein using p53 siRNA transfection, but not by PFT-?, an inhibitor of the transcriptional activity of p53. Accompanying HO-1 expression, nutlin-3 stimulated the accumulation of ROS and the phosphorylation of MAPKs such as JNK, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. Nutlin-3-induced HO-1 expression was suppressed by TEMPO, a ROS scavenger, and chemical inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK but not ERK1/2. In addition, nutlin?3-induced phosphorylation of JNK but not p38 MAPK was inhibited by TEMPO. Notably, the levels of nutlin-3-induced ROS were correlated with the mitochondrial translocation of p53 and this induction was prevented by PFT-?, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial translocation of p53. Consistent with the effect of the ROS scavenger and MAPK inhibitors, PFT-? reduced HO-1 expression and the phosphorylation of JNK induced by nutlin-3. In the experiments of analyzing cell death, the knockdown of HO-1 augmented nutlin-3-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that nutlin-3 induces HO-1 expression via the activation of both JNK which is dependent on ROS generated by p53 translocated to the mitochondria and p38 MAPK which appears to be stimulated by a ROS-independent mechanism, and this HO-1 induction may inhibit nutlin-3-induced apoptosis, constituting a negative feedback loop of p53-induced apoptosis.
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Wilms tumor gene 1 enhances nutlin-3-induced apoptosis.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Nutlin-3, a human double minute 2 (HDM2) antagonist, induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis by upregulating p53 in cancer cells. WT1, the product of Wilms tumor gene 1, has been shown to interact with p53, but the effect of WT1 on nutlin-3-induced apoptosis has yet to be examined. To address this issue, we analyzed the inhibitory effect of nutlin-3 on cell growth as a function of Wt1 expression status using a Wt1-inducible U2OS cell line. In the absence of Wt1 expression, nutlin-3 induced cell cycle arrest with marginal cytotoxicity. Furthermore, upon Wt1 expression, nutlin-3 exerted a marked degree of cell death, as evidenced by the accumulation of hypo-diploid cells and LDH release. During cell death induction, cytochrome c was released into the cytosol, and caspase-9 and -3 were activated, suggesting that an intrinsic apoptotic pathway may be involved in this cell death. Consistent with this, z-VAD-Fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor and the overexpression of BCL-XL attenuated the cell death. Nutlin-3 caused an increase in the mRNA levels of both BCL-XL and BAK, as well as their corresponding protein levels in mitochondria. In the presence of Wt1, nutlin-3-induced BCL-XL expression was attenuated while the expression of nutlin-3-induced BAK was potentiated. Collectively, these results suggest that WT1 potentiates nutlin-3-induced apoptosis by downregulating the expression of BCL-XL while upregulating that of BAK, which leads to the activation of an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.
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RSK2-induced stress tolerance enhances cell survival signals mediated by inhibition of GSK3? activity.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Our previous studies demonstrated that RSK2 plays a key role in cell proliferation and transformation induced by tumor promoters such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) in mouse and human skin cells. However, no direct evidence has been found regarding the relationship of RSK2 and cell survival. In this study, we found that RSK2 interacted and phosphorylated GSK3? at Ser9. Notably, GSK3? phosphorylation at Ser9 was suppressed in RSK2(-/-) MEFs compared with RSK2(+/+) MEFs by stimulation of EGF and calcium ionophore A23187, a cellular calcium stressor. In proliferation, we found that RSK2 deficiency suppressed cell proliferation compared with RSK2(+/+) MEFs. In contrast, GSK3?(-/-) MEFs induced the cell proliferation compared with GSK3?(+/+) MEFs. Importantly, RSK2(-/-) MEFs were induced severe cellular morphology change by A23187 and enhanced G1/G0 and sub-G1 accumulation of the cell cycle phase compared with RSK2(+/+) MEFs. The sub-G1 induction in RSK2(-/-) MEFs by A23187 was correlated with increase of cytochrome c release, caspase-3 cleavage and apoptotic DNA fragmentation compared with RSK2(+/+) MEFs. Notably, return back of RSK2 into RSK2(-/-) MEFs restored A23187-induced morphological change, and decreased apoptosis, apoptotic DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 induction compared with RSK2(-/-)/mock MEFs. Taken together, our results demonstrated that RSK2 plays an important role in stress-tolerance and cell survival, resulting in cell proliferation and cancer development.
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Depletion of Aurora A leads to upregulation of FoxO1 to induce cell cycle arrest in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Aurora A kinase has drawn considerable attention as a therapeutic target for cancer therapy. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of Aurora A kinase inhibition are still not fully understood. Herein, we show that depletion of Aurora A kinase by RNA interference (RNAi) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells upregulated FoxO1 in a p53-dependent manner, which induces cell cycle arrest. Introduction of an RNAi-resistant Aurora A kinase into Aurora A-knockdown cells resulted in downregulation of FoxO1 expression and rescued proliferation. In addition, silencing of FoxO1 in Aurora A-knockdown cells allowed the cells to exit cytostatic arrest, which, in turn, led to massive cell death. Our results suggest that FoxO1 is responsible for growth arrest at the G2/M phase that is induced by Aurora A kinase inhibition.
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The effect of an APOE polymorphism on cognitive function depends on age.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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It remains controversial whether APOE E4 polymorphism is related to cognitive function in general population. We aimed to evaluate an association between the APOE E4 genotype and cognitive function, and whether this association may differ by age. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of modified Mini-Mental State Examination (K-mMMSE) in 10,371 Koreans aged 45-74 years in Namwon City. According to the APOE E4 status, all participants were classified as non-carriers, heterozygotes, or homozygotes. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between APOE genotypes and cognition. The frequency of APOE genotypes in the study population was 0.4, 10.1, 1.1, 72.9, 14.7 and 0.8 % for E2E2, E2E3, E2E4, E3E3, E3E4, and E4E4, respectively. Compared to the APOE E4 non-carriers, the heterozygotes and homozygotes showed 1.3 and 7.3 % lower K-mMMSE scores at 65-74 years and 0.8 and 4.6 % higher scores at 45-55 years, respectively. Educational attainment modified the effect of APOE E4 on cognitive function in the 45-54 age group (p for interaction =0.003), showing that the E4 carriers with no-formal education showed significantly higher cognitive function than those with formal education. The present study demonstrates that the effect of APOE E4 on cognitive function depends on age and education.
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The association of ankle brachial index with left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular mass index: the Dong-gu study.
VASA
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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To investigate the association between ankle-brachial index (ABI), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in a general population.
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Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks increases the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean population: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study.
Semin. Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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The clinical implication of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on the risk of hyperuricemia has increased, especially in Western population studies. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks made from oranges and apples and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort.
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The impact of serum uric acid level on arterial stiffness and carotid atherosclerosis: the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Serum uric acid level has been found to be associated with a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the topic has not been explored in the general population, especially in Korea. This study was designed to determine whether serum uric acid is associated with carotid atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort study.
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Identification of Pax3 and Zic1 targets in the developing neural crest.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The neural crest (NC) is a multipotent population of migratory cells unique to the vertebrate embryo, contributing to the development of multiple organ systems. Transcription factors pax3 and zic1 are among the earliest genes activated in NC progenitors, and they are both necessary and sufficient to promote NC fate. In order to further characterize the function of these transcription factors during NC development we have used hormone inducible fusion proteins in a Xenopus animal cap assay, and DNA microarray to identify downstream targets of Pax3 and Zic1. Here we present the results of this screen and the initial validation of these targets using quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and morpholinos-mediated knockdown. Among the targets identified we found several well-characterized NC-specific genes, including snail2, foxd3, gbx2, twist, sox8 and sox9, which validate our approach. We also obtained several factors with no known function in Xenopus NC, which represent novel regulators of NC fate. The comprehensive characterization of Pax3 and Zic1 targets function in the NC gene regulatory network, are essential to understanding the mechanisms regulating the emergence of this important cell population.
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