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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
An Elevation of Resting Metabolic Rate With Declining Health in Nonagenarians May Be Associated With Decreased Muscle Mass and Function in Women and Men, Respectively.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Previously, we showed that FI34, a frailty index based on 34 health and function ability variables, is heritable and a reliable phenotypic indicator of healthy aging. We have now examined the relationship between major components of energy expenditure and the FI34 in participants of the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Resting metabolic rate was associated with FI34, even after adjustment for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, sex, thyroid hormones, and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, in multiple regression analyses. In contrast, there was no association between total daily energy expenditure and FI34. Circulating creatine phosphokinase, a clinical marker of muscle damage, was also significantly associated with FI34. However, these associations of resting metabolic rate with FI34 were restricted to the oldest old (?90 years) and absent in younger age groups. In oldest old men, the association of FI34 with creatine phosphokinase persisted, whereas in the oldest old women, only the association with resting metabolic rate pertained with the appearance of an effect of body size and composition. These results point toward an increasing metabolic burden for the maintenance of homeodynamics as health declines in nonagenarians, and this has implications for contraction of metabolic reserve that may potentially accelerate the path to disability.
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Unlocking the barriers to improved functional capacity in the elderly: rationale and design for the "Fit for Life trial".
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Advancing age is associated with an increase in physical impairment, functional limitations, disability, and loss of independence. Regular physical activity conveys health benefits, but the yield on physical function in the elderly, is less clear. Current exercise guidelines are focused predominantly on aerobic programs despite evidence that age-associated declines are mediated by peripheral tissue changes. The Fit for Life trial proposes a new paradigm of exercise training for the elderly that uses a low-mass high-repetition training regimen specifically focused on peripheral tissue beds or body regions (Regional Specific Training Stimulus - RSTS). RSTS is designed to deliver a localized stimulus to the peripheral vasculature, bone and muscle, without imposing a significant central cardiorespiratory strain. The purpose of this study is three-fold; 1) to derive effect sizes from the RSTS intervention by which to power a subsequent larger, confirmatory trial; 2) to assess fidelity of the RSTS intervention; and 3) to assess the interrelationship of the primary endpoints of physical impairment/fitness (VO(2peak), 1 repetition maximal contraction) and function (Senior Fitness Test scores) following two versions of a 4 + 8 week protocol. Men and women over 70 years, at risk for losing independence will be randomized to either 4 weeks of RSTS or "aerobic" exercise, followed by an identical 8 weeks of progressive whole-body training (aerobic plus resistance). The guiding hypothesis is that the magnitude of adaptation after 12 weeks will be greatest in those initially randomized to RSTS. Possible mediators of the intervention effect - physical impairment/fitness and function relationship, including vascular function, muscle mass, strength, and physiology will also be assessed.
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Comparison of brachial artery vasoreactivity in elite power athletes and age-matched controls.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes.
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Chronic exercise modulates RAS components and improves balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain of SHR.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Recently, exercise has been recommended as a part of lifestyle modification for all hypertensive patients; however, the precise mechanisms of its effects on hypertension are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the mechanisms within the brain that can influence exercise-induced effects in an animal model of human essential hypertension. Young normotensive WKY rats and SHR were given moderate-intensity exercise for 16 weeks. Blood pressure was measured bi-weekly by tail-cuff method. Animals were then euthanized; paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), important cardiovascular regulatory centers in the brain, were collected and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, EIA, and fluorescent microscopy. Exercise of 16-week duration attenuated systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure in SHR. Sedentary SHR exhibited increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and decreased anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in the PVN and RVLM. Furthermore, SHR(sed) rats exhibited elevated levels of ACE, AT1R, and decreased levels of ACE2 and receptor Mas in the PVN and RVLM. Chronic exercise not only prevented the increase in PICs (TNF-?, IL-1?), ACE, and AT1R protein expression in the brain of SHR, but also dramatically upregulated IL-10, ACE2, and Mas receptor expression in SHR. In addition, these changes were associated with reduced plasma AngII levels, reduced neuronal activity, reduced NADPH-oxidase subunit gp91(phox) and inducible NO synthase in trained SHRs indicating reduced oxidative stress. These results suggest that chronic exercise not only attenuates PICs and the vasoconstrictor axis of the RAS but also improves the anti-inflammatory defense mechanisms and vasoprotective axis of the RAS in the brain, which, at least in part, explains the blood pressure-lowering effects of exercise in hypertension.
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Telomere maintenance genes SIRT1 and XRCC6 impact age-related decline in telomere length but only SIRT1 is associated with human longevity.
Biogerontology
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Leukocyte telomere length is widely considered a biomarker of human age and in many studies indicative of health or disease. We have obtained quantitative estimates of telomere length from blood leukocytes in a population sample, confirming results of previous studies that telomere length significantly decreases with age. Telomere length was also positively associated with several measures of healthy aging, but this relationship was dependent on age. We screened two genes known to be involved in telomere maintenance for association with the age-related decline in telomere length observed in our population to identify candidate longevity-associated genes. A single-nucleotide polymorphism located in the SIRT1 gene and another in the 3 flanking region of XRCC6 had significant effects on telomere length. At each bi-allelic locus, the minor variant was associated with longer telomeres, though the mode of inheritance fitting best differed between the two genes. No statistical interaction was detected for telomere length between the SIRT1 and XRCC6 variants or between these polymorphisms and age. The SIRT1 locus was significantly associated with longevity (P < 0.003). The frequency of the minor allele was higher in long-lived cases than in young controls, which coincides with the protective role of the minor variant for telomere length. In contrast, the XRCC6 variant was not associated with longevity. Furthermore, it did not affect the association of SIRT1 with exceptional survival. The association of the same variant of SIRT1 with longevity was near significant (P < 0.07) in a second population. These results suggest a potential role of SIRT1 in linking telomere length and longevity. Given the differences between this gene and XRCC6, they point to the distinct impact that alternate pathways of telomere maintenance may have on aging and exceptional survival.
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HRAS1 and LASS1 with APOE are associated with human longevity and healthy aging.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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The search for longevity-determining genes in human has largely neglected the operation of genetic interactions. We have identified a novel combination of common variants of three genes that has a marked association with human lifespan and healthy aging. Subjects were recruited and stratified according to their genetically inferred ethnic affiliation to account for population structure. Haplotype analysis was performed in three candidate genes, and the haplotype combinations were tested for association with exceptional longevity. An HRAS1 haplotype enhanced the effect of an APOE haplotype on exceptional survival, and a LASS1 haplotype further augmented its magnitude. These results were replicated in a second population. A profile of healthy aging was developed using a deficit accumulation index, which showed that this combination of gene variants is associated with healthy aging. The variation in LASS1 is functional, causing enhanced expression of the gene, and it contributes to healthy aging and greater survival in the tenth decade of life. Thus, rare gene variants need not be invoked to explain complex traits such as aging; instead rare congruence of common gene variants readily fulfills this role. The interaction between the three genes described here suggests new models for cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying exceptional survival and healthy aging that involve lipotoxicity.
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Age-related and sensory declines offer insight to whole body control during a goal-directed movement.
Motor Control
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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We examined the effects of aging and lower limb sensory deficits (LLSD) on whole body control. Performances of a reaching task involving a step were measured in subjects with LLSD and young and older controls. Having LLSD was accompanied with greater reach errors and variability in lateral step deviations. Aging effects explained the smaller step deviations and longer movement times. These results suggest that older adults with LLSD have performance declines associated with deficits of the disease and aging that often differ, at least for this goal-directed discrete task. Furthermore, longer MT for older controls and shorter MT for LLSD subjects were associated with greater movement coupling. Longer movement periods likely offered older controls time to use sensory feedback to maintain good endpoint accuracy. Evidently, somatosensations from the limbs used during performance of whole body movements are required for the most accurate goal-directed control.
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Rapid vascular modifications to localized rhythmic handgrip training and detraining: vascular conditioning and deconditioning.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Despite the evidence describing the rapid vascular function modifications to commencement and cessation of large muscle exercises (i.e. cycling), no studies examined the time-course vascular modifications to localized training and detraining. This study aimed to examine the effects of 4-week rhythmic handgrip exercise training and 2-week detraining on reactive hyperemic forearm blood flow and vascular resistance in 11 young men. Rhythmic handgrip exercise was performed in the non-dominant forearm for 20 min/day, 5 days/week, at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction for 4 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of no training. Forearm blood flow and vascular resistance were evaluated, in both arms, at rest and following arterial occlusion. These vascular function indices were obtained in five visits; before, after 1 and 4 week(s) of training as well as after 1 and 2 week(s) of training cessation. Resting cardiovascular measures were not altered during the study period. A 2 (arms) x 5 (visits) ANOVA revealed significant arms-by-visits interactions for reactive hyperemic forearm blood flow (p = 0.02) and vascular resistance (p = 0.02). Subsequent comparison demonstrated increased trained forearm reactive hyperemic blood flow 1 week after training, then returned to pre-training values 1 week following training cessation. In contrast, vascular resistance decreased 1 week after training commencement, only to return to pretraining level 1 week after training cessation. These results indicate a rapid, unilateral improvement in regional reactive hyperemic blood flow and vascular resistance following localized exercise-training. However, the improvements are transient and return to pretraining levels 1 week after detraining.
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Modification of vascular function after handgrip exercise training in 73- to 90-yr-old men.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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To examine the influence of a unilateral exercise training protocol on brachial artery reactivity (BAR) in 12 men (aged 81 +/- 5 yr).
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Brachial artery retrograde flow increases with age: relationship to physical function.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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The purpose of this study was to examine the flow velocity pattern of the brachial artery and to determine its relationship to measures of physical function. Subjects from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (n = 95; age = 84 +/- 10 years) were evaluated. Brachial artery flow velocities and dimensions were measured using high-resolution ultrasonography. The continuous scale of physical function and performance test (CS-PFP10) was used to assess physical function. This test is based on the performance of 11 activities of daily living. Total CS-PFP10 score was 39.51 +/- 21.21 U. Mean antegrade and retrograde velocities at rest were 14.2 +/- 4.7 and 3.6 +/- 2.2 cm/s, respectively. Ante-/retrograde ratio was 5.5 +/- 4.6. Brachial artery diameter was 4.3 +/- 0.7 mm. Pulse pressure and vascular conductance were 66 +/- 18 mmHg, and 0.9 +/- 0.5 ml/min/mmHg, respectively. Vascular conductance (r = -0.34), ante-/retrograde ratio (r = -0.42) and CS-PFP10 (r = -0.65) were inversely and retrograde velocity (r = 0.40) and pulse pressure (r = 0.36), were directly associated with age. Retrograde velocity was inversely related to vascular conductance (r = -0.27) and CS-PFP10 total score (r = -0.45). A MANOVA revealed that those with the higher CS-PFP10 scores had a lower retrograde velocity (P = 0.0001), but this association was, in part, age-dependent. Among nonagenarians (n = 52), those in the lower tertiles of the CS-PFP10 scores had significantly higher retrograde velocities compared to those in the higher tertiles (P = 0.035). These data indicate an increase in brachial retrograde velocity with age. These hemodynamic changes are related to a decline in physical function.
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Left atrial enlargement and reduced physical function during aging.
J Aging Phys Act
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Diastolic dysfunction, often seen with increasing age, is associated with reduced exercise capacity and increased mortality. Mortality rates in older individuals are linked to the development of disability, which may be preceded by functional limitations. The goal of this study was to identify which echocardiographic measures of diastolic function correlate with physical function in older subjects. A total of 36 men and women from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study, age 62-101 yr, received a complete echocardiographic exam and performed the 10-item continuous-scale physical-functional performance test (CS-PFP-10). After adjustment for age and gender, left atrial volume index (? = -0.59; p = .0005) correlated with the total CS-PFP-10 score. Increased left atrial volume index may be a marker of impaired performance of activities of daily living in older individuals.
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Vasoreactivity before and after handgrip training in chronic heart failure patients.
Atherosclerosis
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the vasodilatory and vasoconstrictor responses of the brachial artery in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and controls (CON) before and after a period of training and detraining.
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Vascular function and handgrip strength in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
ScientificWorldJournal
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To examine the relationship of handgrip strength with forearm blood flow (BF) and vascular resistance (VR) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.
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Basal cell carcinoma characteristics as predictors of depth of invasion.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
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Pretreatment risk stratification of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is largely based on histologic subtype reported from biopsy specimens.
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Influence of compressive gear on powerlifting performance: role of blood flow restriction training.
J Strength Cond Res
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This study investigated the effects of powerlifting gear on training volume and performance, defined by the squat, bench press, and deadlift. Eighteen powerlifters (18-26 years) were randomized into either a group that trained and competed using compressive gear (CG) or without the gear (NON). Training volume, volume progression, and powerlifting performance were assessed before and after 10 weeks of training. Training volume increased in the first 4 weeks for both groups. Volume lifted for squat and the totals were greater in the CG. There was an increase in squat (19.05 ± 30.97 lb, p = 0.02), deadlift (19.05 ± 21.17 lb, p = 0.001), and the total score (44.00 ± 60.44 lb, p = 0.005) for both the groups. The improvements in squat (CG = 33.85 vs. NON = 5.74, p = 0.07) and totals (CG = 66.59 vs. NON = 23.67, p = 0.15) were greater in the CG. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in the Wilks scores (+13.54 points, p = 0.03). There was a trend toward greater volume progression in those wearing CG during the initial stages of training. Both the groups significantly improved performance for the squat, and deadlift, and had higher totals, and Wilks scores, indicating significant strength gains. The greater magnitude of improvements in the squat and totals for the CG lifters suggests an ergogenic potential of training with powerlifting gear.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.