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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Do Increasing Rates of Loss to Follow-up in Antiretroviral Treatment Programs Imply Deteriorating Patient Retention?
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
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In several studies of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs for persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection, investigators have reported that there has been a higher rate of loss to follow-up (LTFU) among patients initiating ART in recent years than among patients who initiated ART during earlier time periods. This finding is frequently interpreted as reflecting deterioration of patient retention in the face of increasing patient loads. However, in this paper we demonstrate by simulation that transient gaps in follow-up could lead to bias when standard survival analysis techniques are applied. We created a simulated cohort of patients with different dates of ART initiation. Rates of ART interruption, ART resumption, and mortality were assumed to remain constant over time, but when we applied a standard definition of LTFU, the simulated probability of being classified LTFU at a particular ART duration was substantially higher in recently enrolled cohorts. This suggests that much of the apparent trend towards increased LTFU may be attributed to bias caused by transient interruptions in care. Alternative statistical techniques need to be used when analyzing predictors of LTFU-for example, using "prospective" definitions of LTFU in place of "retrospective" definitions. Similar considerations may apply when analyzing predictors of LTFU from treatment programs for other chronic diseases.
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Mortality in patients with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America.
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Plasma lopinavir concentrations predict virological failure in a cohort of South African children initiating a protease-inhibitor-based regimen.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy contributes to pharmacokinetic variability and is the major determinant of virological failure. However, measuring treatment adherence is difficult, especially in children. We investigated the relationship between plasma lopinavir concentrations, pretreatment characteristics and viral load >400 copies/ml.
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Effects of rifampin-based antituberculosis therapy on plasma efavirenz concentrations in children vary by CYP2B6 genotype.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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An efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is preferred for children more than 3 years of age with tuberculosis. However, rifampin, a key component of antituberculosis therapy, induces CYP2B6. An increased dose of efavirenz is recommended in adults weighing more than 50 kg who require rifampin, but there is scant information in children being treated for tuberculosis.
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When to start antiretroviral therapy in children aged 2-5 years: a collaborative causal modelling analysis of cohort studies from southern Africa.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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There is limited evidence on the optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in children 2-5 y of age. We conducted a causal modelling analysis using the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaborative dataset to determine the difference in mortality when starting ART in children aged 2-5 y immediately (irrespective of CD4 criteria), as recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 guidelines, compared to deferring to lower CD4 thresholds, for example, the WHO 2010 recommended threshold of CD4 count <750 cells/mm(3) or CD4 percentage (CD4%) <25%.
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Unemployment and stillbirth risk among foreign-born and Spanish pregnant women in Spain, 2007-2010: a multilevel analysis study.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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We describe stillbirth and unemployment rates by autonomous region in Spain and analyse whether women who gave birth in regions with high unemployment rates were more likely to have a stillborn. We designed a multilevel population-based observational study of births from 2007 to 2010. We defined stillbirth as the outcome, individual maternal socioeconomic and pregnancy-related characteristics as covariates, and maternal autonomous region of residence as the contextual covariate. We used mixed-logistic regression models to account for differences across regions. In total, 1,920,235 singleton births and 5,560 stillbirths were included in the study. Women residing in autonomous regions with the highest rates of unemployment had a two-times-greater chance of delivering a stillborn (adjusted OR 2.60; 95 % CI 2.08-3.21). The region where women resided explained 14 % of the total individual differences in the risk of delivering a stillborn. The odds of stillbirth were 1.82 (95 % CI 1.62-2.05) times higher for African-born women than for Spanish-born women and 1.90 (95 % CI 1.68-2.15) times higher for women with low educational attainment than for women with higher education. In conclusion, regional disparities in stillbirth rates in Spain in the period 2007-2010 were mainly associated with mothers who had low levels of education, were African-born, and lived in regions with higher unemployment.
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Life expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults.
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Immune recovery after starting ART in HIV-infected patients presenting and not presenting with tuberculosis in South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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We studied the immune response after starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 15,646 HIV-infected patients with or without tuberculosis (TB) at presentation in 3 ART programs in South Africa between 2003 and 2010. Patients presenting with TB had similar increases in CD4 cells compared with all other patients (adjusted difference 4.9 cells/µL per 6 months, 95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 9.7). Younger age, advanced clinical stage, female sex, and lower CD4 cell count at ART start were all associated with steeper CD4 slopes. In South Africa, HIV-infected patients presenting with TB experience immune recovery after starting ART that is no worse than in other patients.
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CD4 count slope and mortality in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: multicohort analysis from South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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In many resource-limited settings monitoring of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is based on the current CD4 count, with limited access to HIV RNA tests or laboratory diagnostics. We examined whether the CD4 count slope over 6 months could provide additional prognostic information.
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Effectiveness of patient adherence groups as a model of care for stable patients on antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Innovative models of care are required to cope with the ever-increasing number of patients on antiretroviral therapy in the most affected countries. This study, in Khayelitsha, South Africa, evaluates the effectiveness of a group-based model of care run predominantly by non-clinical staff in retaining patients in care and maintaining adherence.
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Risk factors for mercury exposure of children in a rural mining town in northern chile.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Traditional gold mining is associated with mercury exposure. Especially vulnerable to its neurotoxic effects is the developing nervous system of a child. We aimed to investigate risk factors of mercury exposure among children in a rural mining town in Chile.
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Tuberculosis and the risk of opportunistic infections and cancers in HIV-infected patients starting ART in Southern Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To investigate the incidence of selected opportunistic infections (OIs) and cancers and the role of a history of tuberculosis (TB) as a risk factor for developing these conditions in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Southern Africa.
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Gender differences in survival among adult patients starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a multicentre cohort study.
PLoS Med.
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Increased mortality among men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been documented but remains poorly understood. We examined the magnitude of and risk factors for gender differences in mortality on ART.
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Elevation and cholera: an epidemiological spatial analysis of the cholera epidemic in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2008-2009.
BMC Public Health
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In highly populated African urban areas where access to clean water is a challenge, water source contamination is one of the most cited risk factors in a cholera epidemic. During the rainy season, where there is either no sewage disposal or working sewer system, runoff of rains follows the slopes and gets into the lower parts of towns where shallow wells could easily become contaminated by excretes. In cholera endemic areas, spatial information about topographical elevation could help to guide preventive interventions. This study aims to analyze the association between topographic elevation and the distribution of cholera cases in Harare during the cholera epidemic in 2008 and 2009.
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Refined identification of neutralization-resistant HIV-1 CRF02_AG viruses.
J. Virol.
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We studied neutralization of CRF02_AG HIV-1-infected plasma samples. In contrast to previous reports, these samples neutralized CRF02_AG viruses better than other viruses. This included six of eight CRF02_AG viruses previously designated resistant (tier 2/3 or 3). Only viruses 253-11 and 278-50 remained highly resistant, but they were sensitive to membrane-proximal external region (MPER)-specific monoclonal antibodies, suggesting neutralization targets for even these viruses. We propose using high-neutralizing-within-subtype samples for evaluation of neutralization resistance of viruses.
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Baseline predictors of sputum culture conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis: importance of cavities, smoking, time to detection and W-Beijing genotype.
PLoS ONE
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Time to detection (TTD) on automated liquid mycobacterial cultures is an emerging biomarker of tuberculosis outcomes. The M. tuberculosis W-Beijing genotype is spreading globally, indicating a selective advantage. There is a paucity of data on the association between baseline TTD and W-Beijing genotype and tuberculosis outcomes.
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Virologic Response in Children Treated with Abacavir Compared with Stavudine-Based Antiretroviral Treatment - A South African Multi-Cohort Analysis.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Initiation criteria and pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens have changed over the past few years in South Africa. We reported worse early virological outcomes associated with the use abacavir (ABC)-based regimens at one large site: here we expand this analysis to multiple sites in the IeDEA-Southern Africa collaboration.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.