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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cochrane in context: Maternal dietary antigen avoidance during pregnancy or lactation, or both, for preventing or treating atopic disease in the child.
Evid Based Child Health
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Cochrane Review: Maternal dietary antigen avoidance during pregnancy or lactation, or both, for preventing or treating atopic disease in the child Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Maternal dietary antigen avoidance during pregnancy or lactation, or both, for preventing or treating atopic disease in the child. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD000133. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000133.pub3. This companion piece to the review, "Maternal dietary antigen avoidance during pregnancy or lactation, or both, for preventing or treating atopic disease in the child," contains the following pieces: The abstract of the review A commentary from one or more of the review authors, explaining why the review team felt the review was an important one to produce A review of clinical practice guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Paediatric Society and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), United Kingdom.
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Maternal dietary antigen avoidance during pregnancy or lactation, or both, for preventing or treating atopic disease in the child.
Evid Based Child Health
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Some breastfed infants with atopic eczema benefit from elimination of cow milk, egg, or other antigens from their mother's diet. Maternal dietary antigens are also known to cross the placenta.
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Risk factors for and perinatal outcomes of major depression during pregnancy: a population-based analysis during 2002-2010 in Finland.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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To identify risk factors for and the consequences (several adverse perinatal outcomes) of physician-diagnosed major depression during pregnancy treated in specialised healthcare.
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Neighborhood Deprivation and Maternal Psychological Distress During Pregnancy: A Multilevel Analysis.
Matern Child Health J
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Maternal psychosocial distress is conceptualized as an important factor underlying the association between neighborhood deprivation and pregnancy outcomes. However, empirical studies to examine effects of neighborhood deprivation on psychosocial distress during pregnancy are scant. Based on a large multicenter cohort of pregnant women in Montreal, we examined (1) the extent to which psychosocial distress is clustered at the neighborhood-level, (2) the extent to which the clustering is explained by neighborhood material or social deprivation, and (3) whether associations between neighborhood deprivation and psychosocial distress persist after accounting for neighborhood composition (individual-level characteristics) using multilevel analyses. For 5,218 women residing in 740 neighborhoods, a prenatal interview at 24-26 gestational weeks measured both general and pregnancy-related psychological distress using well-validated scales: perceived stress, social support, depressive symptoms, optimism, commitment to the pregnancy, pregnancy-related anxiety, and maternal locus-of-control. Neighborhood deprivation indices were linked to study participants by their residential postal code. Neighborhood-level clustering (intraclass correlation) ranged from 1 to 2 % for perceived stress (lowest), optimism, pregnancy-related anxiety, and commitment to pregnancy to 4-6 % for perceived social support, depressive symptoms, and maternal locus of control (highest). Neighborhood material deprivation explained far more of the clustering (23-75 %) than did social deprivation (no more than 4 %). Although both material and social deprivation were associated with psychological distress in unadjusted analyses, the associations disappeared after accounting for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics in studies of potential neighborhood effects on maternal mental health.
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Intrapartum interventions for singleton pregnancies arising from assisted reproductive technologies.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To assess whether singleton pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) are associated with an increased use of intrapartum interventions when compared with spontaneous singleton pregnancies.
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Socioeconomic differences in childhood length/height trajectories in a middle-income country: a cohort study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with shorter adult stature. Few studies have examined socioeconomic differences in stature from birth to childhood and the mechanisms involved, particularly in middle-income former Soviet settings.
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Dosimetric effects of residual uncertainties in carbon ion treatment of head chordoma.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To investigate dose distribution variations due to setup errors and range uncertainties in image-guided carbon ion radiotherapy of head chordoma.
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Automodification switches PARP-1 function from chromatin architectural protein to histone chaperone.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is a highly abundant chromatin-associated enzyme. It catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent polymerization of long chains of poly-ADP ribose (PAR) onto itself in response to DNA damage and other cues. More recently, the enzymatic activity of PARP-1 has also been implicated in the regulation of gene expression. The molecular basis for the functional switch from chromatin architectural protein to transcription factor and DNA damage responder, triggered by PARP-1 automodification, is unknown. Here, we show that unmodified PARP-1 engages in at least two high-affinity binding modes with chromatin, one of which does not involve free DNA ends, consistent with its role as a chromatin architectural protein. Automodification reduces PARP-1 affinity for intact chromatin but not for nucleosomes with exposed DNA ends. Automodified (AM) PARP-1 has the ability to sequester histones (both in vitro and in cells) and to assemble nucleosomes efficiently in vitro. This unanticipated nucleosome assembly activity of AM-PARP-1, coupled with the fast turnover of the modification, suggests a model in which DNA damage or transcription events trigger transient histone chaperone activity.
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Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the recent increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada: population based retrospective cohort study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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To examine whether changes in postpartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, or other risk factors explain the increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada.
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Association of time to kidney transplantation with graft failure among U.S. patients with end-stage renal disease due to lupus nephritis.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Objective: Providers recommend waiting to transplant patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to lupus nephritis (LN), to allow for quiescence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related immune activity. However, these recommendations are not standardized, and we sought to examine whether duration of time to transplant was associated with risk of graft failure in U.S. LN-ESRD patients. Methods: Using national ESRD surveillance data (United States Renal Data System), we identified 4743 U.S. patients with LN-ESRD who received a first transplant on or after 1/1/00 (follow-up through 9/30/11). The association of wait time (time from ESRD start to transplant) with graft failure was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models, with splines of the exposure to allow for non-linearity of the association and with adjustment for potential confounding demographic, clinical, and transplant factors. Results: White LN-ESRD patients who were transplanted later (vs. <3 months on dialysis) were at increased risk of graft failure [adjusted HR (95% confidence interval): 3-12 months, 1.23 (0.93-1.63); 12-24 months, 1.37 (0.92-2.06); 24-36 months, 1.34 (0.92-1.97); and >36 months, 1.98 (1.31-2.99)]. However, no such association was seen among black recipients [3-12 months, 1.07 (0.79-1.45); 12-24 months, 1.01 (0.64-1.60); 24-36 months, 0.78 (0.51-1.18); and >36 months, 0.74 (0.48-1.13)]. Conclusion: While future studies are needed to examine the potential confounding effect of clinically recognized SLE activity on the observed associations, these results suggest that longer wait times to transplant may be associated with equivalent or worse, not better, graft outcomes among LN-ESRD patients. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
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International Comparison of Common Risk Factors of Preterm Birth Between the U.S. and Canada, Using PRAMS and MES (2005-2006).
Matern Child Health J
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of newborn deaths and morbidities. The pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) from the U.S., and the maternity experiences survey (MES) from Canada, which was modeled from PRAMS, were used to examine between-country differences in risk factors of preterm birth. The adjusted risk ratio and population attributable fraction (PAF) were calculated for modifiable and semi-modifiable risk factors of PTB, and all measures were compared between the U.S. and Canada. PTB was defined here as a live singleton birth between 28 and 37 completed weeks gestation (using the clinical gestational age estimate) where the baby was living with the mother at the time of the survey. The PTB risk was 7.6 % (SE = 0.2) in the U.S. and 4.9 % (SE = 0.3) in Canada. The a priori high risk category of factors was almost always more prevalent in the U.S. than Canada, suggesting broad social differences, but individually most of these differences were not associated with PTB. The underlying risk of PTB was generally higher in the U.S. in both the higher risk and referent categories, and the risk ratios for most risk factors were similar between the countries. The primary exception was for recurrence of PTB, where the risk ratio (RR) and PAF were much higher in Canada. We observed between-country differences in both the prevalence of risk factors and the adjusted RR. Further between-country comparisons may lead to important inferences as to the influence of modifiable risk factors contributing to PTB.
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Placenta previa and the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age newborn.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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To evaluate whether there is an association between placenta previa and delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn and to quantify the contribution of individual risk factors for SGA that are associated with placenta previa stratified by maternal parity.
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Factors associated with pupil toilet use in kenyan primary schools.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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The purpose of this study was to quantify how school sanitation conditions are associated with pupils' use of sanitation facilities. We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 60 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya, using structured observations to measure facility conditions and pupils' use at specific facilities. We used multivariable mixed regression models to characterize how pupil to toilet ratio was associated with toilet use at the school-level and also how facility conditions were associated with pupils' use at specific facilities. We found a piecewise linear relationship between decreasing pupil to toilet ratio and increasing pupil toilet use (p < 0.01). Our data also revealed significant associations between toilet use and newer facility age (p < 0.01), facility type (p < 0.01), and the number of toilets in a facility (p < 0.01). We found some evidence suggesting facility dirtiness may deter girls from use (p = 0.06), but not boys (p = 0.98). Our study is the first to rigorously quantify many of these relationships, and provides insight into the complexity of factors affecting pupil toilet use patterns, potentially leading to a better allocation of resources for school sanitation, and to improved health and educational outcomes for children.
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Adverse perinatal outcomes associated with moderate or severe maternal anaemia based on parity in Finland during 2006-10.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Anaemia during pregnancy is an important public health problem. We investigated whether the association between maternal anaemia during pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes differed between nulliparous and multiparous women.
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Inferring gene ontologies from pairwise similarity data.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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While the manually curated Gene Ontology (GO) is widely used, inferring a GO directly from -omics data is a compelling new problem. Recognizing that ontologies are a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of terms and hierarchical relations, algorithms are needed that: analyze a full matrix of gene-gene pairwise similarities from -omics data; infer true hierarchical structure in these data rather than enforcing hierarchy as a computational artifact; and respect biological pleiotropy, by which a term in the hierarchy can relate to multiple higher level terms. Methods addressing these requirements are just beginning to emerge-none has been evaluated for GO inference.
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Association of U.S. Dialysis facility neighborhood characteristics with facility-level kidney transplantation.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Improving access to optimal healthcare may depend on the attributes of neighborhoods where patients receive healthcare services. We investigated whether the characteristics of dialysis facility neighborhoods--where most patients with end-stage renal disease are treated--were associated with facility-level kidney transplantation.
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Unemployment at municipality level is associated with an increased risk of small for gestational age births ¿ a multilevel analysis of all singleton births during 2005¿2010 in Finland.
Int J Equity Health
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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IntroductionNeighbourhood level deprivation has been shown to influence adverse perinatal outcomes independent of individual level socioeconomic status (SES) in countries with high income inequality, such as the United States. The present study evaluates whether municipality level deprivation defined based on education (proportion of inhabitants with university level education), income (mean income per capita) and unemployment were associated with the prevalence of preterm birth (<37 weeks) and small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight <2 standard deviations) after adjustment for individual level socio-demographics (age, parity, prior preterm births, smoking during pregnancy and SES defined based on maternal occupation at birth) in Finland.MethodsThe study design was cross-sectional. The data gathered from the Medical Birth Register included all singleton births (n¿=¿345,952) in 2005¿2010. We fitted Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) models to account for correlation of preterm birth and SGA clustering within municipality.ResultsOf all the women with singleton pregnancies, 4.5% (n¿=¿15,615) gave birth preterm and 3.8% (n¿=¿13,111) of their newborns were classified as SGA. Individual level SES and smoking were important risk factors for each outcome in adjusted models. Controlling for individual level factors, women living in intermediate and high unemployment class municipalities were 6.0% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)¿=¿1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.12) and 13.0% (aOR¿=¿1.13; 95% CI 1.06-1.20), respectively, more likely to give birth to an SGA newborn than women living in low unemployment class municipalities.ConclusionsAfter adjustment for individual level socio-demographics, the prevalence of SGA was around 6-13% higher in municipalities with an intermediate or high unemployment rate than municipalities with the lowest unemployment rate. The results suggested that the unemployment rate has an important public health effect with clinical implications since SGA is associated with a higher risk of adverse long-term health outcomes.
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Using a Geolocation Social Networking Application to Calculate the Population Density of Sex-Seeking Gay Men for Research and Prevention Services.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) continues to have a heavy impact on men who have sex with men (MSM). Among MSM, black men under the age of 30 are at the most risk for being diagnosed with HIV. The US National HIV/AIDS strategy recommends intensifying efforts in communities that are most heavily impacted; to do so requires new methods for identifying and targeting prevention resources to young MSM, especially young MSM of color.
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Is restricted fetal growth associated with later adiposity? Observational analysis of a randomized trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Several recent "developmental origins" studies have reported increased long-term risks of adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, among children born small for gestational age (SGA).OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of SGA birth and weight gain in early infancy on adiposity at age 11.5 y.DESIGN: From a cluster-randomized breastfeeding promotion trial in 17,046 Belarusian children, we measured height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, and bioimpedance measures of percentage body fat at age 11.5 y. Children born SGA (birth weight <10th percentile) and those born large for gestational age (LGA; >90th percentile for gestational age) were compared with those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Weight gain from birth to 6 mo was categorized as high (>0.67-SD increase in weight-for-age), low (>0.67-SD decrease in weight-for-age), or normal. Multilevel statistical models accounted for clustered measurement and controlled for maternal and paternal height and body mass index (BMI), maternal education, geographic region, urban compared with rural residence, and the child's exact age at follow-up.RESULTS: Children born SGA had a significantly lower BMI, percentage body fat, and fat mass index than did those born AGA, with a dose-response effect across 2 subcategories of SGA (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). No difference was observed in waist-to-hip ratio, although the subscapular-to-triceps skinfold ratio was slightly but significantly (P < 0.001) higher in children born SGA. Differences among the study groups continued to increase since the previous follow-up at 6.5 y. SGA infants with catch-up growth in the first 3-6 mo had growth and adiposity measures intermediate between those born SGA without catch-up and those born AGA. Opposite effects of similar magnitude were observed in children born LGA.CONCLUSION: The 11.5-y-old Belarusian children born SGA were shorter, were thinner, and had less body fat than their non-SGA peers, irrespective of postnatal weight gain. The Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN-37687716.
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Smoking during pregnancy was up to 70% more common in the most deprived municipalities - a multilevel analysis of all singleton births during 2005-2010 in Finland.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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We investigated whether there was an association between maternal smoking habits during pregnancy and municipality level deprivation defined based on education, income and unemployment after adjustment for individual level covariates, including socioeconomic status (SES), in Finland, a Nordic welfare state.
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Invited commentary: Does breastfeeding protect against "asthma"?
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Dogaru et al. have provided the best systematic review and meta-analysis to date of published studies of the association between breastfeeding and childhood asthma. Despite careful analysis of the reviewed studies' designs and methodological quality features, the authors are unable to explain the enormous heterogeneity (I(2) = 71%-92%) among the reported findings. This heterogeneity likely stems from the fact that "asthma" is a term used to denote a highly variable phenotype. The reasons for the protective association between breastfeeding and such a heterogeneous phenotype remain unclear, but may reflect nonblinding of feeding histories among observers who assess the outcome, as well as residual confounding, particularly by daycare attendance. The absence of a dose-response relationship based on breastfeeding duration or exclusivity also raises questions about the causal nature of the observed association. Future epidemiologic studies of asthma will require better and finer phenotyping to understand its etiology, including the potential protective effect of breastfeeding.
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Effects of promoting longer-term and exclusive breastfeeding on childhood eating attitudes: a cluster-randomized trial.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Observational studies suggest that breastfeeding benefits later maternal child-feeding practices, which in turn may contribute to positive eating attitudes. We investigated the effect of a randomized intervention to increase duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on pre-adolescent eating attitudes.
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Influence of delivery characteristics and socioeconomic status on giving birth by caesarean section - a cross sectional study during 2000-2010 in Finland.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Caesarean section (CS) rates especially without medical indication are rising worldwide. Most of indications for CS are relative and CS rates for various indications vary widely. There is an increasing tendency to perform CSs without medical indication on maternal request. Women with higher socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to give birth by CS. We aimed to study whether giving birth by CS was associated with SES and other characteristics among singleton births during 2000-2010 in Finland with publicly funded health care.
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Do population-based interventions widen or narrow socioeconomic inequalities? The case of breastfeeding promotion.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Despite numerous population-based randomized intervention trials, the impact of such interventions on socioeconomic inequalities has rarely been examined. We used data from a large cluster-randomized trial to assess the impact of a breastfeeding promotion intervention on socioeconomic inequalities in breastfeeding (exclusivity and duration) and in child cognitive ability at early school age.
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Ethnic differences translate to inadequacy of high-risk screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in an Asian population: a cohort study.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Universal and high-risk screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been widely studied and debated. Few studies have assessed GDM screening in Asian populations and even fewer have compared Asian ethnic groups in a single multi-ethnic population.
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Two cycles of risk-adapted consolidation therapy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Results from the SAL-AIDA2000 trial.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and idarubicin (AIDA) for induction therapy followed by three cycles of risk-adapted consolidation cycles is considered standard of care for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We report the outcome of 141 patients (median age 51 years; range, 19-82, 31 % ?60 years) enrolled into the prospective Study Alliance Leukemia (SAL)-AIDA2000 trial, which comprised AIDA-based induction followed by only two courses of risk-adapted consolidation (daunorubicin or mitoxantrone?±?cytarabine) followed by 2-year maintenance treatment. The early death rate was 7 % (median age 66 years), and additional 9 % stopped further treatment after induction. The estimated 6-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 80 % in all patients, 84 % in patients ?60 and 72 % in patients >60 years (p?=?0.140). No significant survival differences were observed between the high-risk and the non-high-risk patients (6-year OS 78 vs. 81 %, p?=?0.625). Our results confirm the efficacy of a risk-adapted approach in APL patients. Furthermore, long-term outcomes are comparable to the results obtained with three cycles of consolidation. A modification of the number and intensity of conventional consolidation treatment may be a less toxic but equally effective approach and should be considered for further evaluation in randomized clinical trials in APL.
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Incidence of childhood obesity in the United States.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Although the increased prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has been documented, little is known about its incidence. We report here on the national incidence of obesity among elementary-school children.
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Temporal trends in social disparities in maternal smoking and breastfeeding in Canada, 1992-2008.
Matern Child Health J
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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A steady decrease in maternal smoking during pregnancy and a steady increase in breastfeeding rates have been observed in Canada in the past two decades. However, the extent to which all socioeconomic classes have benefited from this progress is unknown. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine: (1) whether progress achieved benefited the entire population or was limited to specific strata; and (2) whether disparities among strata decreased, stayed the same, or increased over time. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which enrolled children aged 0-3 years between 1994 and 2008. Data collected at entry was analyzed in a cross-sectional manner. Between birth years 1992-1996 and 2005-2008, smoking during pregnancy decreased from 11.5 % (95 % CI 10.0-13.0 %) to 5.2 % (95 % CI 4.1-6.3 %) among mothers with a college or university degree and from 43.0 % (95 % CI 38.8-47.2 %) to 38.6 % (95 % CI 32.9-44.2 %) among those with less than secondary education. During the same period, the rate of breastfeeding initiation increased from 83.8 % (95 % CI 81.9-85.6 %) to 91.5 % (95 % CI 90.2-92.8 %) among mothers with a college or university degree and from 63.1 % (95 % CI 58.9-67.4 %) to 74.7 % (95 % CI 69.8-79.7 %) among those with less than secondary education. The risks of smoking and of not breastfeeding remained significantly higher in the least educated category than in the most educated throughout the study period, and these associations remained statistically significant after controlling for maternal age. Gaps between the least and the most educated mothers narrowed for breastfeeding but widened for smoking during pregnancy.
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Temporal trends in postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage in Canada from 2003 to 2010.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Increases in postpartum hemorrhage have been reported from several countries. We assessed temporal trends in postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage in Canada between 2003 and 2010.
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Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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We assess the association of men's exposure to violence in childhood-witnessing physical violence against one's mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative-with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men's perpetration of IPV mediates this relationship and whether men's attitudes about IPV mediate any relationship of exposure to violence in childhood with perpetration of IPV.
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Provision of private, piped water and sewerage connections and directly observed handwashing of mothers in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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To estimate the association between improved water and sanitation access and handwashing of mothers living in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru.
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Use of a Google Map Tool Embedded in an Internet Survey Instrument: Is it a Valid and Reliable Alternative to Geocoded Address Data?
JMIR Res Protoc
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and poor HIV related outcomes. Maps can be used to identify, quantify, and address gaps in access to HIV care among HIV-positive MSM, and tailor intervention programs based on the needs of patients being served.
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The use of epidural analgesia for intrapartum pain relief in publicly funded healthcare.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Epidural analgesia is the most effective way to relieve pain during birth. In a population-based case-control study, we evaluated whether socioeconomic status (SES) affects the use of epidural analgesia for intrapartum pain relief in publicly funded health care.
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The association of episiotomy with obstetric anal sphincter injury--a population based matched cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To estimate the independent association of episiotomy with obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) using first a cross-sectional and then a matched pair analysis.
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The association of early childhood cognitive development and behavioural difficulties with pre-adolescent problematic eating attitudes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later.
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HIV testing among United States high school students at the state and national level, Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2005-2011.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains an important public health issue and CDC recommends routine HIV screening for Americans aged 13-64. Adolescents and young adults are disproportionately affected compared to the overall population. We analyzed self-reported HIV testing and related risk behaviors at the state and national level among youths who had sexual intercourse, with a focus on state level differences.
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Risk Factors for High and Low Placental Weight.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Placental weight is an independent predictor of adverse perinatal outcome. However, risk factors for high and low placental weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify maternal, placental, and umbilical cord determinants of placental weight, before and after accounting for birthweight.
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Physical and biological factors determining the effective proton range.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Purpose: Proton radiotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard treatment option for cancer. However, even though experimental data show an increase of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with depth, particularly at the distal end of the treatment field, a generic RBE of 1.1 is currently used in proton radiotherapy. This discrepancy might affect the effective penetration depth of the proton beam and thus the dose to the surrounding tissue and organs at risk. The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the impact of a tissue and dose dependent RBE of protons on the effective range of the proton beam in comparison to the range based on a generic RBE of 1.1.Methods: Factors influencing the biologically effective proton range were systematically analyzed by means of treatment planning studies using the Local Effect Model (LEM IV) and the treatment planning software TRiP98. Special emphasis was put on the comparison of passive and active range modulation techniques.Results: Beam energy, tissue type, and dose level significantly affected the biological extension of the treatment field at the distal edge. Up to 4 mm increased penetration depth as compared to the depth based on a constant RBE of 1.1. The extension of the biologically effective range strongly depends on the initial proton energy used for the most distal layer of the field and correlates with the width of the distal penumbra. Thus, the range extension, in general, was more pronounced for passive as compared to active range modulation systems, whereas the maximum RBE was higher for active systems.Conclusions: The analysis showed that the physical characteristics of the proton beam in terms of the width of the distal penumbra have a great impact on the RBE gradient and thus also the biologically effective penetration depth of the beam.
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Effects of Promoting Longer Term and Exclusive Breastfeeding on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors at Age 11.5 Years: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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The duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding in infancy have been inversely associated with future cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an experimental intervention to promote increased duration of exclusive breastfeeding on cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood.
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Fear of childbirth predicts postpartum depression: a population-based analysis of 511 422 singleton births in Finland.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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To study how reproductive risks and perinatal outcomes are associated with postpartum depression treated in specialised healthcare defined according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes, separately among women with and without a history of depression.
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Analyzing Risks of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Approaches for analyzing the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes have been the source of much debate and many publications. Much of the problem, in our view, is the conflation of time at risk with gestational age at birth (or birth weight, a proxy for gestational age). We consider the causal questions underlying such analyses with the help of a generic directed acyclic graph. We discuss competing risks and populations at risk in the context of appropriate numerators and denominators, respectively. We summarize 3 different approaches to quantifying risks with respect to gestational age, each of which addresses a distinct etiological or prognostic question (i.e., cumulative risk, prospective risk, or instantaneous risk (hazard)) and suggest the appropriate denominators for each. We show how the gestational age-specific risk of perinatal death (PND) can be decomposed as the product of the gestational age-specific risk of birth and the risk of PND conditional on birth at a given gestational age. Finally, we demonstrate how failure to consider the first of these 2 risks leads to selection bias. This selection bias creates the well-known crossover paradox, thus obviating the need to posit common causes of early birth and PND other than the study exposure.
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NeXO Web: the NeXO ontology database and visualization platform.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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The Network-extracted Ontology (NeXO) is a gene ontology inferred directly from large-scale molecular networks. While most ontologies are constructed through manual expert curation, NeXO uses a principled computational approach which integrates evidence from hundreds of thousands of individual gene and protein interactions to construct a global hierarchy of cellular components and processes. Here, we describe the development of the NeXO Web platform (http://www.nexontology.org)-an online database and graphical user interface for visualizing, browsing and performing term enrichment analysis using NeXO and the gene ontology. The platform applies state-of-the-art web technology and visualization techniques to provide an intuitive framework for investigating biological machinery captured by both data-driven and manually curated ontologies.
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Evolution of the magnetic field structure of the Crab pulsar.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Pulsars are highly magnetized rotating neutron stars and are well known for the stability of their signature pulse shapes, allowing high-precision studies of their rotation. However, during the past 22 years, the radio pulse profile of the Crab pulsar has shown a steady increase in the separation of the main pulse and interpulse components at 0.62° ± 0.03° per century. There are also secular changes in the relative strengths of several components of the profile. The changing component separation indicates that the axis of the dipolar magnetic field, embedded in the neutron star, is moving toward the stellar equator. This evolution of the magnetic field could explain why the pulsar does not spin down as expected from simple braking by a rotating dipolar magnetic field.
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Smoking cessation in the first trimester reduces most obstetric risks, but not the risks of major congenital anomalies and admission to neonatal care: a population-based cohort study of 1 164 953 singleton pregnancies in Finland.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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In industrialised countries, approximately 5-20% of women smoke during pregnancy. We aim to study the association between smoking during pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes.
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The MTHFD1 1958G>A variant is associated with elevated C-reactive protein and body mass index in Canadian women from a premature birth cohort.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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MTHFD1 1958G>A, a polymorphism in folate metabolism, increases risk of pregnancy complications. A mouse model exhibited developmental defects, increased weight and decreased leukocyte counts. To examine the latter associations, we genotyped 651 women from a premature birth cohort. Prematurity and 1958G>A were not associated. Increases in the inflammatory marker CRP (logistic regression, p=0.055) and BMI (chi-square, p=0.0113) were associated with AA genotype in women with low folate. MTHFD1 1958G>A may influence immune function and obesity.
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Linear spline multilevel models for summarising childhood growth trajectories: A guide to their application using examples from five birth cohorts.
Stat Methods Med Res
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Childhood growth is of interest in medical research concerned with determinants and consequences of variation from healthy growth and development. Linear spline multilevel modelling is a useful approach for deriving individual summary measures of growth, which overcomes several data issues (co-linearity of repeat measures, the requirement for all individuals to be measured at the same ages and bias due to missing data). Here, we outline the application of this methodology to model individual trajectories of length/height and weight, drawing on examples from five cohorts from different generations and different geographical regions with varying levels of economic development. We describe the unique features of the data within each cohort that have implications for the application of linear spline multilevel models, for example, differences in the density and inter-individual variation in measurement occasions, and multiple sources of measurement with varying measurement error. After providing example Stata syntax and a suggested workflow for the implementation of linear spline multilevel models, we conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the linear spline approach compared with other growth modelling methods such as fractional polynomials, more complex spline functions and other non-linear models.
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Clonal heterogeneity as detected by metaphase karyotyping is an indicator of poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), studies based on whole-genome sequencing have shown genomic diversity within leukemic clones. The aim of this study was to address clonal heterogeneity in AML based on metaphase cytogenetics.
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LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Abstract LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.
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Changing associations of episiotomy and anal sphincter injury across risk strata: results of a population-based register study in Finland 2004-2011.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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To evaluate the changing association between lateral episiotomy and obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) for women with low and high baseline risk of OASIS.
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Socioeconomic status affects the prevalence, but not the perinatal outcomes, of in vitro fertilization pregnancies.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births?
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The epidemiology of low birthweight.
Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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In this paper, I review the epidemiology of low birthweight (LBW). I begin by defining LBW and emphasizing the distinction between infants who are born early (preterm) and those who are born small for their gestational age (SGA). I then review data on the global burden of preterm birth and SGA and the evidence bearing on whether one size fits all, i.e. whether a single birthweight (or birthweight for gestational age) cutoff is appropriate for different regions and population subgroups. I summarize what is known about the etiologic determinants of preterm and SGA birth, how they differ among countries of varying socioeconomic development and prevalence of risk factors, and how they are changing over time. I conclude with a critical appraisal of LBW prevention as a public health priority and argue that reducing fetal and infant mortality is a more important and achievable target for intervention.
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Muscle activity influence on the kinematics of the cervical spine in frontal tests.
Traffic Inj Prev
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The question of muscle activity influence on the cervical spine kinematics during rear-end and frontal crash events has been discussed. Less data are available concerning frontal collisions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the ventral and dorsal neck muscles on the cervical spine kinematics during simulated frontal sled collisions.
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Incidence, risk factors, and consequences of amniotic fluid embolism.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but serious cause of maternal mortality whose aetiology remains obscure. Previous population-based studies have reported associations with labour induction and caesarean delivery.
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Association between maternal chronic conditions and congenital heart defects: a population-based cohort study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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This study quantifies the association between maternal medical conditions/illnesses and congenital heart defects (CHDs) among infants.
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Impact of neonatal growth on IQ and behavior at early school age.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The objective was to examine associations of neonatal weight gain (NWG) and head circumference gain (HCG) with IQ scores and behavior at early school age.
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Social disparity affects the incidence of placental abruption among multiparous but not nulliparous women: a register-based analysis of 1,162,126 singleton births.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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To identify risk factors for placental abruption and to evaluate associations between adverse perinatal outcomes and placental abruption stratified by parity among women with singleton births from 1991 to 2010 in Finland.
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Efficacy and side effects of granulocyte collection in healthy donors.
Transfus Med Hemother
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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We report on the efficacy and side effects of granulocyte collection, which is comparatively infrequently performed in Germany.
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Multivariate Bayesian spatial model of preterm birth and cardiovascular disease among Georgia women: Evidence for life course social determinants of health.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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There is epidemiologic evidence that women who experience preterm birth (PTB) are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Each outcome independently has noted spatial and socioeconomic gradients; we test for spatial structure in the population correlation of the two.
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Maternal lipids and small for gestational age birth at term.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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To compare maternal lipid and lipoprotein concentrations between small for gestational age (SGA) infants and infants with normal growth born at term.
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Maternal smoking during pregnancy and failure of the georgia first grade criterion-referenced competency test.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been reported to be associated with impaired measures of cognitive function, but it remains unclear whether exposure to MSDP has an impact upon offspring school performance. We examined the association between MSDP and failure of the Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) among Georgia first grade students.
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Sex and body mass index but not CXCL12 801 G/A polymorphism determine the efficacy of hematopoietic cell mobilization: a study in healthy volunteer donors.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Analyses of healthy donors of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation have suggested that individuals harboring the CXCL12-A allele mobilize a higher number of CD34 + HSPCs after G-CSF administration. We typed 463 healthy unrelated donors (376 men and 87 women) who had received daily subcutaneous injections at a mean dose of 7.36 ± 1.71 ?g/kg G-CSF for 5 days for CXCL12 801 G/A using a real-time PCR assay. Interestingly, the median concentration of mobilized CD34 + cells on day 5 was almost identical in donors with the A-allele (79/?L; range, 11 to 249/?L) and the G/G-group (82/?L; range, 15 to 268/?L). In addition, the allelic distribution was not different in donors (n = 11) who mobilized less than 20/?L CD34 + cells. No difference in the overall yield of CD34 + cells in the apheresis product and in the number of CD34 + cells/kg recipient could be detected between both groups. In a multivariate regression model for the endpoint CD34 + cells/?L at day 5, only male sex (regression coefficient, 11.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 21.2, P = .021) and body mass index as continuous variables (regression coefficient, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 4.5, P = .0001) but not age, smoking status, or CXCL12 allelic status represented independent variables. Our data derived from a large well-controlled cohort contradict previous analyses suggesting an association between CXCL12 allelic status and the yield of CD34 + HSPC after G-CSF mobilization. Concentration of CD34 + cells in the peripheral blood, the most objective parameter, could not be predicted by CXCL12 genotype.
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Gestational age-specific severe maternal morbidity associated with labor induction.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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The purpose of this study was to examine the association between labor induction and gestational age-specific severe maternal morbidity.
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Cohort Profile: The Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT).
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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SummaryThe PROmotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT) is a multicentre, cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in the Republic of Belarus, in which the experimental intervention was the promotion of increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, modelled on the Baby-friendly hospital initiative. Between June 1996 and December 1997, 17 046 mother-infant pairs were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay from 31 maternity hospitals, of which 16 hospitals and their affiliated polyclinics had been randomly assigned to the arm of PROBIT investigating the promotion of breastfeeding and 15 had been assigned to the control arm, in which breastfeeding practices and policies in effect at the time of randomization was continued. Of the mother-infant pairs originally recruited for the study, 16 492 (96.7%) were followed at regular intervals until the infants were 12 months of age (PROBIT I) for the outcomes of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity; gastrointestinal and respiratory infections; and atopic eczema. Subsequently, 13 889 (81.5%) of the children from these mother-infant pairs were followed-up at age 6.5 years (PROBIT II) for anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), behaviour, dental health, cognitive function, asthma and atopy outcomes, and 13 879 (81.4%) children were followed to the age of 11.5 years (PROBIT III) for anthropometry, body composition, BP, and the measurement of fasted glucose, insulin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and apolipoproteins. The trial registration number for Current Controlled Trials is ISRCTN37687716 and that for ClinicalTrials.gov is NCT01561612. Proposals for collaboration are welcome, and enquires about PROBIT should be made to an executive group of the study steering committee (M.S.K., R.M.M., and E.O.). More information, including information about how to access the trial data, data collection documents, and bibliography, is available at the trial website (http://www.bristol.ac.uk/social-community-medicine/projects/probit/).
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Maternal stress/distress, hormonal pathways and spontaneous preterm birth.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Although second-trimester blood corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) levels are robustly associated with preterm birth, the findings with respect to cortisol have been inconsistent, as have been those relating stress hormones to measured stressors and maternal distress.
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Neighbourhood income and neonatal, postneonatal and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) mortality in Canada, 1991-2005.
Can J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Rates of infant mortality declined in Canada in the 1990s and 2000s, but the extent to which all socio-economic levels benefitted from this progress is unknown.
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Contribution of socioeconomic status to the risk of small for gestational age infants--a population-based study of 1,390,165 singleton live births in Finland.
Int J Equity Health
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are at increased risk of short- and long-term adverse outcomes.
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Incidence, risk factors, and temporal trends in severe postpartum hemorrhage.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Because the diagnosis of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) depends on the accoucheurs subjective estimate of blood loss and varies according to mode of delivery, we examined temporal trends in severe PPH, defined as PPH plus receipt of a blood transfusion, hysterectomy, and/or surgical repair of the uterus.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.