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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Higher HDL Cholesterol Is Associated with Better Cognitive Function: the Maine-Syracuse Study.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Few studies have examined associations between different subcategories of cholesterol and cognitive function. We examined relationships between total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride levels and cognitive performance in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study, a community-based study of cardiovascular risk factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on data from 540 participants, aged 60 to 98 years, free of dementia and stroke. TC, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were obtained. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery, including domains of cognitive function indexed by multiple cognitive tests. The cognitive outcomes studied were as follows: Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Verbal and Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, a Global Composite score, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Significant positive associations were observed between HDL-cholesterol and the Global Composite score, Working Memory, and the MMSE after adjustment for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Participants with desirable levels of HDL (?60 mg/dL) had the highest scores on all cognitive outcomes. There were no significant associations observed between TC, LDL, or triglyceride concentrations and cognition. In older individuals, HDL-cholesterol was related to a composite of Working Memory tests and for general measures of cognitive ability when adjusted for cardiovascular variables. We speculate that persons over 60 are survivors and thus less likely to show cognitive deficit in relation to TC, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine relations between specific cognitive abilities and the different subcategories of cholesterol. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-10).
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Immune cell inhibition by SLAMF7 is mediated by mechanism requiring Src kinases, CD45 and SHIP-1 defective in multiple myeloma cells.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) F7 is a receptor present on immune cells including natural killer (NK) cells. It is also expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This led to development of an anti-SLAMF7 antibody, elotuzumab, showing efficacy against MM. SLAMF7 mediates activating or inhibitory effects in NK cells, depending whether cells express or not the adaptor EAT-2. Since MM cells lack EAT-2, we elucidated the inhibitory effectors of SLAMF7 in EAT-2-negative NK cells, and tested whether these effectors were triggered in MM cells. SLAMF7-mediated inhibition in NK cells lacking EAT-2 was mediated by SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP)-1, which was recruited via tyrosine 261 of SLAMF7. Coupling of SLAMF7 to SHIP-1 required Src kinases, which phosphorylated SLAMF7. Although MM cells lack EAT-2, elotuzumab did not induce inhibitory signals in these cells. This was at least partly due to lack of CD45, a phosphatase required for Src kinase activation. A defect in SLAMF7 function was also observed in CD45-deficient NK cells. Hence, SLAMF7-triggered inhibition is mediated by a mechanism involving Src kinases, CD45 and SHIP-1 that is defective in MM cells. The latter defect might explain why elotuzumab eliminates MM cells by an indirect mechanism, involving activation of NK cells.
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Measurement-to-Measurement Blood Pressure Variability Is Related to Cognitive Performance: The Maine Syracuse Study.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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The objective was to investigate the association between variability in blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function for sitting, standing, and reclining BP values and variability derived from all 15 measures. In previous studies, only sitting BP values have been examined, and only a few cognitive measures have been used. A secondary objective was to examine associations between BP variability and cognitive performance in hypertensive individuals stratified by treatment success. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on 972 participants of the Maine Syracuse Study for whom 15 serial BP clinic measures (5 sitting, 5 recumbent, and 5 standing) were obtained before testing of cognitive performance. Using all 15 measures, higher variability in systolic and diastolic BP was associated with poorer performance on multiple measures of cognitive performance, independent of demographic factors, cardiovascular risk factors, and pulse pressure. When sitting, reclining, and standing systolic BP values were compared, only variability in standing BP was related to measures of cognitive performance. However, for diastolic BP, variability in all 3 positions was related to cognitive performance. Mean BP values were weaker predictors of cognition. Furthermore, higher overall variability in both systolic and diastolic BP was associated with poorer cognitive performance in unsuccessfully treated hypertensive individuals (with BP ?140/90 mm Hg), but these associations were not evident in those with controlled hypertension.
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Evidence base on outpatient behavioral treatments for adolescent substance use: updates and recommendations 2007-2013.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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This article updates the evidence base on outpatient behavioral treatments for adolescent substance use (ASU) since publication of the previous review completed for this journal by Waldron and Turner ( 2008 ). It first summarizes the Waldron and Turner findings as well as those from more recent literature reviews and meta-analytic studies of ASU treatment. It then presents study design and methods criteria used to select 19 comparative studies subjected to Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology level of support evaluation. These 19 studies are grouped by study category (efficacy or effectiveness) and described for sample characteristics, methodological quality, and substance use outcomes. Cumulative level of support designations are then made for each identified treatment approach: ecological family-based treatment, group cognitive-behavioral therapy, and individual cognitive-behavioral therapy are deemed Well Established; behavioral family-based treatment and motivational interviewing are deemed Probably Efficacious; drug counseling is deemed Possibly Efficacious; and four integrated treatment models combining more than one approach are deemed Well Established or Probably Efficacious. The remainder of the article (a) articulates fidelity, mediator, and moderator effects reported for evidence-based approaches since 2008 and (b) recommends four enhancements to the prevailing business model of ASU outpatient services to accelerate penetration of evidence-based approaches into the underserved consumer base: pursue partnerships with influential governmental systems, utilize web-based technology to extend reach and control costs, adapt effective methods for linking services across sectors of care, and promote uptake and sustainability by emphasizing return on investment.
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Elotuzumab enhances natural killer cell activation and myeloma cell killing through interleukin-2 and TNF-? pathways.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-F7 (SLAMF7, also known as CS1, CD319, or CRACC) that enhances natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of SLAMF7-expressing myeloma cells. This study explored the mechanisms underlying enhanced myeloma cell killing with elotuzumab as a single agent and in combination with lenalidomide, to support ongoing phase III trials in patients with relapsed/refractory or newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). An in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL)/myeloma cell co-culture model was developed to evaluate the combination of elotuzumab and lenalidomide. Expression of activation markers and adhesion receptors was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine expression by Luminex and ELISPOT assays, and cytotoxicity by myeloma cell counts. Elotuzumab activated NK cells and promoted myeloma cell death in PBL/myeloma cell co-cultures. The combination of elotuzumab plus lenalidomide demonstrated superior anti-myeloma activity on established MM xenografts in vivo and in PBL/myeloma cell co-cultures in vitro than either agent alone. The combination enhanced myeloma cell killing by modulating NK cell function that coincided with the upregulation of adhesion and activation markers, including interleukin (IL)-2R? expression, IL-2 production by CD3(+)CD56(+) lymphocytes, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production. In co-culture assays, TNF-? directly increased NK cell activation and myeloma cell death with elotuzumab or elotuzumab plus lenalidomide, and neutralizing TNF-? decreased NK cell activation and myeloma cell death with elotuzumab. These results demonstrate that elotuzumab activates NK cells and induces myeloma cell death via NK cell-mediated ADCC, which is further enhanced when combined with lenalidomide.
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Group Process in the single-gender Womens Recovery Group compared with mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling.
J Groups Addict Recover
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Enhanced affiliation among members is thought to provide increased support for women in single-gender compared with mixed-gender group therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs) and to provide a potential mechanism of action for its efficacy. In a Stage I trial of single-gender versus mixed-gender group therapy for SUDs we examined affiliative statements made by members in two group treatments, single-gender Womens Recovery Group (WRG) and mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC). Twenty-eight WRG and 17 GDC group therapy tapes were coded and compared for five types of affiliative statements. Three types of affiliative statements (agreement, supportive, and completing a thought) were highly correlated and were more frequent in WRG than GDC (D=0.882, p=0.27). In GDC, women were more likely to provide an affiliative statement to a male group member than any other combination of directionality (p<0.01). Compared with mixed-gender, single-gender group therapy for SUDs may enhance support through greater frequency of affiliative statements.
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Deterioration in renal function is associated with increased arterial stiffness.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Higher levels of baseline pulse wave velocity (PWV) have been associated with longitudinal decline in renal function in patients with kidney disease. We examined longitudinal decline in renal function in relation to levels of PWV. We hypothesized that longitudinal decline in renal function in a community-based, nonclinic sample would be associated with higher levels of PWV.
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Reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms in youth receiving substance use treatment.
Am J Addict
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Research shows that interventions for substance use disorders may be helpful in reducing internalizing disorders in adolescents. This paper examines the prevalence and reductions of anxiety and depression symptoms among youth receiving substance use treatment.
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Management of cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney disease.
Nat Rev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The burden of cardiovascular disease is high in patients with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. The presence of kidney dysfunction affects the cardiovascular system in multiple ways, including accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and valvular disease, the exacerbation of congestive heart failure, and the development of pericardial disease. This comorbidity results not only from the concordance of shared risk factors, but also from other issues specific to this population, such as systemic inflammation and vascular calcification. Furthermore, both the sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive testing modalities, and the efficacy of several pharmacotherapeutic strategies, are diminished in this population. The exclusion of patients with severe kidney disease from many clinical trials of cardiac interventions raises various therapeutic uncertainties, and kidney disease itself is likely to alter the underlying cardiovascular physiology. In this Review, we discuss aspects of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney disease, and propose specific, evidence-based recommendations for pharmacological and surgical treatment.
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Comparative proteomics analysis by DIGE and iTRAQ provides insight into the regulation of phenylpropanoids in maize.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The maize pericarp color1 (p1) gene encodes a Myb transcription factor that regulates the accumulation of 3-deoxyflavonoid pigments called phlobaphenes. The Unstable factor for orange1 (Ufo1) is a dominant epigenetic modifier of the p1 that results in ectopic pigmentation in pericarp. Presence of Ufo1-1 correlates with pleiotropic growth and developmental defects. To investigate the Ufo1-1-induced changes in the proteome, we conducted comparative proteomics analysis of P1-wr; Ufo1-1 pericarps using the 2-D DIGE and iTRAQ techniques. Most of the identified proteins were found to be involved in glycolysis, protein synthesis and modification, flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis and defense responses. Further, immunoblot analysis of internode protein extracts demonstrated that caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (COMT) is post-transcriptionally down regulated in P1-wr; Ufo1-1 plants. Consistent with the down regulation of COMT, the concentrations of p-coumaric acid, syringaldehydes, and lignin are reduced in P1-wr; Ufo1-1 internodes. The reductions in these phenylpropanoids correlate with the bent stalk and stunted growth of P1-wr; Ufo1-1 plants. Finally, over-expression of the p1 in transgenic plants is also correlated with a lodging phenotype and reduced COMT expression. We conclude that ectopic expression of p1 can result in developmental defects that are correlated with altered regulation and synthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds including lignin.
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Brief strategic family therapy versus treatment as usual: results of a multisite randomized trial for substance using adolescents.
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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To determine the effectiveness of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; an evidence-based family therapy) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) as provided in community-based adolescent outpatient drug abuse programs.
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Conducting research with racial/ethnic minorities: methodological lessons from the NIDA Clinical Trials Network.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Multiple studies in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN) demonstrate strategies for conducting effective substance abuse treatment research with racial/ethnic minorities (REMs).
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Multilevel models to identify contextual effects on individual group member outcomes: a family example.
Fam Process
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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This manuscript illustrates methods for utilizing measurements of individuals to identify group contextual effects on individual outcomes. Contextual effects can be identified by 1 of 3 methods: (1) divergence of the simple within- and between-group regression coefficients, (2) the presence of a cross-level interaction of the within- and between-group predictor variable, or (3) the effect of discrepancies within the group. These methods can be used to incorporate group context into an individual model and can be utilized for any individual process variable that might be affected by a group context. Example data include measures of hassles and coping adequacy of inner city, poor, African American new mothers, and their family members.
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Long-term systemic angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade regulates mRNA expression of dorsomedial medulla renin-angiotensin system components.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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In Fischer 344 (F344) rats, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade for 1 yr with the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blocker L-158,809 prevents age-related impairments in metabolic function, similar to transgenic rats with low glial angiotensinogen (Aogen). Brain RAS regulation may contribute to the benefits of long-term systemic AT(1) antagonism. We assessed the mRNA of RAS components in the dorsomedial medulla of F344 rats at 3 (young; n = 8) or 15 mo of age (old; n = 7) and in rats treated from 3 to 15 mo of age with 20 mg/l of the AT(1) receptor antagonist L-158,809 (Old+L; n = 6). Aogen and renin mRNA were lower in the young compared with old group. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA was lower in the old and Old+L compared with the young group. ACE2 and neprilysin expression were significantly higher in Old+L compared with young or old rats. AT(1b), AT(2), and Mas receptor mRNA were higher with treatment. Leptin receptor mRNA was lower in the old rats and this was prevented by L-158,809 treatment. Dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) mRNA was highest in the Old+L group. Aggregate correlate summation revealed a positive relationship for Mas receptor mRNA with food intake. The findings provide evidence for regulation of dorsomedial medullary renin and Aogen mRNA during aging. Long-term AT(1) receptor blockade increases the mRNA of the enzymes ACE2 and neprilysin and the MAS receptor, which could potentially shift the balance from ANG II to ANG-(1-7) and prevent age-related declines in the leptin receptor and its signaling pathway.
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Normative data for elderly adults: the Maine-Syracuse study.
Exp Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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The primary objective of this study was to provide supplementary normative data on aging and cognition from an ongoing community-based study. This dementia- and stroke-free sample (age range = 70-89; mean = 77.5) consisted of 228 women and 155 men participating in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study at waves 6 to 7 (2001-2009). The authors employed a battery of 23 widely utilized clinical cognitive tests. In this cross-sectional study, the authors focus on subjects 70 to 79 (n = 248) and 80 to 89 (n = 135) years old, and provide preliminary data for a smaller number of subjects aged 90 to 98 years old (n = 14). More highly educated and younger participants exhibited better performance on cognitive tests. Education was not significantly associated with every cognitive outcome, nor was age cohort membership. The addition of cardiovascular disease (CVD)/health variables to a model including age, education, and gender main effects provided statistically significant increases in R² (range = .021-.084) of performance on some tests. Results are discussed in relation to this studys value with respect to determining cognitive impairment in individuals free from probable dementia or stroke.
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Aging masks detection of radiation-induced brain injury.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Fractionated partial or whole-brain irradiation (fWBI) is a widely used, effective treatment for primary and metastatic brain tumors, but it also produces radiation-induced brain injury, including cognitive impairment. Radiation-induced neural changes are particularly problematic for elderly brain tumor survivors who also experience age-dependent cognitive impairment. Accordingly, we investigated i] radiation-induced cognitive impairment, and ii] potential biomarkers of radiation-induced brain injury in a rat model of aging. Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats received fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI rats, 40 Gy, 8 fractions over 4 weeks) or sham-irradiation (Sham-IR rats) at 12 months of age; all analyses were performed at 26-30 months of age. Spatial learning and memory were measured using the Morris water maze (MWM), hippocampal metabolites were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and hippocampal glutamate receptor subunits were evaluated using Western blots. Young rats (7-10 months old) were included to control for age effects. The results revealed that both Sham-IR and fWBI rats exhibited age-dependent impairments in MWM performance; fWBI induced additional impairments in the reversal MWM. (1)H MRS revealed age-dependent decreases in neuronal markers, increases in glial markers, but no detectable fWBI-dependent changes. Western blot analysis revealed age-dependent, but not fWBI-dependent, glutamate subunit declines. Although previous studies demonstrated fWBI-induced changes in cognition, glutamate subunits, and brain metabolites in younger rats, age-dependent changes in these parameters appear to mask their detection in old rats, a phenomenon also likely to occur in elderly fWBI patients >70 years of age.
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Therapist adherence in brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abusers.
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Therapist adherence has been shown to predict clinical outcomes in family therapy. In prior studies, adherence has been represented broadly by core principles and a consistent family (vs. individual) focus. To date, these studies have not captured the range of clinical skills that are represented in complex family-based approaches or examined how variations in these skills predict different clinically relevant outcomes over the course of treatment. In this study, the authors examined the reliability and validity of an observational adherence measure and the relationship between adherence and outcome in a sample of drug-using adolescents who received brief strategic family therapy within a multisite effectiveness study.
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Parent and child agreement on anxiety disorder symptoms using the DISC predictive scales.
Assessment
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2010
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Growing recognition of the negative impact of anxiety disorders in the lives of youth has made their identification an important clinical task. Multiple perspective assessment (e.g., parents, children) is generally considered a preferred method in the assessment of anxiety disorder symptoms, although it has been generally thought that disagreement between parent and youth ratings of the childs emotions is common. This study examined parent and child reports of the childs anxiety disorder symptoms using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Predictive Scales (DISC-PS) in a clinic-referred sample of substance using adolescents. Parents and adolescents (N = 480) who were referred for substance abuse treatment were screened for anxiety disorder symptoms using the DISC-PS at pretreatment. Results suggest similar (low) levels of agreement between the parent report and child report versions as found with other anxiety symptom and anxiety disorder measures. Findings provide data on multi-informant agreement and highlight issues in the use of the DISC-PS to identify anxiety problems in youth.
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Transporting clinical research to community settings: designing and conducting a multisite trial of brief strategic family therapy.
Addict Sci Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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This paper describes the development and implementation of a trial of Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT), an evidence-based drug intervention for adolescents, in eight community substance abuse treatment programs. Researchers and treatment programs collaborated closely to identify and overcome challenges, many of them related to achieving results that were both scientifically rigorous and applicable to the widest possible variety of adolescent substance abuse treatment programs. To meet these challenges, the collaborative team drew on lessons and practices from efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research.
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A randomized controlled trial of Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV medication adherence and substance abuse relapse prevention.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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Substance abuse in women with HIV/AIDS overshadows other priorities, including health care. Substance abuse may cause women to avoid health care systems and not adhere to their medication regimen.
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From blood pressure to physical disability: the role of cognition.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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We examined the hypothesis that lowered cognitive performance plays a role in the relation between elevated blood pressure and physical disability in performing basic physical tasks. A community-based sample (N=1025) free from stroke and dementia (mean age: 61.1 years; SD: 13.0 years; 59.8% women) was used. Using path analysis, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (predictor variable) measured over multiple longitudinal examinations were averaged and related to multiple measures of cognition (intermediate variable) and physical ability (PA; outcome variable) measured at wave 6 of the Maine-Syracuse Study. PA was indexed by time required to execute standing, walking, and turning tests. A best-fit path model including blood pressure and multiple demographic and cardiovascular disease covariates was used. Paths from systolic blood pressure to global performance, verbal memory, and abstract reasoning (Similarities test) were significant (P<0.05), as were paths from diastolic blood pressure to global performance, executive functioning, visual spatial organization/memory, verbal memory, working memory, and abstract reasoning. Regardless of the blood pressure predictor, lower cognitive performance (intermediate variable) was related to lower PA (outcome) in the path from blood pressure to PA. The direct path from blood pressure to PA was significant only for systolic blood pressure. Cognitive performance mediates between blood pressure and PA. As compared with systolic blood pressure, more domains of cognitive functioning intervene between diastolic blood pressure and PA.
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Equivalence of Family Functioning and Externalizing in Adolescent Substance Users of Different Race/Ethnicity.
J Subst Abuse Treat
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for Adolescent Drug Abuse clinical trial of 480 adolescents boys and girls age 12 to 17 and their parents was designed to maximize the chance that a sufficient number of Hispanic and Black adolescents would be included to allow valid subgroup comparisons. Examination of measurement invariance is an important step to ensure valid analysis. Two construct areas important to the analysis of trial results, adolescent problem behaviors and family functioning showed a high degree of measurement invariance, which allowed valid comparisons of mean baseline differences across groups. Results showed that Black families had significantly higher initial levels of family functioning and lower levels of adolescent externalizing than either Hispanic or White non-Hispanic families. This pattern is consistent with an increased likelihood of referral of Black adolescents with more severe problems to restricted setting rather than to outpatient drug abuse treatment. This possibility highlights the importance of considering differing baseline characteristics of subgroups prior to assessing differential treatment effectiveness to prevent confounding.
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Animal models for medical countermeasures to radiation exposure.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Since September 11, 2001, there has been the recognition of a plausible threat from acts of terrorism, including radiological or nuclear attacks. A network of Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCRs) has been established across the U.S.; one of the missions of this network is to identify and develop mitigating agents that can be used to treat the civilian population after a radiological event. The development of such agents requires comparison of data from many sources and accumulation of information consistent with the "Animal Rule" from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Given the necessity for a consensus on appropriate animal model use across the network to allow for comparative studies to be performed across institutions, and to identify pivotal studies and facilitate FDA approval, in early 2008, investigators from each of the CMCRs organized and met for an Animal Models Workshop. Working groups deliberated and discussed the wide range of animal models available for assessing agent efficacy in a number of relevant tissues and organs, including the immune and hematopoietic systems, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and skin. Discussions covered the most appropriate species and strains available as well as other factors that may affect differential findings between groups and institutions. This report provides the workshop findings.
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Clinical genetic testing for patients with autism spectrum disorders.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Multiple lines of evidence indicate a strong genetic contribution to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Current guidelines for clinical genetic testing recommend a G-banded karyotype to detect chromosomal abnormalities and fragile X DNA testing, but guidelines for chromosomal microarray analysis have not been established.
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Principles for defining adverse events in behavioral intervention research: lessons from a family-focused adolescent drug abuse trial.
Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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Behavioral intervention research has lagged behind biomedical research in developing principles for defining, categorizing, identifying, reporting, and monitoring adverse events and unanticipated problems.
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Heterocyclic acetamide and benzamide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists with improved rodent pharmacokinetic profiles.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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A series of amide derived beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists is described. The discovery and optimization of several series of compounds derived from 1, is used to lay the SAR foundation for second generation beta(3)-AR agonists for the treatment of overactive bladder.
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Equivalence of family functioning and externalizing behaviors in adolescent substance users of different race/ethnicity.
J Subst Abuse Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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The Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse clinical trial of 480 adolescents boys and girls aged 12 to 17 years and their parents was designed to maximize the chance that a sufficient number of Hispanic and Black adolescents would be included to allow valid subgroup comparisons. Examination of measurement invariance is an important step to ensure valid analysis. Two construct areas important to the analysis of trial results, adolescent problem behaviors, and family functioning showed a high degree of measurement invariance, which allowed valid comparisons of mean baseline differences across groups. Results showed that Black families had significantly higher initial levels of family functioning and lower levels of adolescent externalizing behaviors than either Hispanic or White non-Hispanic families. This pattern is consistent with an increased likelihood of referral of Black adolescents with more severe problems to restricted setting rather than to outpatient drug abuse treatment. This possibility highlights the importance of considering differing baseline characteristics of subgroups prior to assessing differential treatment effectiveness to prevent confounding.
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Gene structure induced epigenetic modifications of pericarp color1 alleles of maize result in tissue-specific mosaicism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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The pericarp color1 (p1) gene encodes for a myb-homologous protein that regulates the biosynthesis of brick-red flavonoid pigments called phlobahpenes. The pattern of pigmentation on the pericarp and cob glumes depends upon the allelic constitution at the p1 locus. p1 alleles have unique gene structure and copy number which have been proposed to influence the epigenetic regulation of tissue-specific gene expression. For example, the presence of tandem-repeats has been correlated with the suppression of pericarp pigmentation though a mechanism associated with increased DNA methylation.
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Risedronate prevents early radiation-induced osteoporosis in mice at multiple skeletal locations.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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Irradiation of normal, non-malignant bone during cancer therapy can lead to atrophy and increased risk of fracture at several skeletal sites, particularly the hip. This bone loss has been largely attributed to damaged osteoblasts. Little attention has been given to increased bone resorption as a contributor to radiation-induced osteoporosis. Our aims were to identify if radiation increases bone resorption resulting in acute bone loss and if bone loss could be prevented by administering risedronate.
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Maintenance of white matter integrity in a rat model of radiation-induced cognitive impairment.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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Radiation therapy is used widely to treat primary and metastatic brain tumors, but also can lead to delayed neurological complications. Since maintenance of myelin integrity is important for cognitive function, the present study used a rat model that demonstrates spatial learning and memory impairment 12 months following fractionated whole-brain irradiation (WBI) at middle age to investigate WBI-induced myelin changes. In this model, 12-month Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats received 9 fractions of 5 Gy delivered over 4.5 weeks (WBI rats); Sham-IR rats received anesthesia only. Twelve months later, the brains were collected and measures of white matter integrity were quantified. Qualitative observation did not reveal white matter necrosis one year post-WBI. In addition, the size of major forebrain commissures, the number of oligodendrocytes, the size and number of myelinated axons, and the thickness of myelin sheaths did not differ between the two groups. In summary, both the gross morphology and the structural integrity of myelin were preserved one year following fractionated WBI in a rodent model of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Imaging studies with advanced techniques including diffusion tensor imaging may be required to elucidate the neurobiological changes associated with the cognitive impairment in this model.
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Chronic kidney disease, creatinine and cognitive functioning.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) is related to cognitive impairment. Previous studies have not explored the extent of impairment across multiple cognitive domains. We examined the range of specific cognitive abilities affected by CKD and whether the associations of CKD with cognition were eliminated by statistical control for cardiovascular disease correlates of CKD.
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Diminished benefits of drug-eluting stents versus bare metal stents in patients with severe renal insufficiency.
Nephron Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Since their introduction, the use of drug-eluting stents (DES) has increasingly become standard practice due to their decreased rates of in-stent restenosis and target lesion revascularization (TLR) rates in comparison to bare metal stents (BMS). However, these benefits have not been reproduced in patients with severe renal disease (SRD). This study compared TLR rates in patients with severe renal insufficiency treated with DES vs. BMS.
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Arterial pulse wave velocity and cognition with advancing age.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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We hypothesized that carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, interacts with age such that the magnitude of associations between PWV and cognitive performance are greater with increasing age and that this interaction is observed despite adjustments for demographic variables, mean arterial pressure, and cardiovascular risk factors. PWV was estimated using applanation tonometry in 409 dementia- and stroke-free participants of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (24 to 92 years of age; 62.3% women). Using linear regression analyses in a cross-sectional design, associations between PWV and age and the interaction of PWV and age were examined in relation to a global composite score, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Similarities test (abstract reasoning), and 4 cognitive domains indexed by multiple cognitive measures. Adjusting for age, gender, education, height, weight, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and antihypertensive treatment, PWV-by-age interactions were obtained for the global, visual-spatial organization and memory, scanning and tracking, and verbal episodic memory composites, as well as similarities. The combination of higher PWV and age resulted in progressively lower cognitive performance. This finding was the same with an extended model, which also included adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and other confounds. PWV interacts with age in a multiplicative way to exert a negative influence on cognitive performance level. Early interventions to prevent an increase in arterial stiffness could possibly play an important role in the preservation of cognitive ability.
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Brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abusers: a multi-site effectiveness study.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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Brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) is a manualized treatment designed to address aspects of family functioning associated with adolescent drug use and behavior problems (J. Szapocznik, U. Hervis, S. Schwartz, (2003). Brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abuse. (NIH Publication No. 03-4751). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse). Within the National Institute on Drug Abuses (NIDAs) Clinical Trials Network, BSFT is being compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in a multisite, prospective randomized clinical trial for drug using adolescents and their families in outpatient settings. The effectiveness of BSFT is being compared to TAU in reducing adolescent drug use, conduct problems, and sexually risky behaviors as well as in improving family functioning and adolescent prosocial behaviors. This paper describes the following aspects of the study: specific aims, research design and study organization, assessment of primary and secondary outcomes, study treatments, data analysis plan, and data monitoring and safety reporting.
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The successful psychoanalytic therapy of a schizophrenic woman.
Psychodyn Psychiatry
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The prevalent sociocultural belief about the psychoses and schizophrenia is that intensive psychoanalytic therapy is ineffective if not destructive and contraindicated, and that the treatment of choice is a combination of psychopharmacology and educational techniques designed to provide symptom relief and rehabilitation. The literature contains few detailed reports of successful intensive psychotherapy that might contradict these beliefs. The psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a woman I shall call Sara, who met DSM criteria for chronic paranoid schizophrenia, is presented in detail. Its success in bringing about a fundamental personality transformation from a seriously self-destructive state in which she was unable to care for herself to one in which she became a mature creative person is confirmed by a follow up two decades after termination. The therapy transpired over an 11-year period and was conducted for the most part four times per week. It was supported by numerous hospitalizations in the early years as well as pharmacotherapy which she was able to relinquish prior to termination. During treatment Sara separated both physically and psychologically from an undifferentiated destructive relationship with her mother, internalized the capacity to think and represent emotions, and integrated disparate elements of personality to form a cohesive self. She developed psychosexually and formed a mature gender identity. She achieved the capacity for intimacy and motherhood, and had a successful career.
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Decline in renal functioning is associated with longitudinal decline in global cognitive functioning, abstract reasoning and verbal memory.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
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Decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher serum creatinine (sCR) levels have been associated with longitudinal decline in global mental status measures. Longitudinal data describing change in multiple domains of cognitive functioning are needed in order to determine which specific abilities are most affected in individuals with impaired renal function.
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Relations between dairy food intake and arterial stiffness: pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure.
Hypertension
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Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial stiffness, including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study sample was performed. A linear decrease in pulse wave velocity was observed across increasing intakes of dairy food consumption (ranging from never/rarely to daily dairy food intake). The negative linear relationship between pulse wave velocity and intake of dairy food was independent of demographic variables, other cardiovascular disease risk factors, and nutrition variables. The pattern of results was very similar for pulse pressure, whereas no association between dairy food intake and lipid levels was found. Further intervention studies are needed to ascertain whether dairy food intake may be an appropriate dietary intervention for the attenuation of age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of cardiovascular disease risk.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.