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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparison of Cardiorespiratory Responses During Aquatic and Land Treadmill Exercise in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate cardiorespiratory responses during exercise stress tests using an aquatic treadmill and a land-based treadmill in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 laser mode-locked near 2 ?m by single-walled carbon nanotubes.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We demonstrate passive mode-locking of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser operating on the Ho3+-ion transition 5I7?5I8 near 2 µm using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber. The Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 laser emits nearly transform-limited pulses with duration of 2.8 ps at a repetition rate of 91 MHz. The output power amounts to 97 mW.
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Lifetime Characteristics of Evening-Preference and Irregular Bed-Rise Time Are Associated With Lifetime Seasonal Variation of Mood and Behavior: Comparison Between Individuals With Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Controls.
Behav Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Sleep-wake cycle disruption and seasonal variation in mood and behavior have been associated with mood disorders. This study aimed to investigate the lifetime characteristics of the sleep-wake cycle and its association with the lifetime characteristics of seasonality in individuals with bipolar disorder. Circadian preference, regularity of bed-rise time, and seasonality were evaluated on a lifetime basis using the Composite Scale of Morningness, the Sleep Timing Questionnaire, and the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire in clinically stable individuals with bipolar I/II disorders (n = 103/97) and healthy controls (n = 270). Bipolar groups were more likely to have evening preference and irregular bed-rise time. These characteristics were interrelated and, particularly, more prevalent in bipolar II disorder. Seasonality, which was also more prevalent in the bipolar groups, was associated with evening preference and irregularity of the weekday bed-rise time.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of galangin on lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages via ERK and NF-?B pathway regulation.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Abstract Inflammation is the major symptom of the innate immune response to microbial infection. Macrophages, immune response-related cells, play a role in the inflammatory response. Galangin is a member of the flavonols and is found in Alpinia officinarum, galangal root and propolis. Previous studies have demonstrated that galangin has antioxidant, anticancer, and antineoplastic activities. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin on RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Galagin was not cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells, and nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages was significantly decreased by the addition of 50??M galangin. Moreover, galangin treatment reduced mRNA levels of cytokines, including IL-1? and IL-6, and proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS in LPS-activated macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Galangin treatment also decreased the protein expression levels of iNOS in activated macrophages. Galangin was found to elicit anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ERK and NF-?B-p65 phosphorylation. In addition, galangin-inhibited IL-1? production in LPS-activated macrophages. These results suggest that galangin elicits anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-activated macrophages via the inhibition of ERK, NF-?B-p65 and proinflammatory gene expression.
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Competency and an active learning program in undergraduate nursing education.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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To evaluate the effect of an active learning program on competency of senior students.
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Mechanisms of action of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia and deterioration of cognitive function. Although several drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease delay its onset and slow its progression, still there is no drug with profound disease-modifying effects. Studies aiming the treatment of this neurodegenerative disorder explore various disease mechanisms. Since antiquity, medicinal herbs have been used in traditional medicine. Recent studies suggest that the neurobiological effects of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs may contribute to clinical benefits in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. This review focuses on five phytochemicals, berberine, curcumin, ginsenoside Rg1, puerarin, and silibinin, which have been mostly investigated to treat the development and progression of this neurodegenerative disorder.
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Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ethanolic Extract from Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophage Activation via NF-?B Pathway Regulation.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Inflammation is major symptom of the innate immune response by infection of microbes. Macrophages, one of immune response related cells, play a role in inflammatory response. Recent studies reported that various natural products can regulate the activation of immune cells such as macrophage. Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh is one of brown algae. Recently, various seaweeds including brown algae have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, anti-inflammatory effects of Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh are still unknown. In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (ESH) on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. The ESH was extracted from dried Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh with 70% ethanol and then lyophilized at -40?°C. ESH was not cytotoxic to RAW 264.7, and nitric oxide (NO) production induced by LPS-stimulated macrophage activation was significantly decreased by the addition of 200??g/mL of ESH. Moreover, ESH treatment reduced mRNA level of cytokines, including IL-1?, and pro-inflammatory genes such as iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated macrophage activation in a dose-dependent manner. ESH was found to elicit anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ERK, p-p38 and NF-?B phosphorylation. In addition, ESH inhibited the release of IL-1? in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that ESH elicits anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage activation via the inhibition of ERK, p-p38, NF-?B, and pro-inflammatory gene expression.
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Using an Ankle-Foot Orthosis improves Aerobic Capacity in Subacute Hemiparetic Stroke Patients.
PM R
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To investigate aerobic capacity with and without an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) in subacute hemiparetic stroke patients.
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Clinical and radiologic features of neuroendocrine breast carcinomas.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Neuroendocrine breast carcinoma is a rare and distinct type of breast carcinoma, with morphologic features similar to those of pulmonary and gastrointestinal tract neuroendocrine tumors. More than 50% of cells express neuroendocrine markers. We documented the clinical and radiologic features of 11 patients with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine breast carcinomas. Clinical manifestations included nipple discharge (6 patients) and palpable masses (5 patients). Lesions were mainly oval or irregular on mammography (n = 8), sonography (n = 11), and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 9). Understanding the clinical and radiologic features of neuroendocrine breast carcinoma will facilitate the differential diagnosis.
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Monitoring thiopurine metabolites in korean pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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This study aimed to assess the role of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) as predictors of clinical response and side effects to azathioprine (AZA), and estimate the optimal AZA dose in Korean pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.
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Angelica sinensis induces hair regrowth via the inhibition of apoptosis signaling.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Hair loss is accompanied by keratinocyte apoptosis-regression during catagen and prolonged telogen. Angelica sinensis was reported to promote hair growth in vitro. Based on previous studies, we explored the hair growth effect and the mechanism of A. sinensis related to keratinocyte apoptosis-regression during catagen in mice. The 70% Ethanol extract of A. sinensis was applied topically at doses of 1 and 100 mg/mL to the dorsa of C57BL/6 mice for 2 weeks. The A. sinensis-treated group showed noticeable hair regrowth. Treatment with A. sinensis restored the lengths of hair shafts and size of hair follicles. In addition, mice treated with A. sinensis showed notably decreased apoptotic cells, along with a significant change in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the ratio of a pair of apoptosis-associated proteins: Bcl-2 and Bax. Also, A. sinensis inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, the phosphorylation of I?B-?, the phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein MAP kinases, and the activation of c-Jun with decreased TNF-?. These findings reveal a role of A. sinensis as an alternative treatment for hair loss that acts through hair cycle pathways associated with apoptosis regression during catagen.
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Suppressive effect of tomentosin on the production of inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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In this study, tomentosin, a sesquiterpene lactone was isolated from Inulae flos and its biological activities were investigated. The effects of tomentosin on the production of inflammatory mediators as well as on nuclear factor (NF)-?B and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation were evaluated in RAW264.7 cells. Tomentosin decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by suppressing the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, respectively. Additionally, tomentosin reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Tomentosin not only attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-?B activation via the abrogation of inhibitory (I)?B? degradation and caused a subsequent decrease in nuclear p65 level, but it also suppressed the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (p38 and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK)). These results indicate that tomentosin exerts anti-inflammatory activities through the inhibition of inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, PGE2, COX-2, TNF-?, and IL-6) by regulating NF-?B activation and phosphorylation of p38/JNK kinases in macrophages, thus suggesting that tomentosin could be a potential agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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Novel hole transporting materials based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine derivatives for OLEDs.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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During the past few years, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been increasingly studied due to their emerging applicability. However, some of the properties of existing OLEDs could be improved, such as their overall efficiency and durability; these aspects have been addressed in the current study. A series of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs) 3a-c based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine conjugated with different carbazole or triphenylamine derivatives have been readily synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. The resulting compounds showed good thermal stabilities with high glass transition temperatures between 148 and 165 °C. The introduction of HTMs 3b and 3c into the standard devices ITO/HATCN/NPB/HTMs 3 (indium tin oxide/dipyrazino(2,3-f:2',3'-h)quinoxaline 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile/N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine/HTMs)/CBP (4,4'-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl): 5% Ir(ppy)3/Bphen/LiF/Al (tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al) resulted in significantly enhanced current, power, and external quantum efficiencies (EQE) as compared to the reference device without any layers of HTMs 3.
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Identification of endothelial progenitor cells in the corpus cavernosum in rats.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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The vascular wall resident progenitor cells seem to serve as a local reservoir of cells for vascular repair. It was hypothesized that the corpus cavernosum may contain vascular wall endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). In this study, we investigated the identification and localization of EPCs in the corpus cavernosum in a rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to isolate EPCs from corpora cavernosum. To verify the existence and localization of EPCs, EPC-specific markers (CD34, Flk-1, and VE-cadherin) were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopy. The EPC markers were mainly expressed in the cavernosal sinusoidal endothelial space. EPC-marker-positive cells made up about 3.31% of the corpus cavernosum of normal rat by FACS analysis. As shown by confocal microscopy, CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) and CD34(+)/VE-cadherin(+) positive cells existed in the corpus cavernosum. Our findings imply that regulation of corpus cavernosal EPCs may be a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
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Coexistence of t(15;17) and t(15;16;17) detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia: A case report and literature review.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the t(15;17)(q22;q21), which results in the fusion of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene at 15q22 with the retinoic acid ?-receptor (RARA) gene at 17q21. The current study presents the case of a 54-year-old female with APL carrying the atypical PML/RARA fusion signal due to a novel complex variant translocation t(15;16;17)(q22;q24;q21), as well as the classical PML/RARA fusion signal. Subsequent array comparative genomic hybridization revealed somatic, cryptic deletions on 3p25.3, 8q23.1 and 12p13.2-p13.1, and a duplication on 8q11.2; however, no genetic material loss or gain was observed in the breakpoint regions of chromosomes 15, 16 or 17. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the coexistence of two abnormal clones, one classical and one variant, presenting simultaneously in addition to cryptic chromosome segmental imbalances in an adult APL patient.
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Carbon nanostructure-based saturable absorber mirror for a diode-pumped 500-MHz femtosecond Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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We report a diode-pumped Yb:KLu(WO(4))(2) (Yb:KLuW) laser passively mode-locked by employing a carbon nanostructure-based multi-functional saturable absorber mirror. Two types of carbon nanostructures, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene, were deposited on a single dielectric mirror and applied both for stable mode-locking of the Yb:KLuW laser near 1050 nm in a compact cavity configuration. The carbon nanostructure mode-locked laser delivers 157-fs pulses with output powers of up to 85 mW at a repetition rate of 500 MHz.
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Diagnostic Value of Facial Nerve Antidromic Evoked Potential in Patients With Bell's Palsy: A Preliminary Study.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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To assess the practical diagnostic value of facial nerve antidromic evoked potential (FNAEP), we compared it with the diagnostic value of the electroneurography (ENoG) test in Bell's palsy.
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Sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase Inhibitor, ameliorates SIRT2-induced memory impairment, reduction of cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a class III HDAC, is abundantly expressed in neurons and functions as a mitotic exit regulator in dividing cells. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT2 in cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the mouse dentate gyrus.
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One-pot self-templating synthesis of Pt hollow nanostructures and their catalytic properties for CO oxidation.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Nanoporous Pt hollow nanostructures with octahedral and hexagonal frame-like morphologies were prepared by a novel one-pot self-templating route with no assistance from a preformed template or shape-directing agent. The hexagonal frame-like Pt hollow structures exhibited significantly enhanced catalytic activity toward CO oxidation reaction compared to the octahedral Pt hollow nanostructures due to the higher oxidation state of Pt.
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Ameliorative effects of Schizandra chinensis on osteoporosis via activation of estrogen receptor (ER)-?/-?.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Estrogen deficiency in menopausal women is the main cause of osteoporosis. Phytoestrogen could be a suitable candidate for treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis. Recent studies showed that S. chinensis contains several lignans, which may be phytoestrogen. In this study, we investigated the ameliorative effects of S. chinensis on post-menopausal osteoporosis. 30% ethanol extract of S. chinensis (SC) was administered orally for 6 weeks after 7 weeks of ovariectomized-induced osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was significantly increased following increased serum osteocalcin levels by SC treatment. Histological analysis showed that SC reduced the increased growth plate of the epiphyseal plate in femur. In addition, pores within bone marrow cells filling the lateral and medial epicondyle were decreased. Serum estradiol concentration was significantly increased in the SC-treated group. The expressions of estrogen receptor-? and -? were increased in uterus and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by SC treatment. And two transcriptions of proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-Jun, were suppressed by treatment of SC. From these data, we propose that S. chinensis attenuates post-menopausal osteoporosis with its phytoestrogenic effects. S. chinensis may have the potential to be used as an alternative for treatment of osteoporosis.
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Brain activation in response to craving- and aversion-inducing cues related to alcohol in patients with alcohol dependence.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Episodes of alcohol consumption produce use-limiting aversive effects as well as use-promoting euphoric effects. The brain regions associated with the reward circuit in patients with alcohol dependence (PAD) show signs of conditioning for alcohol craving. Alternatively, brain structures in the medial temporal region are known to be crucial for aversive conditioning. In this study, we compare differences in patterns of brain activation in response to cues that induce cravings versus aversion in PAD.
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Trastuzumab-conjugated liposome-coated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles to target breast cancer.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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To synthesize mesoporous silica-core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) encapsulated by liposomes (Lipo [MNP@m-SiO2]) in order to enhance their stability, allow them to be used in any buffer solution, and to produce trastuzumab-conjugated (Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2]-Her2Ab) nanoparticles to be utilized in vitro for the targeting of breast cancer.
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Usefulness of contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional T1-VISTA in the diagnosis of facial neuritis: Comparison with contrast-enhanced T1-TSE.
J Neuroradiol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Compared with 2-dimensional imaging, 3D-reformatted imaging is a valuable technique that offers improved anatomic accuracy with minimal flow artifact and thinner sections without gaps between slices. Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of CE 3D T1-VISTA with fat suppression sequences compared with CE T1-TSE with fat suppression sequences in patients with facial neuritis.
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Genistein inhibits pro?inflammatory cytokines in human mast cell activation through the inhibition of the ERK pathway.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Anaphylaxis is a rapidly occurring allergic reaction to any foreign substance, including venom from insects, foods and medications, which may cause fatalities. To prevent anaphylaxis, these triggers must be avoided. However, avoidance of numerous triggers is difficult. For this reason, the development of immunotherapeutic adjuvants that suppress the allergic response is important for anaphylaxis control. Mast cells are one of the major inflammatory cells involved in the inflammatory response, which secrete several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)??, interleukin (IL)?6, and IL?1?, and recruits other immune cells. Mast cells are also involved in a number of diseases, such as sinusitis, rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Genistein, a phytoestrogen, has been reported to have anti?oxidative and anti?inflammatory activities. However, the effects of genistein on the anti?inflammatory response of mast cells remain unknown. In the present study, the anti?inflammatory effects of genistein on mast cells were investigated. Genistein significantly decreased IL?6 and IL?1? mRNA levels, as well as IL?6 production in PMA/A23187?induced mast cells activation. In addition, genistein inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in PMA/A23187?induced mast cell activation. However, phosphorylation of p38 was not altered. Thus, these findings indicate that genistein inhibited the inflammatory status of mast cells through inhibition of the ERK pathway.
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Inhibitory Effects of Extract from G. lanceolata on LPS-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide and IL-1? via Down-regulation of MAPK in Macrophages.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Grateloupia lanceolata is a red alga native to coastal areas of East Asia. In this study, extract from G. lanceolata (EGL) was investigated for suppressive effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages. EGL was found to have anti-inflammatory properties with the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and MAPK signaling in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophage with EGL inhibited LPS-induced IL-1? production in a dose-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects were found with the blockage of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and also c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1 and 2 (JNK1/2). These results indicated that anti-inflammatory actions of EGL in RAW 264.7 macrophages involved in the inhibition of LPS-induced p38MAPK/ERK/JNK signaling pathways. In addition, our findings suggest that EGL holds great promise for use in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.
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Mangosteen xanthones suppress hepatitis C virus genome replication.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic single-stranded RNA virus. HCV infection is causally linked with development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Enhanced production of reactive oxygen species by HCV has been implicated to play an important role in HCV-induced pathogenesis. Mangosteen has been widely used as a traditional medicine as well as a dietary supplement ,thanks to its powerful anti-oxidant effect. In the present study, we demonstrated that the ethanol extract from mangosteen fruit peels (MG-EtOH) is able to block HCV genome replication using HCV genotype 1b Bart79I subgenomic (EC50 5.1 ?g/mL) and genotype 2a J6/JFH-1 infectious replicon systems (EC50 3.8 ?g/mL). We found that inhibition of HCV replication by MG-EtOH led to subsequent down-regulation of expression of HCV proteins. Interestingly, MG-EtOH exhibited a modest inhibitory effect on in vitro RNA polymerase activity of NS5B. Among a number of xanthones compounds identified within this MG-EtOH, we discovered ?-MG (EC50 6.3 ?M) and ?-MG (EC50 2.7 ?M) as two major single molecules responsible for suppression of HCV replication. This finding will provide a valuable molecular basis to further develop mangosteen as an important dietary supplement to combat HCV-induced liver diseases.
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Topical application of Kochia scoparia inhibits the development of contact dermatitis in mice.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) has been reported to have anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-pruritic actions. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of externally applied Kochia scoparia water extract (KSW) in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced contact dermatitis mouse model.
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Myricetin induces cell death of human colon cancer cells via BAX/BCL2-dependent pathway.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Myricetin is a flavonol found in various berries, herbs, and walnuts. Previous studies have demonstrated that myricetin has anticancer effects against several types of cancer, including hepatocarcinoma, skin carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. However, the anticancer activity of myricetin on human colon cancer has not been yet established. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects of myricetin on HCT-15 human colon cancer cells. We found that myricetin induces cytotoxicity and DNA condensation in human colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. We also determined that myricetin increases the BCL2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma 2 ratio, but not cleavage of caspase-3 and -9. In addition, myricetin induced the release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria. These results suggest that myricetin induces apoptosis of HCT-15 human colon cancer cells and may prove useful in the development of therapeutic agents for human colon cancer.
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Quality of nursing doctoral education and scholarly performance in U.S. schools of nursing: strategic areas for improvement.
J Prof Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Comprehensive evaluation of quality of nursing doctoral education (QNDE) in research-intensive universities has not been reported since 1980s. This study aimed to examine the QNDE from the perspectives of faculty and students/graduates and their relations to school characteristics, identify factors of the four domains of the QNDE that influence the QNDE, and analyze the relationship of QNDE to scholarly performance of nursing schools in the Unites States. Seventy-two nursing schools offering research-focused nursing doctoral programs with National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding during 2004-2007 participated, and they responded to the questionnaire (see http://gknf.or.kr/research/). Twenty-nine deans/schools, 179 faculties, and 461 students/graduates responded. Both faculty and students/graduates groups rated quality positively. Schools in the top quartile group per NIH funding amounts showed significant differences in QNDE from the bottom quartile group. Program and faculty domains were identified as most important by the top quartile group, and items that were significantly associated with the quality were supportive environment for students' learning, faculty mentorship, and assistance to students in understanding the value of programs of research and scholarship. Percentage of faculty member with research grants was significant predictors for all domains of QNDE, and time to degree was significant in explaining overall quality.
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Expression of TIM-3, Human ?-defensin-2, and FOXP3 and Correlation with Disease Activity in Pediatric Crohn's Disease with Infliximab Therapy.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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This study investigated the expression of T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3), human ?-defensin (HBD)-2, forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), and the frequency of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in children with Crohn's disease (CD) during infliximab therapy.
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A citrus flavonoid, 6-demethoxytangeretin, suppresses production and gene expression of interleukin-6 in human mast cell-1 via anaplastic lymphoma kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Citrus species has been traditionally used in Korea for the treatment of coughing, sputum and dyspepsia. Of the known citrus flavonoids, 6-demethoxytangeretin was reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity. In order to determine the anti-allergic activity of 6-demethoxytangeretin, we examined whether or not 6-demethoxytangeretin was able to suppress activation of the human mast cell line, HMC-1, induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Interleukin-6 production and relevant gene expression in activated HMC-1 cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Also, the involvement of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in activated HMC-1 cells were studied. 6-Demethoxytangeretin suppresses interleukin-6 production, tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression, ALK and MAPKs in HMC-1 cells stimulated by PMA plus A23187. Therefore, it was evident that 6-demethoxytangeretin suppressed activation of HMC-1 cells by PMA plus A23187 by inhibiting the activity of ALK and MAPKs and subsequently suppressing gene expression, which suggest that 6-demethoxytangeretin may be involved in the regulation of mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses.
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Evaluation of an integrated simulation courseware in a pediatric nursing practicum.
J Nurs Educ
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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This study examined the effect of integrated pediatric nursing simulation courseware on students' critical thinking and clinical judgment. Ninety-five senior nursing students participated in this study. Every student followed the established courseware schedule, as well as the regular pediatric nursing practicum. The courseware schedule included two simple simulation scenarios and one comprehensive scenario on the first day of the first, second, and third weeks of the practicum. Students' critical thinking scores showed significant improvement after the use of simulation courseware using high-fidelity simulators and standardized patients. No significant predictors were found for improvement in critical thinking, but bivariate transformation of upper and lower groups in critical thinking achievement revealed a significant difference in the clinical judgment ability between the two groups. Simulation courseware supplementation is an innovative learning strategy for improving nursing students' critical thinking and clinical judgment during clinical practicum. Clinical judgment may play a role in facilitating nursing student improvement in critical thinking ability.
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Simvastatin inhibits transforming growth factor-?1-induced expression of type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA in keloid fibroblasts.
Wound Repair Regen
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor, is used to reduce cholesterol levels. Accumulating evidence has revealed the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin that prevent cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the beneficial effects of statins on fibrosis of various organs have been reported. However, the functional effect of statins on dermal fibrosis of keloids has not yet been explored. The objective of this study was to determine whether simvastatin could affect dermal fibrosis associated with keloids. We examined the effect of simvastatin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-induced production of type I collagen, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF or CCN2), and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Keloid fibroblasts were cultured and exposed to different concentrations of simvastatin in the presence of TGF-?1, and the effects of simvastatin on TGF-?1-induced collagen and CTGF production in keloid fibroblasts were determined. The type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA expression levels and the Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation levels were assessed by Western blotting. The effect of simvastatin on cell viability was evaluated by assessing the colorimetric conversion of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Simvastatin suppressed TGF-?1-induced type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA production in a concentration-dependent manner. The TGF-?1-induced Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation levels were abrogated by simvastatin pretreatment. The inhibition of type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA expression by simvastatin was reversed by geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, suggesting that the simvastatin-induced cellular responses were due to inhibition of small GTPase Rho involvement. A RhoA activation assay showed that preincubation with simvastatin significantly blocked TGF-?1-induced RhoA activation. The Rho-associated coiled kinase inhibitor Y27632 abrogated TGF-?1-induced production of type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA. However, Y27632 had no significant effect on TGF-?1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. In conclusion, the present study suggests that simvastatin is an effective inhibitor of TGF-?1-induced type I collagen, CTGF, and ?-SMA production in keloid fibroblasts.
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An Acidic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 Gene of Oryza grandiglumis is Involved in Disease Resistance Response Against Bacterial Infection.
Plant Pathol. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Wild rice, Oryza grandiglumis shows hyper-resistance response to pathogen infection. In order to identify genes necessary for defense response in plants, we have carried out a subtractive hybridization coupled with a cDNA macroarray. An acidic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 (PR1) gene of the wild rice is highly identical to the acidic PR1 genes of different plant species. The OgPR1a cDNA has an apparent single open reading frame with a predicted molecular mass 40,621 Da and an isoelectic point of 5.14. Both in silico analysis and a transient expression assay in onion epidermal cells revealed that the OgPR1a protein could be localized in intercellular space in plants. The OgPR1a mRNA was strongly transcribed by the exogenous treatment with ethylene and jasmonic acid as well as protein phosphatase inhibitors. Additionally, ectopic expression of the OgPR1a conferred disease resistance on Arabidopsis to the bacterial and fungal infections.
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Residual bone height measured by panoramic radiography in older edentulous Korean patients.
J Adv Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The aim of this study was to obtain statistical data on the residual bone height at different natural tooth positions by panoramic radiography in edentulous Korean patients aged 60-90 years.
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Wound healing properties of a 3-D scaffold comprising soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate and human collagen.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Biomaterials that serve as scaffolds for cell proliferation and differentiation are increasingly being used in wound repair. In this study, the potential regenerative properties of a 3-D scaffold containing soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate (SSGH) and human collagen were evaluated. The scaffold was generated by solid-liquid phase separation and a freeze-drying method using a homogeneous aqueous solution. The porosity, swelling behavior, protein release, cytotoxicity, and antioxidative properties of scaffolds containing various ratios of SSGH and collagen were evaluated. SSGH/collagen scaffolds had a high porosity of 61-81% and swelling behavior studies demonstrated a 50-75% increase in swelling, along with complete protein release in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline. Cytocompatibility of the SSGH/collagen scaffold was demonstrated using mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord. Furthermore, SSGH/collagen efficiently attenuated oxidative stress-induced cell damage. In an in vivo mouse model of wound healing, the SSGH/collagen scaffold accelerated wound re-epithelialization over a 15-day period. Overall, the microporous SSGH/collagen 3-D scaffold maintained optimal hydration of the exposed tissues and decreased wound healing time. These results contribute to the generation of advanced wound healing materials and may have future therapeutic implications.
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Effectiveness of commercial gaming-based virtual reality movement therapy on functional recovery of upper extremity in subacute stroke patients.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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To investigate the effectiveness of commercial gaming-based virtual reality (VR) therapy on the recovery of paretic upper extremity in subacute stroke patients.
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The anti-inflammatory potential of Cortex Phellodendron in vivo and in vitro: down-regulation of NO and iNOS through suppression of NF-?B and MAPK activation.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Cortex Phellodendri amurensis (CPA), derived from the dried bark of Phellodendron amurense Rupr., is a traditional medicine widely used to treat various inflammation-related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanism of CPA in vivo and in vitro. Mice were pretreated with CPA (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for three consecutive days; 2h after the last CPA treatment, mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce endotoxemia (35 mg/kg). After treatment, we assessed survival rate, protein levels and cytokine expression. In addition, we confirmed the molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of CPA in LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The results showed that CPA significantly increased mice survival rates and down-regulated LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1? and macrophage chemo-attractant protein (MCP)-1 in serum. In addition, CPA inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B by degradation and phosphorylation of I?B?, and attenuated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; ERK 1/2, p38 and JNK) from mice challenged with LPS. Moreover, in RAW 264.7 cells, CPA dose-dependently down-regulated LPS-stimulated NO, iNOS expression, as well as inflammatory cytokines and protein expression, consistent with the results in vivo. The anti-inflammatory properties of CPA in vitro and in vivo suggest its utility for attenuating inflammation-related diseases.
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A new full-field digital mammography system with and without the use of an advanced post-processing algorithm: comparison of image quality and diagnostic performance.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To compare new full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with and without use of an advanced post-processing algorithm to improve image quality, lesion detection, diagnostic performance, and priority rank.
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Absorption, tissue distribution, tissue metabolism and safety of ?-mangostin in mangosteen extract using mouse models.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The commercially available herbal products as the form of extract were usually mixtures containing various compounds. In spite of the purported efficacy in each active constituent, the coexisting constituents in the herbal extract might interfere with the efficacy and safety and affect the pharmacokinetic properties of active constituents. To compare for the pharmacokinetic properties of ?-mangostin, a major bioactive compound, in mangosteen extract and pure ?-mangostin, the pharmacokinetics as well as tissue distribution, in vitro metabolism, plasma protein binding and safety evaluation were conducted in mice because a mouse model is required a small amount of compounds and useful to develop disease models. The absorption of ?-mangostin was increased and hepatic metabolism of ?-mangostin was decreased in mice treated with mangosteen extract. However, the intestinal metabolism ?-mangostin is comparable and still extensive in mice treated with ?-mangostin and mangosteen extract. Intraperitorial LC50 of ?-mangostin and mangosteen extract was 150 and 231 mg/kg, respectively. These findings may be valuable to explain the different pharmacokinetics and safety of ?-mangostin and mangosteen extract. Furthermore, these findings are useful to design the efficacy and safety investigation of ?-mangostin or mangosteen extract in mice with disease models or combination therapies to extrapolate into the clinical levels.
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Protective effect of Artemisia annua L. extract against galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Artemisia annua L. (also called qinghao) has been well known as a source of antimalarial drug artemisinins. In addition, the herb was reported to have in vitro antioxidative activity. The present study investigated the protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Qinghao (AA extract) against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice. Feeding AA extract-containing diet lowered serum levels of malondialdehyde and 8-OH-dG that are biomarkers for lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, respectively. Furthermore, AA extract feeding enhanced the activity of NQO1, a typical antioxidant marker enzyme, in tissues such as kidney, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. In conclusion, AA extract was found to have antioxidative activity in mouse model.
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Beneficial effects of Astragaloside IV for hair loss via inhibition of Fas/Fas L-mediated apoptotic signaling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Apoptosis with premature termination of hair follicle growth induces several types of hair loss and is one of the crucial factors of hair loss. Astragaloside IV, which is a major component of Astragalus membranaceus, is a cycloartane triterpene saponin. Although an anti-apoptotic effect of Astragaloside IV has been reported, its effects against hair loss have not been investigated. To explore the underlying mechanisms of Astragaloside IV on apoptotic signaling in hair follicle, the dorsal skin of depilated C57BL/6 mice was topically treated with 1 and 100 ?M Astragaloside IV for 14 days. In Astragaloside IV-treated group, TUNEL-positive cells were reduced. We found that Astragaloside IV blocked the procaspase-8, resulting in the inhibition of caspase-3 and procaspase-9 activities. The changes were accompanied with down-regulation of Bax and p53, and up-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL by Astragaloside IV treatment. In addition, activation of NF-?B and phosphorylation of I?B-? were inhibited, along with decreases in three MAPKs: ERK, SAPK/JNK and p38 by Astragaloside IV. The expressions of KGF, p21, TNF-? and IL-1?, which are keratinocyte terminal differentiation markers associated with catagen, were modulated by treatment with Astragaloside IV. These results demonstrated that Astragaloside IV is concerned with blocking the Fas/Fas L-mediated apoptotic pathway, which would be an alternative therapy for hair loss.
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Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features of adenomyoma in the ampulla of vater.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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Background/Aims: Ampullary adenomyoma is a benign lesion whose malignant potential has yet to be confirmed. Despite its benign nature, adenomyoma is frequently misdiagnosed as a carcinoma or adenoma and is overtreated by extensive surgery. This study was performed to analyze the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features of adenomyomas in the ampulla of Vater. Methods: Nine cases of adenomyoma in the ampulla of Vater, diagnosed in Chungbuk National University Hospital between 2008 and 2011, were enrolled in this study. We reviewed the clinical data on the symptoms, laboratory data, and radiologic findings of the abdominal computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. For pathological analysis, all the slides were reviewed by one pathologist, and immunohistochemical stainings with antibodies against cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and Ki-67 antigen were performed. Results: All the cases were CK7 positive and CK20 negative. A strong cytoplasmic expression of ?-SMA was confirmed in all cases. The Ki-67 index was less than 1% in eight cases and 5% in one case. Four cases underwent endoscopic papillectomy, and one case received surgical ampullectomy during colorectal cancer surgery. Five cases that underwent endoscopic or surgical treatment remained symptom-free for three years. Four cases that were closely observed with repeated endoscopic examinations exhibited no interval changes in the papillary lesions. Conclusions: Endoscopic biopsy and immunohistochemistry can aid in the diagnosis of ampullary adenomyomas. Endoscopic papillectomy or surgical ampullectomy is adequate for the treatment of symptomatic ampullary adenomyomas. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2013;62:352-358).
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Comparison of sonography with sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and core-needle biopsy for initial axillary staging of breast cancer.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Objectives- The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of sonography and sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and core-needle biopsy for initial axillary staging of breast cancer. Methods- Of 220 patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative or prechemotherapy sonography for axillary staging, 52 patients who underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and core-needle biopsy for cortical thickening or a compressed hilum of lymph nodes on sonography were prospectively enrolled. Sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy/core-needle biopsy findings were compared with final pathologic results from sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. Results- Forty-eight patients met the final study criteria; we excluded 4 who had received primary systemic chemotherapy and showed negative fine-needle aspiration biopsy/core-needle biopsy results and negative final postoperative pathologic results. The positive predictive value of axillary sonography was 54%. The sensitivity and specificity of fine-needle aspiration biopsy were 73% and 100%, respectively, and those of core-needle biopsy were 77% and 100%. Results did not differ significantly between sonographically guided core-needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The complication rates of fine-needle aspiration biopsy and core-needle biopsy were both 4%, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy and core-needle biopsy cost $180 and $350, respectively. Conclusions- Both sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and core-needle biopsy were useful for axillary staging of breast cancer with high sensitivity. However, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is recommended based on the advantages of low cost and minimal invasiveness.
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Distinct functions of Ulk1 and Ulk2 in the regulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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ULK1 (unc-51 like kinase 1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating the induction of autophagy. Recent studies using autophagy-defective mouse models, such as atg5- or atg7-deficient mice, revealed an important function of autophagy in adipocyte differentiation. Suppression of adipogenesis in autophagy-defective conditions has made it difficult to study the roles of autophagy in metabolism of differentiated adipocytes. In this study, we established autophagy defective-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and investigated the roles of Ulk1 and its close homolog Ulk2 in lipid and glucose metabolism using the established adipocytes. Through knockdown approaches, we determined that Ulk1 and Ulk2 are important for basal and MTORC1 inhibition-induced autophagy, basal lipolysis, and mitochondrial respiration. However, unlike other autophagy genes (Atg5, Atg13, Rb1cc1/Fip200, and Becn1) Ulk1 was dispensable for adipogenesis without affecting the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (CEBPA) and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). Ulk1 knockdown reduced fatty acid oxidation and enhanced fatty acid uptake, the metabolic changes that could contribute to adipogenesis, whereas Ulk2 knockdown had opposing effects. We also found that the expression levels of insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and glucose transporter 4 (SLC2A4/GLUT4) were increased in Ulk1-silenced adipocytes, which was accompanied by upregulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These results suggest that ULK1, albeit its important autophagic role, regulates lipid metabolism and glucose uptake in adipocytes distinctly from other autophagy proteins.
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Influence of hot carriers on catalytic reaction; Pt nanoparticles on GaN substrates under light irradiation.
Faraday Discuss.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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We report the hot carrier-driven catalytic activity of two-dimensional arrays of Pt nanoparticles on GaN substrate under light irradiation. In order to elucidate the effect of a hot carrier in a catalytic chemical reaction, the CO oxidation reaction was carried out on Pt nanoparticles on p- and n-type GaN under light irradiation. Metal catalysts composed of Pt nanoparticles were prepared using two different preparation methods: the one-pot polyol reduction and are plasma deposition methods. Under light irradiation, the catalytic activity of the Pt nanoparticles supported on GaN exhibited a distinct change depending on the doping type. The catalytic activity of the Pt nanoparticles on the n-doped GaN wafer decreased by 8-28% under light irradiation, compared to no irradiation (i.e., in the dark), while the Pt nanoparticles on the p-doped GaN wafer increased by 11-33% under light irradiation, compared to no irradiation. The catalytic activity increased on the smaller Pt nanoparticles, compared to the larger nanoparticles, presumably due to the mean free path of hot carriers. Based on these results, we conclude that the flow of hot carriers generated at the Pt-GaN interface during light irradiation is responsible for the change in catalytic activity on the Pt nanoparticles.
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Galangin induces human colon cancer cell death via the mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-dependent pathway.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Galangin is a member of flavonols and found in Alpinia officinarum, galangal root, and propolis. Previous studies have demonstrated that galangin has anti-cancer effects on several cancers, including melanoma, hepatoma, and leukaemia cells. However, anti-cancer activity of galangin on human colon cancer has not been established yet. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of galangin on two types of human colon cancer cells (HCT-15 and HT-29). We found that galangin induced apoptosis and DNA condensation of human colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. We also determined that galangin increased the activation of caspase-3 and -9, and release of apoptosis inducing factor from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm by Western blot analysis. In addition, galangin induced human colon cancer cell death through the alteration of mitochondria membrane potential and dysfunction. These results suggest that galangin induces apoptosis of HCT-15 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells and may prove useful in the development of therapeutic agents for human colon cancer.
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Glycolysis inhibition sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer with T790M mutation to irreversible EGFR inhibitors via translational suppression of Mcl-1 by AMPK activation.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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The secondary EGF receptor (EGFR) T790M is the most common mechanism of resistance to reversible EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating EGFR mutations. Although afatinib (BIBW2992), a second-generation irreversible EGFR-TKI, was expected to overcome the acquired resistance, it showed limited efficacy in a recent phase III clinical study. In this study, we found that the inhibition of glycolysis using 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) improves the efficacy of afatinib in H1975 and PC9-GR NSCLC cells with EGFR T790M. Treatment with the combination of 2DG and afatinib induced intracellular ATP depletion in both H1975 and PC9-GR cells, resulting in activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK activation played a central role in the cytotoxicity of the combined treatment with 2DG and afatinib through the inhibition of mTOR. The alteration of the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway by the inhibition of glucose metabolism induced specific downregulation of Mcl-1, a member of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family, through translational control. The enhancement of afatinib sensitivity by 2DG was confirmed in the in vivo PC9-GR xenograft model. In conclusion, this study examined whether the inhibition of glucose metabolism using 2DG enhances sensitivity to afatinib in NSCLC cells with EGFR T790M through the regulation of the AMPK/mTOR/Mcl-1 signaling pathway. These data suggest that the combined use of an inhibitor of glucose metabolism and afatinib is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with acquired resistance to reversible EGFR-TKIs due to secondary EGFR T790M.
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Adverse events associated with azathioprine treatment in korean pediatric inflammatory bowel disease patients.
Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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This study was aimed to evaluate the frequency and course of adverse events associated with azathioprine treatment in Korean pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
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Inhibitory effect of Coptis chinensis on inflammation in LPS-induced endotoxemia.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Rhizoma coptidis (RC) has been used as a remedy for inflammation-related diseases in traditional medicine. Although it is known to have anti-inflammatory activities, its mechanism of action on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation has not yet been identified in detail.
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Effects of reduced prolamin on seed storage protein composition and the nutritional quality of rice.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Rice seed storage proteins accumulate in two types of protein body (PB-I and PB-II) that are nutrient sources for animals. PB-I is indigestible and negatively affects rice protein quality. To improve the nutritional value of rice seeds we are aiming to engineer the composition and accumulation of endogenous seed storage proteins. In this study we generated transgenic rice plants in which 13 kD prolamin genes were suppressed by RNA interference (13 kD pro-RNAi). Analysis based on qRT-PCR confirmed that the targeted 13 kD prolamins were markedly suppressed, and were compensated for by an increase in other storage proteins including 10 kD prolamin, glutelins, and chaperone proteins. The storage protein profiles further revealed that the levels of 13 kD prolamins were significantly reduced, while that of the glutelin precursor was slightly increased and the remaining storage proteins did not change. Amino acid analysis showed that the reduction of 13 kD prolamins resulted in a 28% increase in the lysine content relative to the wild type, indicating that the 13 kD pro-RNAi rice seeds are more nutritious. Furthermore, a reduction in the levels of 13 kD prolamins resulted in abnormal formation of PB-I, which was small and had no lamellar structure. These results suggest that alteration of prolamins can contribute to improving the nutritional quality of rice.
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Evaluation of a 5-year cervical cancer prevention project in Indonesia: opportunities, issues, and challenges.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The Cervical and Breast Cancer Prevention (CECAP) Project sought to develop a national model for cervical cancer prevention in Indonesia based on visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) to detect abnormal changes in the cervix. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pilot project introducing VIA and cryotherapy in Indonesia and to identify lessons learned that could be applied to the national scale-up of cervical cancer prevention services.
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Microstructural change of the brain in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a voxel-based investigation by MRI.
COPD
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Cognitive deficit is a common problem in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate if MRI can demonstrate microstructural volume loss and the diffusion anisotropic change in subjects with COPD, compared with cognitively normal (CN) subjects.
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The impact of cigarette smoking on the frequency of and qualitative differences in KRAS mutations in Korean patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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This study was designed to determine the relationship of cigarette smoking to the frequency and qualitative differences among KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas from Korean patients.
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Effects of Acupuncture on 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Though the effects of acupuncture in atopic dermatitis have been proven in clinical studies, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effectiveness and mechanism of action for acupuncture treatment on the LI11 meridian point for treatment of allergic contact dermatitis. BALB/c mice received 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) application to induce skin inflammation. Acupuncture treatment on LI11 significantly inhibited cutaneous hyperplasia, serum IgE levels, and expression of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-4, IL-8, and TNF- ? ) mRNA and NF- ? B, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 proteins. Acupuncture treatment of local points also inhibited cutaneous hyperplasia and serum IgE levels; however, it was not effective in regulating proinflammatory cytokines and proteins. In addition, LI11 treatment is more effective at reducing serum IgE levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteins than local point treatment. These results suggest that acupuncture treatment is effective in alleviating allergic contact dermatitis by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteins.
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Korean Red Ginseng protects endothelial cells from serum-deprived apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family protein dynamics and caspase S-nitrosylation.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) is a traditional herbal medicine utilized to prevent endothelium dysfunction in the cardiovascular system; however, its underlying mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. We here examined the pharmacological effect and molecular mechanism of KRGE on apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a serum-deprived apoptosis model. KRGE protected HUVECs from serum-deprived apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-9/-3 activation. This protective effect was significantly higher than that of American ginseng extract. KRGE treatment increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL protein expression and Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation. Moreover, KRGE prevented serum deprivation-induced subcellular redistribution of these proteins between the mitochondrion and the cytosol, resulting in suppression of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. In addition, KRGE increased nitric oxide (NO) production via Akt-dependent activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), as well as inhibited caspase-9/-3 activities. These increases were reversed by co-treatment of cells with inhibitors of eNOS and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and pre-incubation of cell lysates in dithiothreitol, indicating KRGE induces NO-mediated caspase modification. Indeed, KRGE inhibited caspase-3 activity via S-nitrosylation. These findings suggest that KRGE prevents serum deprivation-induced HUVEC apoptosis via increased Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL protein expression, PI3K/Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation, and eNOS/NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of caspases. The cytoprotective property of KRGE may be valuable for developing new pharmaceutical means that limit endothelial cell death induced during the pathogenesis of vascular diseases.
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Establishing midwifery in low-resource settings: Guidance from a mixed-methods evaluation of the Afghanistan midwifery education program.
Midwifery
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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the shortage of skilled birth attendants has been a key factor in the high maternal and newborn mortality in Afghanistan. Efforts to strengthen pre-service midwifery education in Afghanistan have increased the number of midwives from 467 in 2002 to 2954 in 2010.
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The assessment of reliability of cognitive evoked potential in normal person.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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To evaluate intra-tester reliability of P300 more precisely, this study was designed. Event-related potential (ERP) is the result of endogenous brain response following cognitive stimulus. The P300 component of the human ERP is a positive wave with a latency of 300 ms or greater. Our purpose of this study was to estimate reliability of P300 latency and amplitude with 30 normal persons without head injury, as well as to set up them as the reference values in the event that they would be found to be highly reliable.
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Evaluation on the efficacy and safety of calcium metaphosphate coated fixture.
J Adv Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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The purpose of this study was to assess the difference in efficacy between calcium metaphosphate (CMP)-coated implant fixtures and conventional resorbable blasted media (RBM) processed implant fixtures.
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The effects of assisted ergometer training with a functional electrical stimulation on exercise capacity and functional ability in subacute stroke patients.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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To determine if assistive ergometer training can improve the functional ability and aerobic capacity of subacute stroke patients and if functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the paretic leg during ergometer cycling has additional effects.
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Different anti-apoptotic effects of normal and asthmatic serum on normal eosinophil apoptosis depending on house dust mite-specific IgE.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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We investigated the effect of asthmatic serum on constitutive eosinophil apoptosis in normal subjects. Eosinophil apoptosis in normal subjects was inhibited by asthmatic serum but not normal serum. In a detailed analysis based on the presence of house dust mite (HDM) IgE, HDM IgE-positive (+) asthmatic serum was more effective for eosinophil apoptosis than that of HDM IgE-negative (-) asthmatic serum. HDM IgE+ asthmatic serum inhibited both HDM IgE- and HDM IgE+ normal eosinophil apoptosis, and HDM IgE- asthmatic serum suppressed eosinophil apoptosis of HDM IgE+ normal. HDM IgE- normal serum did not inhibit either HDM IgE- or HDM IgE+ normal eosinophil apoptosis, and HDM IgE+ normal serum inhibited HDM IgE+ normal eosinophil apoptosis. The kind of HDM IgE (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus-specific IgE and Dermatophagoides farinae-specific IgE) was not related to the effect of asthmatic serum on eosinophil apoptosis. Extracts of DP and DF, Der p1, and Der p2, were not effective for eosinophil apoptosis. HDM IgE+ asthmatic serum inhibited cleavage of procaspase 9 and procaspase 3. Asthmatic serum induced Akt and ERK phosphorylation, and ERK activation was suppressed by AKTi. Taken together, asthmatic serum inhibited normal eosinophil apoptosis via PI3K/Akt/ERK cascade. The novel approach taken in this study provided better insight into HDM-associated anti-apoptotic mechanism of eosinophils in patients with asthma.
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Serum adiponectin and type 2 diabetes: a 6-year follow-up cohort study.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Studies on factors which may predict the risk of diabetes are scarce. This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the association between adiponectin and type 2 diabetes among Korean men and women.
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Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography.
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Promoting mother-infant interaction and infant mental health in low-income Korean families: attachment-based cognitive behavioral approach.
J Spec Pediatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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This study evaluated the attachment-based cognitive behavioral approach (ACBA) to enhance mother-infant interaction and infant mental health.
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Transcriptional and post-translational regulation of Bim is essential for TGF-? and TNF-?-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cell.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) are well known as central signaling molecules in natural antitumor mechanisms. However, some cancer cells are resistant to TNF-? or TGF-?-induced death signaling. Herein, we investigated synergistic activities of TGF-? and TNF-? and molecular mechanisms involved in apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.
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Hot carrier-driven catalytic reactions on Pt-CdSe-Pt nanodumbbells and Pt/GaN under light irradiation.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Hybrid nanocatalysts consisting of metal nanoparticle-semiconductor junctions offer an interesting platform to study the role of metal-oxide interfaces and hot electron flows in heterogeneous catalysis. Here, we report that hot carriers generated upon photon absorption significantly impact the catalytic activity of CO oxidation. We found that Pt-CdSe-Pt nanodumbbells exhibit a higher turnover frequency by a factor of 2 during irradiation by light with energy higher than the bandgap of CdSe, while the turnover rate on bare Pt nanoparticles did not depend on light irradiation. We found that Pt nanoparticles deposited on a GaN substrate under light irradiation exhibit changes in catalytic activity of CO oxidation that depends on the type of doping of the GaN. We suppose that hot electrons are generated upon the absorption of photons by the semiconducting nanorods or substrates, whereafter the hot electrons are injected into the Pt nanoparticles, resulting in the change in catalytic activity. The results imply that hot carrier flows generated during light irradiation significantly influence the catalytic activity of CO oxidation, leading to potential applications as a hot electron-based catalytic actuator.
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18?-Glycyrrhetinic acid from licorice root impairs dendritic cells maturation and Th1 immune responses.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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18?-Glycyrrhetinic acid (?-GA) is a natural triterpenoid compound derived from licorice root. ?-GA has been demonstrated to exert antiviral and antitumor effects. However, the effects of the maturation and immunostimulatory functions of dendritic cells (DCs) remain to be clearly elucidated. In this study, we attempted to determine whether ?-GA could influence DCs surface molecule expression, antigen uptake capacity, cytokine production and capacity to induce T-cell differentiation. The DCs used in this study were derived from murine bone marrow cells, and were used as immature or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mature DCs. The DCs were then assessed with regard to surface molecules expression, cytokine production, capacity to induce T-cell differentiation and proliferation. ?-GA was shown to significantly suppress the expression of surface molecules CD80, CD86, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II as well as the levels of interleukin-12 production in LPS-stimulated DCs. Moreover, ?-GA-treated DCs showed an impaired induction of the T helper type 1 immune response. These findings provide important understanding of the immunopharmacological functions of ?-GA and have ramifications for the development of therapeutic adjuvants for the treatment of DCs-related acute and chronic diseases.
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The unusual ultrasound features of a breast cholesterol granuloma manifesting as an intracystic mass: case report and literature review.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Cholesterol granuloma of the breast is a rare, benign disease. Here, we present the unique ultrasonographic findings of breast cholesterol granuloma manifesting as an intracystic mass. The findings of this case report may help expand existing knowledge regarding differential diagnosis of intracystic breast masses, which are found on ultrasonographic examination.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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