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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Isolation of ?-glucosidase inhibitors including a new flavonol glycoside from Dendrobium devonianum.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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From the whole plant of Dendrobium devonianum, a new flavonol glycoside, 5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-flavone-7-O-[?-D-apiosyl-(1 ? 6)]-?-D-glucoside, as well as 13 known compounds, was isolated. Their structures were identified based on extensive spectroscopic studies including HR-EI-MS, (1)H, (13)C NMR, DEPT, H-H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra. The new compound and gigantol were evaluated for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and both displayed more potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity than acarbose, one of the most potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor drugs, with the inhibition rate of 43.4% and 36.7%, respectively, in the concentration of 437.5 ?mol/L.
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CTRP3 modulates the expression and secretion of adipokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of C1q/TNF related protein 3 (CTRP3), a novel adipokine, on the expression and secretion of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and apelin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The effect of insulin resistance on the impact was also investigated. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250, 1250 ng/ml) CTRP3 for 12 h, and with 250 ng/ml CTRP3 for different times (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 h). The expression of adipokines between normal and insulin resistant adipocytes, as well as between the adipocytes pre-treated with and without Compound C were compared. The secretion and gene expression of the adipokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The relative expression of AMPK (thr172) was detected by western blot analysis. With the increase in CTRP3 concentration or the duration of the treatment, the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and apelin were all increased accordingly, which was significant under the treatment with 250 ng/ml and 1250 ng/ml CTRP3 for 12 h as well as 250 ng/ml CTRP3 for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h. Gene expression showed a similar trend. The secretion and gene expression of adipokines in insulin resistant adipocytes were all decreased significantly in comparison with that of normal adipocytes. The secretion secretion and gene expression of adiponectin, and the relative expression of AMPK (thr172) in adipocytes pre-treated with Compound C were decreased significantly in comparison with that in adipocytes without Compound C pretreatment. Thus, CTRP3 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, and apelin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, while insulin resistance inhibited the effects. CTRP3 up-regulated the expression of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through AMPK signaling pathway.
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Expression of CTRP3, a novel adipokine, in rats at different pathogenic stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the impacts of GLP-1 receptor agonist on it.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the expression of C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3) in rats at different pathogenic stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the impacts of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist on it. Male wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet for 10 weeks to induce insulin resistance (IR) and then were given low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection to induce T2DM. Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 receptor agonist, was subcutaneous injected to the IR rats and T2DM rats for 4 weeks. The expression of CTRP3 mRNA and protein in epididymis adipose tissue of rats at the stage of IR was lower significantly than that of normal control (NC) rats and decreased more when they were at the stage of overt T2DM (all P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). After the treatment with Ex-4, the mRNA and protein expressions of CTRP3 were increased by 15.5% (P < 0.01) and 14.8% (P < 0.05), respectively, in IR rats and increased by 20.6% (P < 0.01) and 16.5% (P < 0.05), respectively, in T2DM rats. Overall, this study found that the expression of CTRP3 in visceral adipose tissue was progressively decreased in a T2DM rat model from the pathogenic stage of IR to overt diabetes, while Ex-4 treatment increased its expression in such animals.
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Two new Aprostocetus species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), fortuitous parasitoids of invasive eulophid gall inducers (Tetrastichinae) on Eucalyptus and Erythrina.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Two closely related new species of Aprostocetus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) are described as fortuitous parasitoids of invasive gall inducers in two other genera of Tetrastichinae, Leptocybe Fisher & LaSalle and Quadrastichus Girault. Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu is a parasitoid of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle on Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) in China and Thailand, and A. felix La Salle, Yang & Lin is a parasitoid of Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim on Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) in Taiwan. Epitetrastichus nigriventris Girault, 1913 is removed from synonymy from Aprostocetus gala (Walker), and treated as the valid species A. nigriventris (Girault). 
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Spiro-fused six-membered N-heterocyclic carbene: a new scaffold toward unique properties and activities.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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A six-membered N-heterocyclic carbene fused with a spiro-scaffold is designed. The new NHC shows stronger ?-donation ability than typical 5-membered NHCs. This property leads to interesting reactivities of this spiro-fused six-membered NHC. For example, the NHC-BF3 Lewis pair complex can be readily prepared by using LiBF4 as the BF3 source, or through a direct bond-reconstruction of the tetrafluoroborate salt NHC·HBF4.
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Organosilane surfactant-directed synthesis of hierarchical porous SAPO-34 catalysts with excellent MTO performance.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Using an organosilane surfactant as the mesopore director, hierarchical porous silicoaluminophosphate SAPO-34 is obtained as an assembly of nanocrystallites intergrown into cubic micrometer-sized crystals, which show excellent performance in MTO reactions with a remarkably prolonged catalyst lifetime and enhanced selectivity of ethylene and propylene compared to the conventional microporous SAPO-34.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Aeolesthes oenochrous (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): an endangered and colorful longhorn beetle.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Abstract Aeolesthes oenochrous (Fairmaire), a large and colorful longhorn beetle, is an endangered species in Taiwan. Its complete mitogenome, 15,747?bp, shows a typical coleopteran organization, containing 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one A?+?T rich region. Two protein coding genes, i.e. COI and ND1, have the atypical start codon of AAT and TTG, respectively. The third nucleotide position of codons shows extremely low guanine content. In the A?+?T rich region, there were two poly-T stretches with 14 and 13 thymine each. These two poly-T stretches were clarified by the cloning method.
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Acute liver failure secondary to hepatic compartment syndrome: case report and literature review.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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We report a case of a patient with a delayed large intrahepatic hematoma and transient decline in hemoglobin to 62 g/L 18 days after liver injury. Abdominal computed tomography revealed seriously flattening of inferior vena cava, which was consistent with compression by the enlarging hematoma. Although traditionally there was no indication for surgical intervention, the patient developed acute liver failure with a progressive increase in liver enzymes and bilirubin. We postulated the ever-expanding hematoma might have led to dramatically elevated intrahepatic pressures that in turn restricted hepatic vein reflux and subsequently resulted in acute liver failure. Therefore, she underwent percutaneous drainage, and the decompression instantly reversed the liver injury. This phenomenon is similar to the well-described abdominal compartment syndrome, which is defined as new onset organ dysfunction or failure secondary to sustained intraabdominal hypertension and in which decompression is the standard treatment.
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CTRP3 improves the insulin sensitivity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting inflammation and ameliorating insulin signalling transduction.
Endokrynol Pol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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C1q/TNF-related Protein-3 (CTRP3) is a novel adipokine with multiple effects such as lowering glucose levels, inhibiting glyconeogenesis in the liver, and increasing angiogenesis and anti-inflammation. But little is known about the effects of CTRP3 on insulin resistance in adipose tissue. This study aims to investigate the effects and mechanisms of CTRP3 on the insulin sensitivity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
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Filamentous supramolecular peptide-drug conjugates as highly efficient drug delivery vehicles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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We report here a facile approach to prepare filamentous supramolecular peptide-drug conjugates with precise drug/carrier stoichiometry, nearly 100% loading efficiency and exceptional anti-cancer drug efficacy for chemotherapy.
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Multivariate-statistical assessment of heavy metals for agricultural soils in northern China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The study evaluated eight heavy metals content and soil pollution from agricultural soils in northern China. Multivariate and geostatistical analysis approaches were used to determine the anthropogenic and natural contribution of soil heavy metal concentrations. Single pollution index and integrated pollution index could be used to evaluate soil heavy metal risk. The results show that the first factor explains 27.3% of the eight soil heavy metals with strong positive loadings on Cu, Zn, and Cd, which indicates that Cu, Zn, and Cd are associated with and controlled by anthropic activities. The average value of heavy metal is lower than the second grade standard values of soil environmental quality standards in China. Single pollution index is lower than 1, and the Nemerow integrated pollution index is 0.305, which means that study area has not been polluted. The semivariograms of soil heavy metal single pollution index fitted spherical and exponential models. The variable ratio of single pollution index showed moderately spatial dependence. Heavy metal contents showed relative safety in the study area.
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Turn-on electrochemiluminescence sensing of Cd(2+) based on CdTe quantum dots.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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A simple and sensitive method for the detection of cadmium ion was proposed based on the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of thioglycolic acid capped-CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs). The ECL of CdTe QDs was firstly quenched by introduction of S(2)(-) and was restored due to following addition of Cd(2+), on the basis of which, a "turn-on" ECL method for the detection of Cd(2+) was demonstrated. The ECL of CdTe QDs exhibited linear response toward Cd(2+) concentration in the range from 6.3nM to 3.4?M (R=0.999) with a detection limit of 2.1nM. The proposed assay was simple, sensitive, selective, and practicable in real water samples.
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Confusing untypical intestinal Behcet's disease: Skip ulcers with severe lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
World J Gastrointest Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Behcet's disease (BD) is a rare and life-long disorder characterized by inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body. BD was originally described in 1937 as a syndrome involving oral and genital ulceration in addition to ocular inflammation. Intestinal BD refers to colonic ulcerative lesions documented by objective measures in patients with BD. Many studies have shown that over 40% of BD patients have gastrointestinal complaints. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, anorexia and abdominal distension. Although gastrointestinal symptoms are common, the demonstration of gastrointestinal ulcers is rare. This so-called intestinal BD accounts for approximately 1% of cases. There is no specific test for BD, and the diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. The manifestations of intestinal BD are similar to those of other colitis conditions such as Crohn's disease or intestinal tuberculosis, thus, it is challenging for gastroenterologists to accurately diagnose intestinal BD in patients with ileo-colonic ulcers. However, giant ulcers distributed in the esophagus and ileocecal junction with gastrointestinal hemorrhage are rare in intestinal BD. Here, we present a case of untypical intestinal BD. The patient had recurrent aphthous ulceration of the oral mucosa, and esophageal and ileo-colonic ulceration, but no typical extra-intestinal symptoms. During examination, the patient had massive acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient underwent ileostomy after an emergency right hemicolectomy and partial ileectomy, and was subsequently diagnosed with incomplete-type intestinal BD by pathology. The literature on the evaluation and management of this condition is reviewed.
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A top-down approach to prepare silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve nanocrystals with improved catalytic activity.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Silicoaluminophosphate SAPO-34 molecular sieve nanocrystals have been prepared by a post-synthesis milling and recrystallization method, which is further proven to be universally applicable to other SAPO molecular sieves. The obtained SAPO-34 with reduced Si enrichment on the external surface shows considerably improved catalytic performance in the MTO reaction.
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Effects of Intraosseous Erythropoietin during Hemorrhagic Shock in Swine.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine whether erythropoietin given during hemorrhagic shock (HS) ameliorates organ injury while improving resuscitation and survival.
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Promoter methylation status of MGMT, hMSH2, and hMLH1 and its relationship to corresponding protein expression and TP53 mutations in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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To determine the relevance of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), human mutS homolog 2 (hMSH2), and human mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) in TP53 mutations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we employed methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting technology and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze promoter hypermethylation of MGMT, hMSH2, and hMLH1, respectively, in 51 paired tumors and their adjacent normal tissues. The protein expression of the three proteins was also evaluated by Western blot analysis, and the PCR products of TP53, from exon 5 to exon 8, were directly sequenced to measure the mutation spectrum. Esophageal tumor tissues embraced statistically higher MGMT and hMSH2 promoter methylation level than normal tissue. The promoter methylation status of MGMT and hMSH2 corresponds positively with the protein expression level of MGMT and hMSH2. However, such relevance was not found for hMLH1. Furthermore, TP53 mutation status was well associated with MGMT and hMSH2 promoter methylation status, indicating that silencing of the two genes could lead to TP53 mutation in ESCC.
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[A novel naphthalene derivative from Aloe barbadensis].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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To investigate the chemical constituents of A. barbadensis, aqueous extract of the plant was subjected to preparative medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC). The chemical structures were mainly determined by spectroscopic evidences (UV, IR, HR-MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HSQC, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC) and chemical methods. A new O, O, O-triglucosylated naphthalene derivative, together with two known 6-phenyl-2-pyrone derivatives and four 5-methylchromones, were isolated and identified as 1-((3-((4- O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-xylopyranosyloxymethyl)-1-hydroxy-8-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)naphthalene-2-y])-ethanone (1), 10-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl aloenin (2), aloenin B (3), aloesin (4), 8-C-glucosyl-(R)-aloesol (5), 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol (6), and isoaloeresin D (7). Compound 1 is a novel naphthalene derivative and named as aloveroside B, compounds 2-3 are isolated from this Aloe species for the first time.
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Mature BDNF promotes the growth of glioma cells in vitro.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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High-grade glioma is incurable and is associated with a short survival time and a poor prognosis. There are two forms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF and mature BDNF, which exert opposite effects. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane receptor signalling systems: p75NTR and TrkB. The important roles of the BDNF/TrkB signalling system in tumour cell proliferation and survival have been demonstrated. However, few studies have been able to distinguish mature BDNF from proBDNF due to the limitation of specific antibodies. Using specific proBDNF antibodies, we demonstrated that the proBDNF/p75NTR pathway appears to inhibit malignant glioma cell growth and migration. In the present study using specific mature BDNF antibodies, we found that mature BDNF inhibited C6 glioma cell apoptosis and increased cell growth and migration in vitro. Our data suggest that the counterbalance between mature BDNF and proBDNF may regulate tumour growth.
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Erythromycin pretreatment induces tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia through up-regulation of nNOS but not down-regulation of HIF-1? in rats.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether the antibiotic erythromycin induces tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia, and the possible underlying mechanism including the involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). In rat focal cerebral ischemia models, we found that erythromycin preconditioning could significantly decrease the cerebral infarct volume and brain edema. Meanwhile, the neurological deficits from day 4 through 7 after surgery were also remarkably decreased after erythromycin preconditioning. Moreover, erythromycin preconditioning induced significantly increased nNOS levels and decreased HIF-1? levels in both mRNA and protein expression. This study for the first time indicated that erythromycin preconditioning could induce focal brain ischemic tolerance and attenuate brain injury of subsequent transient focal cerebral ischemia. The potential mechanism may be due to up-regulation of nNOS, but the HIF-1? system was not involved.
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Cationic dirhodium carboxylate-catalyzed synthesis of dihydropyrimidones from propargyl ureas.
Tetrahedron
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Cationic Rh(II) complexes are able to catalyze the regioselective hydroamination of propargyl ureas in a 6-endo fashion. This transformation permits access to interesting substitution patterns of dihydropyrimidines which have found use as nucleotide exchange factor inhibitors.
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Amyloid beta???? (A???) up-regulates the expression of sortilin via the p75(NTR)/RhoA signaling pathway.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Sortilin, a Golgi sorting protein and a member of the VPS10P family, is the co-receptor for proneurotrophins, regulates protein trafficking, targets proteins to lysosomes, and regulates low density lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and regulation of sortilin in Alzheimers disease (AD). A significantly increased level of sortilin was found in human AD brain and in the brains of 6-month-old swedish-amyloid precursor protein/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. A??? enhanced the protein and mRNA expression levels of sortilin in a dose- and time-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y cells, but had no effect on sorLA. In addition, proBDNF also significantly increased the protein and mRNA expression of sortilin in these cells. The recombinant extracellular domain of p75(NTR) (P75ECD-FC), or the antibody against the extracellular domain of p75(NTR), blocked the up-regulation of sortilin induced by Amyloid-? protein (A?), suggesting that A??? increased the expression level of sortilin and mRNA in SH-SY5Y via the p75(NTR) receptor. Inhibition of ROCK, but not Jun N-terminal kinase, suppressed constitutive and A???-induced expression of sortilin. In conclusion, this study shows that sortilin expression is increased in the AD brain in human and mice and that A??? oligomer increases sortilin gene and protein expression through p75(NTR) and RhoA signaling pathways, suggesting a potential physiological interaction of A??? and sortilin in Alzheimers disease.
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Characterization of a gene encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize up-regulated by salicylic acid, abscisic acid and high boron supply.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Clathrin, a three-legged triskelion composed of three clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and three light chains (CLCs), plays a critical role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the genes ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 encoding clathrin heavy chain in maize were cloned and characterized for the first time in monocots. ZmCHC1 encodes a 1693-amino acid-protein including 29 exons and 28 introns, and ZmCHC2 encodes a 1746-amino acid-protein including 28 exons and 27 introns. The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1, and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 suggest their similar functions in CME. ZmCHC1 gene is predominantly expressed in maize roots instead of ubiquitous expression of ZmCHC2. Consistent with a typical predicted salicylic acid (SA)-responsive element and four predicted ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter sequence of ZmCHC1, the expression of ZmCHC1 instead of ZmCHC2 in maize roots is significantly up-regulated by SA or ABA, suggesting that ZmCHC1 gene may be involved in the SA signaling pathway in maize defense responses. The expressions of ZmCHC1 and ZmCHC2 genes in maize are down-regulated by azide or cold treatment, further revealing the energy requirement of CME and suggesting that CME in plants is sensitive to low temperatures.
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Determination of ATP using a double-receptor sandwich method based on molecularly imprinted membrane and fluorescence-labeled uranyl-salophen complex.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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A double-receptor sandwich method for the fluorescence determination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is proposed in this paper. The solid phase receptor on the surface of glass slides is a molecularly imprinted membrane (MIM) containing an artificial nanocavity. It is constructed by a molecular imprinting technique using adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as a template molecule. The labeled receptor is a uranyl-salophen complex containing a fluorescent group or uranyl-salophen-fluorescein (USF). It is synthesized with salophen, 5-aminofluorescein, and uranyl. In a procedure of determining ATP, ATP in sample solution is first adsorbed on the surface of the glass slide through the combination of the AMP group in ATP with the nanocavity in MIM. Then, the adsorbed ATP binds USF through the coordination reaction of the phosphate group in ATP with uranyl in USF to form a sandwich-type structure of MIM-ATP-USF. The amount of ATP is detected through the fluorescence determination of USF bound on the slide. Under optimal conditions, the linear range for the determination of ATP is 0.3 to 4.8 nmol/mL with a detection limit of 0.041 nmol/mL. The proposed method has been successfully employed for the determination of ATP in real samples with the recoveries of 98.5 to 102.5 %.
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Determination of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate using a double-receptor sandwich type fluorescence sensing method based on uranyl-salophen complexes.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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In this paper, we report a double-receptor sandwich type fluorescence sensing method for the determination of fructose bisphosphates (FBPs) using fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP) as a model analyte based on uranyl-salophen complexes. The solid phase receptor is an immobilized uranyl-salophen (IUS) complex which is bound on the surface of glass slides by covalent bonds. The labeled receptor is another uranyl-salophen complex containing a fluorescence group, or uranyl-salophen-fluorescein (USF). In the procedure of determining F-1,6-BP in sample solution, F-1,6-BP is first adsorbed on the surface of the glass slide through the coordination reaction of F-1,6-BP with IUS. It then binds USF through another coordination reaction to form a sandwich-type structure of IUS-F-1,6-BP-USF. The amount of F-1,6-BP is detected by the determination of the fluorescence intensity of IUS-F-1,6-BP-USF bound on the glass slide. Under optimal conditions, the linear range for the detection of F-1,6-BP is 0.05-5.0 nmol mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.027 nmol mL(-1). The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of F-1,6-BP in real samples with satisfactory results.
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Snoring in a sitting position and neck circumference are predictors of sleep apnea in Chinese patients.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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BACKGROUND: Snoring is a common symptom among the adult population, and it is the most common complaint in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. Patients who snore in a sitting position while taking a nap or sleeping may have a narrower upper airway. The aim of this study was to evaluate if snoring in a sitting position is a predictor of OSA in patients. METHOD: We prospectively enrolled 166 SS+ (with a history of snoring in a sitting position) subjects and 139 SS- (who denied having a history of snoring in a sitting position) patients. All of the participants received questionnaires as well as a standard polysomnography thereafter. RESULT: Patients with self-reported snoring in a sitting position (with a tilt position greater than 70°, SS+ group) had a higher body mass index as well as greater neck, waist, and buttock circumference and scored higher on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. During the polysomnographic study, the SS+ group had a higher percentage of N1 sleep and lower percentage of N2 sleep. In addition, the SS+ group had a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as well as higher arousal index and oxygen desaturation index. The sensitivity and specificity of the SS+ group for OSA (defined as AHI???5) were 0.59 and 0.73, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 0.93. The likelihood ratio was 2.2. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of the SS+ group for moderate to severe OSA (defined as AHI???15) were 0.82 and 0.48, respectively. Both SS+ and greater neck circumference have a high likelihood ratio for diagnosing OSA. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the symptoms of self-reported snoring in a sitting position and greater neck circumference can be useful clinical predictors of OSA in Chinese patients.
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Novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex Mono-Pt induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells, distinct from cisplatin.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Failure to engage apoptosis appears to be a leading mechanism of resistance to traditional platinum drugs in patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, an alternative strategy to induce cell death is needed for the chemotherapy of this apoptosis-resistant cancer. Here we report that autophagic cell death, distinct from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, is triggered by a novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex named Mono-Pt in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Mono-Pt-induced cell death has the following features: cytoplasmic vacuolation, caspase-independent, no nuclear fragmentation or chromatin condensation, and no apoptotic bodies. These characteristics integrally indicated that Mono-Pt, rather than cisplatin, initiated a nonapoptotic cell death in Caov-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with Mono-Pt but not with cisplatin produced an increasing punctate distribution of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and an increasing ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Mono-Pt also caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, Mono-Pt-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the knockdown of either BECN1 or ATG7 gene expression, or by autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine, chloroquine and bafilomycin A 1. Moreover, the effect of Mono-Pt involved the AKT1-MTOR-RPS6KB1 pathway and MAPK1 (ERK2)/MAPK3 (ERK1) signaling, since the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased, while the MAPK1/3 inhibitor U0126 decreased Mono-Pt-induced autophagic cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that Mono-Pt exerts anticancer effect via autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant ovarian cancer. These findings lead to increased options for anticancer platinum drugs to induce cell death in cancer.
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ProBDNF and its receptors are upregulated in glioma and inhibit the growth of glioma cells in vitro.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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High-grade glioma is incurable, with a short survival time and poor prognosis. The increased expression of p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) is a characteristic of high-grade glioma, but the potential significance of increased p75NTR in this tumor is not fully understood. Since p75NTR is the receptor for the precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF), it is suggested that proBDNF may have an impact on glioma.
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LiCu2[BP2O8(OH)2]: a chiral open-framework copper borophosphate via spontaneous asymmetrical crystallization.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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A new chiral copper borophosphate, LiCu2[BP2O8(OH)2] (1), was crystallized from achiral inorganic raw materials in boric acid flux reaction. The structure features a 9-ring channel enclosed by triple right-handed helices. The bulk sample exhibits optical activity confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, indicating an interesting spontaneous resolution phenomenon.
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Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) interacts with androgen receptor in the nucleus and modulates androgen-dependent transcription.
BMC Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-inducible DNA transcription factors, and is the major mediator of male sexual development, prostate growth and the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Cell and gene specific regulation by the AR is determined by availability of and interaction with sets of key accessory cofactors. Ski-interacting protein (SKIP; SNW1, NCOA62) is a cofactor shown to interact with several NRs and a diverse range of other transcription factors. Interestingly, SKIP as part of the spliceosome is thought to link mRNA splicing with transcription. SKIP has not been previously shown to interact with the AR.
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[Clinical characteristics of splenic marginal zone lymphoma with abnormal complete blood count].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial characteristics of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) with an abnormal complete blood count (CBC). Data of 19 newly diagnosed SMZL patients with abnormal CBC were analyzed retrospectively. Seven patients were diagnosed by using splenic histology, 12 patients who did not undergo splenectomy were diagnosed on the basis of typical clinical presentation and cytologic, immunophenotypic and histologic characteristics of peripheral blood and bone marrow, according to SBLG guidelines. The results showed that leukocytosis (? 10.0×10(9)/L) was seen in 5 cases (26.3%); leukocytopenia (< 4.0×10(9)/L) was found in 6 cases (31.6%), hemoglobin concentration less than 120 g/L was found in 14 cases (73.7%) and thrombocytopenia was found in 11 (57.9%) patients. Fourteen (73.7%) patients had cytopenia in one or more lineage. As a specific morphologic character, villous lymphocytes were found in 10 (52.6%) patients. Similar immunophenotype was determined by histology in both bone marrow and spleen. Various histological infiltration patterns including intrasinusoidal pattern were found in bone marrow. Nine out of 16 (56.3%) patients displayed an increase of serum monoclonal immunoglobin. Autoimmune phenomena was found in 12 out of 15 (80.0%) patients. Splenectomy, as the only treatment could not achieve a ? 50% improvement of CBC in 4 patients, and then was judged as no response. Splenectomy followed by chemotherapy achieved partial response (PR) in 1 patient. Overall response rate of the therapeutic strategies with Rituximab was 100.0% (11/11). Furthermore, complete response was achieved in 9 out of 11 (81.8%) patients. It is concluded that SMZL with abnormal CBC has a higher incidence of cytopenia, bone marrow involvement and autoimmune phenomena. Therapeutic strategies consisting of Rituximab show a better efficacy.
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Intragastric rupture of splenic artery aneurysms: Three case reports and literature review.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Rupture of splenic artery aneurysm remains an uncommon cause of hypovolemic shock although it is the third most common intra-abdominal aneurysms. It is difficult to diagnosis timely and entails a significant morbidity and mortality. We present three uncommon cases of bleeding from upper gastrointestinal tract as a result of rupture of splenic artery aneurysm to stomach in patients with liver cirrhosis or infectious endocarditis. We also reviewed the literature and these case reports highlighted that rapid resuscitation, diagnostic imaging, surgical consultation, and alternatively transarterial embolization were the priorities in the management. Early diagnosis and intervention for ruptured splenic artery aneurysm are crucial for patients survival; therefore, it must be kept in mind as feasible etiology of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding, especially in patients with underlying liver cirrhosis or infective endocarditis.
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Tumor-Suppressive Function of miR-139-5p in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent studies have demonstrated the possible function of miR-139-5p in tumorigenesis. However, the exact mechanism of miR-139-5p in cancer remains unclear. In this study, the association of miR-139-5p expression with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was evaluated in 106 pairs of esophageal cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissue from ESCC patients. The tumor suppressive features of miR-139-5p were measured by evaluating cell proliferation and cell cycle state, migratory activity and invasion capability, as well as apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the target gene regulated by miR-139-5p. The mRNA level of NR5A2, the target gene of miR-139-5p, was determined in ESCC patients. Results showed that reduced miR-139-5p level was associated with lymph node metastases of ESCC. MiR-139-5p was investigated to induce cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and to suppress the invasive capability of esophageal carcinoma cells by targeting the 3UTR of oncogenic NR5A2. Cyclin E1 and MMP9 were confirmed to participate in cell cycle arrest and invasive suppression induced by NR5A2, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis further confirmed the significantly negative correlation between miR-139-5p and NR5A2 expression. The results suggest that miR-139-5p exerts a growth- and invasiveness-suppressing function in human ESCCs, which demonstrates that miR-139-5p is a potential biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis and is a therapeutic target for ESCC.
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The intracellular domain of sortilin interacts with amyloid precursor protein and regulates its lysosomal and lipid raft trafficking.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The processing of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is multifaceted, comprising of protein transport, internalization and sequential proteolysis. However, the exact mechanism of APP intracellular trafficking and distribution remains unclear. To determine the interaction between sortilin and APP and the effect of sortilin on APP trafficking and processing, we studied the binding site and its function by mapping experiments, colocalization, coimmunoprecipitation and sucrose gradient fractionation. We identified for the first time that sortilin interacts with APP at both N- and C-terminal regions. The sortilin-FLVHRY (residues 787-792) and APP-NPTYKFFE (residues 759-766) motifs are crucial for the C-terminal interaction. We also found that lack of the FLVHRY motif reduces APP lysosomal targeting and increases APP distribution in lipid rafts in co-transfected HEK293 cells. These results are consistent with our in vivo data where sortilin knockout mice showed a decrease of APP lysosomal distribution and an increase of APP in lipid rafts. We further confirmed that overexpression of sortilin-FLVHRY mutants failed to rescue the lysosomal degradation of APP. Thus, our data suggests that sortilin is implicated in APP lysosomal and lipid raft targeting via its carboxyl-terminal F/YXXXXF/Y motif. Our study provides new molecular insights into APP trafficking and processing.
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Production of transgenic mice carrying the Thanatin gene by intratesticular injection.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Transgenic animals have potential applications in medicine, life sciences, and biopharmacy. In this study, we developed a convenient, economic, and efficient method for gene transfer by transfection of male spermatogonial stem cells. Three fragments of the Thanatin gene, encoding an antibacterial peptide, were synthesized and amplified by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR). They were inserted into vector pIRES2-EGFP. The pIRES2-EGFP-Thanatin plasmid was mixed with liposomes and injected into the testes of male mice by a minimally invasive operation. Six weeks after injection, male mice were mated with normal female mice to produce an F1 generation. PCR and Southern blotting were performed to analyze F1 mice. Among those 52 F1 mice produced, 38.46% were found to be positive for the Thanatin gene by PCR and 30.77% by Southern blotting. Six positive mice were selected from the F1 generation and mated with normal females to an F2 generation, in which 36.36% were found to be positive for the Thanatin gene. Expression of the green fluorescence protein in the transgenic mice was confirmed by fluorescence imaging. These results showed that the Thanatin gene was integrated into the mouse genome. The study provides a useful method for the future development of disease-resistant animals and production of antibacterial peptides through transgenic animals.
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Poly[tris-(?(3)-2-amino-ethane-sulfonato)-cobalt(II)potassium].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2011
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The title compound, [CoK(C(2)H(6)NO(3)S)(3)](n), is isotypic with its Ni(II) analogue. The Co(II) atom is chelated by the three taurinate ligands in a distorted octa-hedral geometry and in a facial manner. Each taurinate ligand bridges two K(+) ions via its sulfonate group, forming a three-dimensional framework. Weak N-H?O hydrogen bonding is observed in the crystal structure.
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Respiratory-inductive-plethysmography-derived flow can be a useful clinical tool to detect patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of a complete or partial collapse of the upper airway during sleep. The disease is traditionally diagnosed by overnight polysomnography with detection flow limitation by nasal pressure cannulas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of flow (X flow) from calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography.
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Permissible value for vanadium in allitic udic ferrisols based on physiological responses of green Chinese cabbage and soil microbes.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the permissible value of vanadium (V) based on the growth and physiological responses of green Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), and effects of V on microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and enzyme activities in allitic udic ferrisols were also studied. The results showed that biomass of cabbage grown on soil treated with 133 mg V?kg(-1) significantly decreased by 25.1% compared with the control (P?
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[An update on the development of transgenic animal technology].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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The animal transgenic technology has increasingly turned mature over several decades and promoted the research of transgenic technology to a new developmental phase. In this review, various kinds of transgenic technologies, including somatic cell nuclear transfer, gene transfer mediated by transposon, gene knockout mediated by RNA interference, and zinc-finger nucleases-gene targeting technology, are summarized. Recently, the success of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), which has provided an alternative way to derive pluripotent stem cells of large animals, will extend the field of transgenic animal studies. Here, we summarized the latest trends on the basis of previous studies. In addition, the characteristics of different kinds of transgenic methods in detail are discussed.
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Facial palsy as unusual complication of spontaneous intraparotid hematoma.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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A 55-year-old healthy female without trauma history visited our hospital for rapidly progressive enlarging right side painful neck mass within 5 days and also with comorbid House-Brackmann Grade V facial palsy for 2 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed heterogenous mass derived from parotid to parapharyngeal space. Much blood clot could be observed at exploratory operation. Only inflammatory change, but not tumor, was mentioned in pathology report. Facial palsy was kept stationary in Grade III from postoperative 6 months.
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Precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) forms a complex with Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (HAP1) and sortilin that modulates proBDNF trafficking, degradation, and processing.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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proBDNF, a precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is anterogradely transported and released from nerve terminals, but the mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study, we report that proBDNF forms a complex with Huntingtin associated protein-1 (HAP1) and sortilin, which plays an important role in proBDNF intracellular trafficking and stabilization. The interaction of proBDNF with both HAP1A and sortilin in co-transfected HEK293 cells is confirmed by both fluorescence resonance energy transfer and co-immunoprecipitation. The frequent co-localization (>90%) of endogenous HAP1, sortilin, and proBDNF is also found in cultured cortical neurons. Mapping studies using GST pulldown and competition assays has defined the interacting region of HAP1 with proBDNF within amino acids 371-445 and the binding sequences of proBDNF to HAP1 between amino acids 65 and 90. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching confirms the defective movement of proBDNF-containing vesicles in neurites of HAP1(-/-) neurons, which can be partially restored by reintroducing HAP1 cDNA into the neurons. However, the effect is significantly increased by simultaneously reintroducing both HAP1 and sortilin. proBDNF and HAP1 are highly co-localized with organelle markers for the Golgi network, microtubules, molecular motor, or endosomes in normal neurons, but this co-localization is reduced in HAP1(-/-) neurons. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot showed that sortilin stabilizes the proBDNF·HAP1 complex in co-transfected HEK293 cells, helping to prevent proBDNF degradation. Furthermore, the complex facilitates furin cleavage to release mature BDNF.
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p75NTR is mainly responsible for A? toxicity but not for its internalization: a primary study.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Accumulating evidence indicates that the intraneuronal accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (A?) is earlier than the formation of extraneuronal amyloid plaque but the mechanism of the accumulation remains unclear. p75NTR is a receptor for A? and interacts with A? in vitro and in vivo but whether p75NTR mediates A? internalization and intraneuronal accumulation is not known. In this study, we aim to determine if p75NTR mediates A? internalization, which might provide new insights into A? metabolism and toxicity. FRET analysis in PC12 cells showed that internalized A? was close to p75NTR. A?1-42 could be internalized in PC12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner but the antibody to the p75NTR extracellular domain did not prevent its internalization. A?1-42 could also be internalized in mouse neonatal cortical neurons and the deletion of p75NTR in these neurons did not prevent its internalization but prevented A? neurotoxicity. Cholesterol at 10 ?M significantly increased A?1-42 internalization in PC12 cells. Internalized A?1-42 is mainly co-localized with Beclin-1 (a biomarker of autophagosomes) but not with endosomal and lysomal markers. p75NTR may not play a main role in A? internalization at the concentrations tested but is responsible for A? induced toxicity in primary neurons. Internalized A? is mainly sorted to autophagosomes for metabolism.
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p75NTR regulates Abeta deposition by increasing Abeta production but inhibiting Abeta aggregation with its extracellular domain.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Accumulation of toxic amyloid-? (A?) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus is a major pathological feature of Alzheimers disease (AD). The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR has been proposed to mediate A?-induced neurotoxicity; however, its role in the development of AD remains to be clarified. The p75NTR/ExonIII-/- mice and APPSwe/PS1dE9 mice were crossed to generate transgenic AD mice with deletion of p75NTR gene. In APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice, p75NTR expression was localized in the basal forebrain neurons and degenerative neurites in neocortex, increased with aging, and further activated by A? accumulation. Deletion of the p75NTR gene in APPSwe/PS1dE9 mice reduced soluble A? levels in the brain and serum, but increased the accumulation of insoluble A? and A? plaque formation. There was no change in the levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its proteolytic derivatives, or ?-, ?-, and ?-secretase activities, or in levels of BACE1, neprilysin (NEP), and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) proteins. A? production by cortical neurons of APPSwe/PS1dE9 mice was reduced by deletion of p75NTR gene in vitro. Recombinant extracellular domain of p75NTR attenuated the oligomerization and fibrillation of synthetic A?(42) peptide in vitro, and reduced local A? plaques after hippocampus injection in vivo. In addition, deletion of p75NTR attenuated microgliosis but increased the microhemorrhage profiles in the brain. The deletion of p75NTR did not significantly change the cognitive function of the mice up to the age of 9 months. Our data suggest that p75NTR plays a critical role in regulating A? levels by both increasing A? production and attenuating its aggregation, and they caution that a therapeutic intervention simply reducing p75NTR may exacerbate AD pathology.
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1-[2-(Pyrazin-2-ylsulfan-yl)eth-yl]pyrazine-2(1H)-thione.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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The title multifunctional twisted organic ligand, C(10)H(10)N(4)S(2), contains a short C=S bond [1.671?(2)?Å]. The dihedral angle between the two pyrazine rings is 39.83?(6)°. In the crystal, inter-molecular C-H?N and C-H?S hydrogen bonds result in the formation of a supra-molecular network.
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[Efficacy and safety of amiodarone and metoprolol in the treatment of ventricular premature beats: a meta-analysis].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of amiodarone and metoprolol in the treatment of ventricular premature beats.
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Low-temperature heat capacities of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(oxalato)borate ionic liquids and the influence of anion structural characteristics on thermodynamic properties.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2010
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Two chelated orthoborate ionic liquids (ILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(oxalato)borate ([Bmim][BOB]) and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(oxalato)borate ([Hmim][BOB]), were prepared and characterized. Their thermodynamic properties were studied using adiabatic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermodynamic properties of the two ILs were evaluated and compared with each other, and then with those of other [Bmim] type ILs. The results clearly indicate that for a given cation (or anion) and at a certain temperature, the more atoms in the anion (or cation), the higher the heat capacity; the higher glass-transition temperatures of [BOB] type ILs than others are mainly caused by the higher symmetry of the orthoborate anion structure. It is suggested that a high content of strong electronegative atoms and C(n) or C(nv) (n = 1,2,3,…,?) point group symmetry in the anion are favorable for the design and synthesis of room temperature ILs with a wide liquid range.
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[Construction of recombinant gene adenovirus encoding enhanced green fluorecence protein-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 fusion protein and its expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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To construct mouse enhanced green fluorecence protein (EGFP) -peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma2, and to detect EGFP-PPARgamma2 expression in infected mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC).
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Chelated orthoborate ionic liquid as a reactant for the synthesis of a new cobalt borophosphate containing extra-large 16-ring channels.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(oxalato)borate ([Emim][BOB]), a room-temperature ionic liquid, has been prepared and used for the first time to develop new borate-containing material. A new open-framework cobalt borophosphate, (NH(4))(7)Co(4)(H(2)O)[B(2)P(4)O(15)(OH)(2)](2)[H(2)PO(4)][HPO(4)], with peanut shaped extra-large 16-ring channels has been obtained.
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[The relationship of leptin and adiponectin with insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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To investigate the serum leptin and adiponectin levels in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, and their relationship with insulin resistance.
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[New advances in animal transgenic technology].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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Animal transgenic technology is one of the fastest growing biotechnology in the 21st century. It is used to integrate foreign genes into the animal genome by genetic engineering technology so that foreign genes can be expressed and inherited to the offspring. The transgenic efficiency and precise control of gene expression are the key limiting factors on preparation of transgenic animals. A variety of transgenic techniques are available, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages and still needs further study because of unresolved technical and safety issues. With the in-depth research, the transgenic technology will have broad application prospects in the fields of exploration of gene function, animal genetic improvement, bioreactor, animal disease models, organ transplantation and so on. This article reviews the recently developed animal gene transfer techniques, including germline stem cell mediated method to improve the efficiency, gene targeting to improve the accuracy, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing technology, and the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) transgenic technology. The new transgenic techniques can provide a better platform for the study of trans-genic animals and promote the development of medical sciences, livestock production, and other fields.
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Ribbonlike assembly of molecules composed of fulleropyrrolidine and PUA dendron.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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The hybrid molecules composed of fulleropyrrolidine and poly(urethane amide) dendron of the third generation have been synthesized, and their self-assembling in THF/water mixtures has been studied. By TEM, AFM, and SAXS methods it was established that molecules form ribbonlike aggregates with the ordered layers of fullerene derivatives situated inside of the ribbons. Microscale length and high ratio width/thickness were detected for the ribbons. The ability of amides and urethanes to initiate a coupling of dendron-fragments by means of hydrogen bonding has been considered as mainly responsible for anisotropic interaction of hybrid molecules and for the ribbonlike aggregates formation in THF/water mixtures.
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Intramuscular delivery of a single chain antibody gene prevents brain A? deposition and cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimers disease.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Anti-beta-amyloid (A?) immunotherapy is effective in removing brain A?, but has shown to be associated with detrimental effects. We have demonstrated that Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated delivery of an anti-A? single chain antibody (scFv) gene was effective in clearing brain A? without eliciting any inflammatory side effects in old APP(Swe)/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. In the present study, we tested the efficacy and safety of intramuscular delivery of the scFv gene in preventing brain A? deposition. The scFv gene was intramuscularly delivered to APP(Swe)/PS1dE9 transgenic mice at 3 months of age, prior to A? deposition in the brain. Six months later, we found that the transgenes were expressed in a stable form at the delivered sites, with a small amount of ectopic expression in the liver and olfactory bulb. Brain A? plaque formation, A? accumulation, AD-type pathologies and cognitive impairment were significantly attenuated in scFv-treated APP(Swe)/PS1dE9 transgenic mice relative to EGFP-treated mice. Intramuscular delivery of scFv gene was well tolerated by the animals, did not cause inflammation or microhemorrhage at the gene expression site and in the brain, and did not induce neutralizing antibodies in the animals. These findings suggest that peripheral application of scFv is effective and safe in preventing the development of Alzheimers disease (AD), and would be a promising non-inflammatory immunological modality for prevention and treatment of AD.
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[Current progress and application prospects of induced pluripotent stem cells].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be directly generated from somatic cells by transduction of a few defined transcription factors. This technique avoids immunological rejection and ethical difficulties, which is a great revolution in life sciences. Like embryonic stem (ES) cells, iPS cells have the ability to self-renew through mitotic cell division and thus remain in its undifferentiated state and the ability to differentiate into not only all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, but also many mature cells in vitro. Therefore, iPS cells are important for theoretic study and therapeutic application. Here, we discuss recent advances in generating induced pluripotent stem cells, different reprogramming methods, and clinical applications of iPS cells. Finally, current problems of iPS cells and its prospects in transgenic animals are also discussed. This article is a summary of current research advances in reprogramming cells into induced pluripotent stem cells.
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Plasma IL-17A is increased in new-onset SLE patients and associated with disease activity.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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To investigate the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and Th17 cell in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we studied the plasma IL-17A and the expression of Th17 cell transcription factor RORgammat in Chinese new-onset SLE patients.
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Bis[2-(2-pyridylmethyl-eneamino)benzene-sulfonato-?N,N,O]cobalt(II) dihydrate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2009
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The title complex, [Co(C(12)H(9)N(2)O(3)S)(2)]·2H(2)O, has site symmetry 2 with the Co(II) cation located on a twofold rotation axis. Two tridentate 2-(2-pyridylmethyl-eneamino)benzene-sulfonate (paba) ligands chelate to the Co(II) cation in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The pyridine and benzene rings in the paba ligand are oriented at a dihedral angle of 42.86?(13)°. Inter-molecular O-H?O and C-H?O hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure.
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Predictors of locoregional recurrence in early stage oral cavity cancer with free surgical margins.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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Locoregional recurrence in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (ESOSCC) after surgery remains a problem and can affect their survival. We sought to identify new high-risk factors in these patients, who need further adjuvant therapy. We retrospectively reviewed records for 148 patients who underwent surgery for ESOSCC between 2002 and 2006 with negative surgical margins. The primary endpoint was locoregional recurrence. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify independent predictors of locoregional recurrence. All patients were grouped into the low- and high-risk groups according to the odds ratios (OR) of the predictors. Recurrence rates of the low- and high-risk groups were then predicted. Recurrence was observed in 17 of 148 (11.5%) patients at the end of this study. None of the patients received postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. At 3 years, the RFS rate was 89.7% and the OS rate at 3 years was 84.1%. Univariate analysis of the RFS revealed three significant prognostic factors: lymphovascular permeation (LVP, p<0.001), perineural infiltration (PNI, p=0.08), and non-T4 muscular invasion (non-T4MI, p<0.005). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that LVP (p=0.007, OR=10.7) and non-T4 MI (p=0.001, OR=8.347) were independent predictors. The recurrence rate was 1.96% in patients without LVP or non-T4MI, and it increased to 26.47% in patients with non-T4MI, to 50% in patients with LVP, and to 50% in patients with both. According to the status of LVP and non-T4MI, patients were divided into two groups: low-risk (no factors present) and high-risk (one or both factors present) groups. The 2-year RFS was lower in the high-risk group (84.13%) than in the low-risk group (93.91%); the 3-year RFS was also lower in the high-risk group (70.49%) than in the low-risk group (91.99%) (p=0.008). Subgroup analysis revealed that elective neck dissections did not affect the outcome or change the pattern of failure. For patients with elective neck dissections, the RFS was lower in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group (p=0.03). In ESOSCC (pT1-2N0), LVP and non-T4MI significantly increased the recurrence rate. The presence of one or both factors (LVP and/or non-T4MI) should be considered as a high-risk condition for locoregional recurrence, and adjuvant therapy is needed in such cases.
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Bis[2-(2-pyridylmethyl-eneamino)benzene-sulfonato]-?N,N,O;?N,N-copper(II).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2009
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In the mononuclear title compound, [Cu(C(12)H(9)N(2)O(3)S)(2)], the copper(II) salt of 2-(2-pyridylmethyl-eneamino)benzene-sulfonic acid, the Cu(II) atom is coordinated by one O and two N atoms from a monoanion as well as by two N atoms from another monoanion in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal environment.
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Bis[2-(2-pyridylmethyl-eneamino)benzene-sulfonato-?N,N,O]manganese(II) dihydrate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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The title complex, [Mn(C(12)H(9)N(2)O(3)S)(2)]·2H(2)O, is isotypic with the previously reported Zn(II) and Cd(II) species. The complex was prepared by the reaction of the potassium salt of 2-(2-pyridylmethyl-eneamino)benzene-sulfonic acid with MnCl(2)·6H(2)O in methanol. The complex displays twofold symmetry, with the ligands coordinated in a tridentate meridional-like arrangement through pyridyl N, imine N, and sulfonate O atoms. The metal center has a strongly distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry. The uncoordin-ated water mol-ecules and the complexes participate in a hydrogen-bonding network, forming a two-dimensional structure parallel to the ab plane.
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Development and application of a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect Chinese isolates of duck hepatitis virus type 1.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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We developed a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for the detection of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) in the tissues of infected and clinically affected ducks and in chick and duck embryos. We found the assay to be effective in detecting the virus in China, where it is being used in studies on the epidemiology of the disease. We applied this simple and rapid diagnostic method to the detection of DHV isolates grown in chick and duck embryos and in tissues obtained from infected birds. The assay also proved useful for the differentiation of DVH from the duck plague virus (DPV), muscovy parvovirus (MPV), gosling parvovirus (GPV), avian influenza virus (AIV/H5N1), Pasteurella multocida (PA/5:A), Riemerella anatipestifer (RA/serotype 1), and Salmonella enteritidis (SE). The limit of the sensitivity of this method for the detection of DHV-1 RNA was 3 pg/10 microl. As compared to Dot-ELISA and virus isolation, the rate of agreement for the detection of experimentally infected livers was 100%; moreover, the RT-PCR method was also capable of detecting DHV-1 RNA from the livers that had been infected and stored at -20 degrees C for 22 years; in contrast, Dot-ELISA and virus isolation method could only detect DHV-1 from the livers that had been infected and stored at -20 degrees C for 13 and 11 years, respectively. The rate of positivity in 185 clinically suspected diseased livers subjected to detection by RT-PCR, Dot-ELISA, and virus isolation was 89.2%, 69.2%, and 55.7%, respectively. These results indicated that the RT-PCR approach is rapid, sensitive, and reliable for the detection and differentiation of DHV-1 from the other clinical samples and suspected isolates.
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Involvement of 90-kuD ribosomal S6 kinase in collagen type I expression in rat hepatic fibrosis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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To investigate the relationship between 90-kuD ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and collagen type I expression during the development of hepatic fibrosis in vivo and in vitro.
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Association between the NBS1 E185Q polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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NBS1 is a key DNA repair protein in the homologous recombination repair pathway and a signal modifier in the intra-S phase checkpoint that plays important roles in maintaining genomic stability. The NBS1 8360G>C (Glu185Gln) is one of the most commonly studied polymorphisms of the gene for their association with risk of cancers, but the results are conflicting.
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Multiple H-bonds directed self-assembly of an amphiphilic and plate-like codendrimer with janus faces at water-air interface.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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An amphiphilic diblock codendrimer composed of a third generation poly(methallyl dichloride) end-capped by eight hydroxyl groups (PMDC(OH)(8)) and a second generation poly(urethane amide) end-capped by four alkyl groups (PUA(C16)(4)) were found to self-assemble into highly oriented ribbons at the water-air interface. Further investigation on the ribbon formation shows that the ribbons are hierarchically self-organized by the janus and plate-like shape of g3-PMDC(OH)(8)-b-g2-PUA(C16)(4). Sextuple H-bonds existing at different positions of the molecular plate are the main driving force for the one-dimensional growth of the ribbon. The recognition of these H-bonds leads to a highly ordered stacking of the codendrimers, and the crystallization of the alkyl chains results in a primary ribbon with a ca. 7.6 +/- 0.5 nm width. The primary ribbons prefer to organize into secondary ribbons with an average width of 53 +/- 6.0 nm. The manner of recognition and assembly is similar to the organization of a kind of toy building block with janus faces, which provides a new strategy to the design of well-defined nanomaterials.
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High-fat diet may impair K(ATP) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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K(ATP) channel in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is closely linked to the etiology of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of the high-fat diet-induced obesity on K(ATP) channel and blood pressure. Obesity was induced by a 24-week high-fat diet feeding in rats. Function and expression of K(ATP) channel in mesenteric arteries were examined using myography system, patch clamp and Western blotting. We show that high-fat diet increased blood pressure, decreased K(ATP) channel-mediated relaxation responses and currents, and down-regulated K(ATP) expression in VSMC. In conclusion, diet-induced obesity impairs K(ATP) channels in VSMC, which may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.
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Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients.
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Cationic palladium(II)-catalyzed highly enantioselective tandem reactions of ortho-boronate-substituted cinnamic ketones and internal alkynes: a convenient synthesis of optically active indenes.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Cationic palladium(II)-catalyzed tandem reactions of ortho-boronate-substituted cinnamic ketones and internal alkynes to yield optically active indenes were developed in high yields and good enantioselectivities.
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Development and application of a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect Chinese isolates of duck hepatitis virus type 1.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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We developed a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for the detection of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) in the tissues of infected and clinically affected ducks and in chick and duck embryos. We found the assay to be effective in detecting the virus in China, where it is being used in studies on the epidemiology of the disease. We applied this simple and rapid diagnostic method to the detection of DHV isolates grown in chick and duck embryos and in tissues obtained from infected birds. The assay also proved useful for the differentiation of DVH from the duck plague virus (DPV), muscovy parvovirus (MPV), gosling parvovirus (GPV), avian influenza virus (AIV/H5N1), Pasteurella multocida (PA/5:A), Riemerella anatipestifer (RA/serotype 1), and Salmonella enteritidis (SE). The limit of the sensitivity of this method for the detection of DHV-1 RNA was 3 pg/10 microl. As compared to ELISA and virus isolation, the rate of agreement for the detection of experimentally infected livers was 100%; moreover, the RT-PCR method was also capable of detecting DHV-1 RNA from the livers that had been infected and stored at -20 degrees C for 22 years; in contrast, ELISA and virus isolation method could only detect DHV-1 from the livers that had been infected and stored at -20 degrees C for 13 and 11 years, respectively. The rate of positivity in 185 clinically suspected diseased livers subjected to detection by RT-PCR, ELISA, and virus isolation was 89.2%, 69.2%, and 55.7%, respectively. These results indicated that the RT-PCR approach is rapid, sensitive, and reliable for the detection and differentiation of DHV-1 from the other clinical samples and suspected isolates.
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Effects of proNGF on neuronal viability, neurite growth and amyloid-beta metabolism.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by the deposition of amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta), neurofibrillary tangles, distinctive neuronal loss and neurite dystrophy. Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of AD, however, the role of its precursor (proNGF) in AD remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of proNGF on neuron death, neurite growth and Abeta production, in vitro and in vivo. We found that proNGF promotes the death of different cell lines and primary neurons in culture, likely dependent on the expression of p75(NTR). We for the first time found that proNGF has an opposite role in neurite growth to that of mature NGF, retarding neurite growth in both cell lines and primary neurons. proNGF is localized to the Abeta plaques in AD mice brain, however, it had no significant effect on Abeta production in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that proNGF is an important factor involving AD pathogenesis.
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Enhancing gelation ability of a dendritic gelator through complexation with a polyelectrolyte.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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A poly(urethane amide) (PUA) dendron with long alkyl chains on its periphery was synthesized and then attached to the backbone of a polyelectrolyte, in which each unit contained a positive charge, by ionizing the carboxyl groups on the apexes of the dendrons to form a dendronized polymer. We found that both the PUA dendron and the dendronized polymer could form organogels in toluene. Interestingly, both the minimum gelation concentration and the gelation time of the dendronized polymer gelator were greatly reduced compared with the dendron alone. Our investigations showed that in the gel phase the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between adjacent dendrons creates similar supramolecular structures in both the dendron and the dendronized polymer gelator, which immobilize solvent molecules by means of interactions between dendrons and solvent molecules. Further studies on the gelation kinetics indicated that the polyelectrolyte backbone plays an important role in prearranging the attached dendritic gelators orderly and quickly into the supramolecular structures through a nucleation-elongation mechanism. Therefore, the gel-forming ability of the dendritic PUA gelator is enhanced by being complexed with the polyelectrolyte. In this work, this positive macromolecular effect is discussed in detail.
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[Screening and identification of differentially expressed genes in Beijing fatty and broiler breast muscles].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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mRNA differential display reverse-transcripton PCR(DDRT-PCR) was applied to identify differentially expressed genes in Arbor Acres broiler(AA) and Beijing fatty chicken breast muscles in order to find the mechanism which induces the differential gene expression at the molecular level. A total of 7 ESTs were found using reverse Northern dot blot, and all of them were compared with the nucleotide sequences in GenBank database using BLAST. S1 was highly similar to HMGN3; S3 was highly similar to ChEST294a8 with unknown functions; S4 and S5 were highly similar to PGM; S6 and S2 had highly similar nucleotide sequences with unknown functions in nucleotide databases; S7 had no significant similarity with existing genes or ESTs and was regarded as a new EST. The new EST was submitted to GenBank(Accession number: EU594549). This lays a foundation for further study on the mechanism of differential gene expression in Beijing fatty and AA breast muscles.
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[Preparation of sustained release microspheres containing oxymatrine and their release characteristics in vitro].
Zhong Yao Cai
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To prepare poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres containing Oxymatrine (OMT-PLGA-MS) and study their release characteristics in vitro.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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