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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Outcome-based determination of optimal pyrosequencing assay for MGMT methylation detection in glioblastoma patients.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The methylation of O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter is a key biological marker in clinical neuro-oncology. Nevertheless, there is no consensus concerning the best technique for its assessment. In a recent study comparing five methods to analyze MGMT status, we found that the best prediction of survival was obtained with a pyrosequencing (PSQ) test assessing methylation of 5 CpGs (CpGs 74-78). In the present study we extended our PSQ analysis to 16 CpGs (CpGs 74-89) identified as critical for transcriptional control of the gene. The predictive value of the methylation levels at each CpG, as well as the mean methylation levels of selected sets of consecutive CpGs was tested in a cohort of 89 de novo glioblastoma patients who had received standard of care treatment (Stupp protocol). Using an optimal risk cut-off, each CpG or combination of CpGs, was associated with overall survival (OS) and progression free survival. The best predictive models for OS after stratification on performance score and age were obtained with CpG 89, CpG 84 and mean methylation of CpG 84-88 (Hazard ratio (HR), 0.31; p < 0.0001). The improvement compared to the predictive value of the test analyzing average methylation of CpG 74-78 (HR, 0.32; p < 0.0001) was however marginal. We recommend to test CpGs 74-78 when analyzing MGMT methylation status by PSQ because a commercial kit that has successfully been used in several studies is available, allowing reproducible and comparable results from one laboratory to another.
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Sporadic early-onset colorectal cancer is a specific sub-type of cancer: a morphological, molecular and genetics study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sporadic early onset colorectal carcinoma (EOCRC) which has by definition no identified hereditary predisposition is a growing problem that remains poorly understood. Molecular analysis could improve identification of distinct sub-types of colorectal cancers (CRC) with therapeutic implications and thus can help establish that sporadic EOCRC is a distinct entity. From 954 patients resected for CRC at our institution, 98 patients were selected. Patients aged 45-60 years were excluded to help define "young" and "old" groups. Thirty-nine cases of sporadic EOCRC (patients ? 45 years with microsatellite stable tumors) were compared to both microsatellite stable tumors from older patients (36 cases, patients>60 years) and to groups of patients with microsatellite instability. Each group was tested for TP53, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA mutations and the presence of a methylator phenotype. Gene expression profiles were also used for pathway analysis. Compared to microsatellite stable CRC from old patients, sporadic EOCRC were characterized by distal location, frequent synchronous metastases and infrequent synchronous adenomas but did not have specific morphological characteristics. A familial history of CRC was more common in sporadic EOCRC patients despite a lack of identified hereditary conditions (p = 0.013). Genetic studies also showed the absence of BRAF mutations (p = 0.022) and the methylator phenotype (p = 0.005) in sporadic EOCRC compared to older patients. Gene expression analysis implicated key pathways such as Wnt/beta catenin, MAP Kinase, growth factor signaling (EGFR, HGF, PDGF) and the TNFR1 pathway in sporadic EOCRC. Wnt/beta catenin signaling activation was confirmed by aberrant nuclear beta catenin immunostaining (p = 0.01). This study strongly suggests that sporadic EOCRC is a distinct clinico-molecular entity presenting as a distal and aggressive disease associated with chromosome instability. Furthermore, several signaling pathways including the TNFR1 pathway have been identified as potential biomarkers for both the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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A Multicenter Blinded Study Evaluating EGFR and KRAS Mutation Testing Methods in the Clinical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Setting-IFCT/ERMETIC2 Project Part 1: Comparison of Testing Methods in 20 French Molecular Genetic National Cancer Institute Platforms
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors have limited use as first-line treatment for mutated EGFR metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. The French National Cancer Institute has installed molecular genetics platforms implementing EGFR and KRAS testing. However, there is considerable uncertainty as to which detection methods should be applied for routine diagnosis. This study aimed to compare the EGFR and KRAS genotyping methods developed by the IFCT/ERMETIC2 network platforms in two blind panels: 25 samples of serial dilutions of cell line DNA (20 centers) and 74 FFPE lung tumor samples (10 centers). The best threshold of mutation detection on cell lines was obtained using allele-specific amplification-based technologies. Nonamplifiable tissue samples were significantly less common when using alternative testing versus direct sequencing [15%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 14%-16% versus 40%; 95% CI, 39%-42%; P < 0.001]. Mutated cases increased from 42% (95% CI, 31%-54%) to 53% (95% CI, 41%-64%), with three supplementary EGFR mutations (p.G179A at exon 18 and p.L858R and p.L861Q at exon 21) and five supplementary KRAS mutations, when using alternative testing instead of direct sequencing. False-positive results were observed when using a PCR-based sizing assay, high-resolution melting, or pyrosequencing. Concordance analysis returned good kappa test scores for EGFR exon 19 and KRAS analysis when comparing sequencing with alternative methods and revealed no difference between alternative techniques themselves.
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SISH/CISH or qPCR as alternative techniques to FISH for determination of HER2 amplification status on breast tumors core needle biopsies: a multicenter experience based on 840 cases.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Until now, FISH has been the gold standard technique to identify HER2 amplification status in ambiguous cases of breast cancer. Alternative techniques have been developed to increase the capacities of investigating HER2 amplification status. The aims of this multicenter study in a large series of breast cancer patients were to prospectively compare the level of performance of CISH, SISH, and qPCR alternative techniques on paraffin-embedded core biopsies with "gold standard FISH" for evaluation of HER2 amplification status.
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Histologic characteristics of non-microsatellite-instable colon adenomas correlate with distinct molecular patterns.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Colon carcinogenesis encompasses the stepwise accumulation of genomic aberrations correlated with the transition of aberrant crypt-adenoma-carcinoma. Recent data have revealed that, in addition to the microsatellite-instable phenotype, the chromosome instability pathway, representing four fifth of the colon carcinoma, could be involved in heterogeneous molecular alterations. Our project was aimed at determining the existence of distinct molecular subtypes in 159 non-microsatellite-instable colon polyps and their correlation with histology and dysplasia, using allelotyping, MGMT promoter gene methylation status, and K-RAS mutation analyses. Allelic imbalance, MGMT methylation, and K-RAS mutations arise in 62%, 39%, and 32% of polyps, respectively. Only 14% of polyps had no alterations. A 2-way hierarchical clustering analysis of the allelic imbalances identified subgroups of polyps according to their allelic imbalance frequency and distribution. Not only tubulovillous adenoma but also high-grade adenomas were correlated with high global allelic imbalance frequency (P = .005 and P = .003), with allelic imbalance at microsatellites targeting chromosomes 1, 6, and 9. In conclusion, the data presented in this study show that a large heterogeneity exists in the molecular patterns of alterations in precancerous colon lesions, favoring different modes of tumor initiation. Therefore, molecular alterations correlated with tubulovillous-type and high-grade dysplasia could represent targets identifying predictive factors of progression.
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Methylation tolerance due to an O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) field defect in the colonic mucosa: an initiating step in the development of mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2010
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O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) removes methyl adducts from O(6)-guanine. Known as methylation tolerance, selection for mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient cells that are unable to initiate lethal processing of O(6)-methylguanine-induced mismatches in DNA is observed in vitro as a consequence of MGMT deficiency. It was therefore hypothesised that an MGMT field defect may constitute a preneoplastic event for the development of MMR-deficient tumours displaying microsatellite instability (MSI).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.