We apply ultrafast optical interferometry to measure the Hugoniot of an oxygen-balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (NM/HP) and compare with Hugoniot data for pure nitromethane (NM) and a 90% hydrogen peroxide/water mixture (HP), as well as theoretical predictions. We observe a 2.1% percent mean pairwise difference between the measured shockwave speed (at the measured piston speed) in unreacted NM/HP and the corresponding "universal" liquid Hugoniot, which is larger than the average standard deviation of our data, 1.4%. Unlike the Hugoniots of both HP and NM, in which measured shock speeds deviate to values greater than the unreacted Hugoniot for piston speeds larger than the respective reaction thresholds, in the NM/HP mixture we observe shock speed deviations to values lower than the unreacted Hugoniot well below the von Neumann pressure (?28 GPa). Although the trend should reverse for high enough piston speeds, the initial behavior is unexpected. Possible explanations range from mixing effects to a complex index of refraction in the reacted solution. If this is indeed a signature of chemical initiation, it would suggest that the process may not be kinetically limited (on a ~100 ps time scale) between the initiation threshold and the von Neumann pressure.
Metabolomics is an emerging field which enables profiling of samples from living organisms in order to obtain insight into biological processes. A vital aspect of metabolomics is sample preparation whereby inconsistent techniques generate unreliable results. This technique encompasses protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, and solid-phase extraction as a means of fractionating metabolites into four distinct classes. Improved enrichment of low abundance molecules with a resulting increase in sensitivity is obtained, and ultimately results in more confident identification of molecules. This technique has been applied to plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid samples with volumes as low as 50 µl. Samples can be used for multiple downstream applications; for example, the pellet resulting from protein precipitation can be stored for later analysis. The supernatant from that step undergoes liquid-liquid extraction using water and strong organic solvent to separate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. Once fractionated, the hydrophilic layer can be processed for later analysis or discarded if not needed. The hydrophobic fraction is further treated with a series of solvents during three solid-phase extraction steps to separate it into fatty acids, neutral lipids, and phospholipids. This allows the technician the flexibility to choose which class of compounds is preferred for analysis. It also aids in more reliable metabolite identification since some knowledge of chemical class exists.
Well-developed and validated measures of cystic fibrosis (CF) knowledge are scarce. The purpose of the present study is to develop and validate a CF knowledge scale that is brief, easy to use, self-administered and demonstrates clinical utility.
Research that explores stigma in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is limited. Productive cough, repeated lung infections, and periods of serious illness requiring hospitalizations are among common symptoms of CF. These symptoms may cause a negative perception by others. We developed a CF-specific Stigma Scale and tested its psychometric properties.
Cigarette smoke exposure is linked to the development of a variety of chronic lung and systemic diseases in susceptible individuals. Metabolomics approaches may aid in defining disease phenotypes, may help predict responses to treatment, and could identify biomarkers of risk for developing disease. Using a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure sufficient to cause mild emphysema, we investigated whether cigarette smoke induces distinct metabolic profiles and determined their persistence following smoking cessation. Metabolites were extracted from plasma and fractionated based on chemical class using liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction prior to performing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolites were evaluated for statistically significant differences among group means (p-value?0.05) and fold change ?1.5). Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with significant differences in amino acid, purine, lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolite levels compared to air exposed animals. Whereas 60% of the metabolite changes were reversible, 40% of metabolites remained persistently altered even following 2 months of smoking cessation, including nicotine metabolites. Validation of metabolite species and translation of these findings to human plasma metabolite signatures induced by cigarette smoking may lead to the discovery of biomarkers or pathogenic pathways of smoking-induced disease.
The first highly enantioselective catalytic protocol for the reductive coupling of ketones and hydrazones is reported. These reactions proceed through neutral ketyl radical intermediates generated via a concerted proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) event jointly mediated by a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst and the photoredox catalyst Ir(ppy)2(dtbpy)PF6. Remarkably, these neutral ketyl radicals appear to remain H-bonded to the chiral conjugate base of the Brønsted acid during the course of a subsequent C-C bond-forming step, furnishing syn 1,2-amino alcohol derivatives with excellent levels of diastereo- and enantioselectivity. This work provides the first demonstration of the feasibility and potential benefits of concerted PCET activation in asymmetric catalysis.
We report observations of shock compressed, unreacted hydrogen peroxide at pressures up to the von Neumann pressure for a steady detonation wave, using ultrafast laser-driven shock wave methods. At higher laser drive energy we find evidence of exothermic chemical reactivity occurring in less than 100 ps after the arrival of the shock wave in the sample. The results are consistent with our MD simulations and analysis and suggest that reactivity in hydrogen peroxide is initiated on a sub-100 ps time scale under conditions found just subsequent to the lead shock in a steady detonation wave.
Introduction: Abductor muscle deficiency can be a debilitating problem following hip arthroplasty surgery. We report outcomes of a novel method of abductor muscle function reconstruction surgery in patients with chronic, irreparable gluteus medius and minimus defects Patients and methods: Four consecutive patients who underwent our method of abductor reconstruction surgery were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had severe pain and positive Trendelenberg gait before surgery. Technique: the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was raised on its neurovascular pedicle and transferred 12-14 centimetres by proximal translation. The proximal portion of VL was reattached via bony anchors to the external surface of the iliac wing just below the iliac crest. The distal portion of VL reattached to the lateral femoral shaft, lateral intermuscular septum, and the fascia of vastus intermedius. Results: Average follow-up was 10 months (range 7-15 months). Three of the four patients report dramatic improvement in pain as measured by the visual analogue pain scale. The same three patients report being "extremely satisfied" with the pain relief achieved and "extremely satisfied" with the operation overall. Two patients reported being "extremely satisfied" with improvements in walking. Hip abduction power improved in all patients but to varying degrees. Conclusion: The results show that our method of VL transfer may be a viable option for patients with severe abductor deficiency. Modest but clinically relevant early results are seen.
Universal newborn hearing screening has significantly improved the ability to identify patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), which results in earlier treatment and better hearing and development outcomes. It is recommended that patients born with SNHL who meet criteria receive cochlear implants (CIs) by a target age of 12 months, however many children are being implanted at an older age. This study aims to describe populations of pre-lingual patients with SNHL that are at risk for delayed implantation and to identify and analyze barriers that cause this delay.
Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by chronic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Numbers of CD8(+)IL-13(+) T cells are increased in asthmatics and during the development of experimental asthma in mice. In an atopic environment rich in IL-4, these CD8(+) T cells mediate asthmatic responses, but the mechanisms regulating the conversion of CD8(+) effector T cells from IFN-?- to pathogenic IL-13-producing effector cells that contribute to an asthma phenotype have not been defined. Here, we show that cholesterol side-chain cleavage P450 enzyme, Cyp11a1, is a key regulator of CD8(+) T-cell conversion. Expression of the gene, protein, and enzymatic activity of Cyp11a1 were markedly increased in CD8(+) T cells differentiated in the presence of IL-2 plus IL-4 compared with cells differentiated in IL-2 alone. Inhibition of Cyp11a1 enzymatic activity with aminoglutethimide or reduction in the expression of Cyp11a1 using short hairpin RNA prevented the IL-4-induced conversion of IFN-?- to IL-13-producing cells without affecting expression of the lineage-specific transcription factors T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) or GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3). Adoptive transfer of aminoglutethimide-treated CD8(+) T cells into sensitized and challenged CD8-deficient recipients failed to restore airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. We demonstrate that Cyp11a1 controls the phenotypic conversion of CD8(+) T cells from IFN-? to IL-13 production, linking steroidogenesis in CD8(+) T cells, a nonclassical steroidogenic tissue, to a proallergic differentiation pathway.
We report the adiabatic sound speeds for supercritical fluid carbon monoxide along two isotherms, from 0.17 to 2.13 GPa at 297 K and from 0.31 to 3.2 GPa at 600 K. The carbon monoxide was confined in a resistively heated diamond-anvil cell, and the sound speed measurements were conducted in situ using a recently reported variant of the photoacoustic light scattering effect. The measured sound speeds were then used to parametrize a single site dipolar exponential-6 intermolecular potential for carbon monoxide. P?T thermodynamic states, sound speeds, and shock Hugoniots were calculated using the newly parametrized intermolecular potential and compared to previously reported experimental results. Additionally, we generated an analytical equation of state for carbon monoxide by fitting to a grid of calculated P?T states over a range of 0.1-10 GPa and 150-2000 K. A 2% mean variation was found between computed high-pressure solid-phase densities and measured data-a surprising result for a spherical interaction potential. We further computed a rotationally dependent fluid to ?-solid phase boundary; results signal the relative magnitude of short-range rotational disorder under conditions that span existing phase boundary measurements.
Although most cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occur in smokers, only a fraction of smokers develop the disease. We hypothesized distinct molecular signatures for COPD and emphysema in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of current and former smokers. To test this hypothesis, we identified and validated PBMC gene expression profiles in smokers with and without COPD. We generated expression data on 136 subjects from the COPDGene study, using Affymetrix U133 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Multiple linear regression with adjustment for covariates (gender, age, body mass index, family history, smoking status, and pack-years) was used to identify candidate genes, and ingenuity pathway analysis was used to identify candidate pathways. Candidate genes were validated in 149 subjects according to multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, which included 75 subjects not previously profiled. Pathways that were differentially expressed in subjects with COPD and emphysema included those that play a role in the immune system, inflammatory responses, and sphingolipid (ceramide) metabolism. Twenty-six of the 46 candidate genes (e.g., FOXP1, TCF7, and ASAH1) were validated in the independent cohort. Plasma metabolomics was used to identify a novel glycoceramide (galabiosylceramide) as a biomarker of emphysema, supporting the genomic association between acid ceramidase (ASAH1) and emphysema. COPD is a systemic disease whose gene expression signatures in PBMCs could serve as novel diagnostic or therapeutic targets.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by ciliary dysfunction resulting in chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease, respiratory distress in term neonates, laterality (situs) defects, and bronchiectasis. Diagnosis has traditionally relied on ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities seen by electron microscopy. Mutations in radial spoke head proteins occur in PCD patients with central apparatus defects. Advances in genetic testing have been crucial in addressing the diagnostic challenge. Here, we describe a novel splice-site mutation (c.921+3_6delAAGT) in RSPH4A, which leads to a premature translation termination signal in nine subjects with PCD (seven families). Loss-of-function was confirmed with quantitative ciliary ultrastructural analysis, measurement of ciliary beat frequency and waveform, and transcript analysis. All nine individuals carrying c.921+3_6delAAGT splice-site mutation in RSPH4A were Hispanic with ancestry tracing to Puerto Rico. This mutation is a founder mutation and a common cause of PCD without situs abnormalities in patients of Puerto Rican descent.
Growth factors and their receptors coordinate neuronal differentiation during development, yet their roles in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma remain unclear. Comparison of mRNA from benign neuroblastic tumors and neuroblastomas revealed that expression of the type III TGF-? receptor (TGFBR3) decreases with advancing stage of neuroblastoma and this loss correlates with a poorer prognosis. Patients with MYCN oncogene amplification and low TGFBR3 expression were more likely to have an adverse outcome. In vitro, T?RIII expression was epigenetically suppressed by MYCN-mediated recruitment of histone deacetylases to regions of the TGFBR3 promoter. T?RIII bound FGF2 and exogenous FGFR1, which promoted neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. T?RIII and FGF2 cooperated to induce expression of the transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 1 via Erk MAPK. T?RIII-mediated neuronal differentiation suppressed cell proliferation in vitro as well as tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These studies characterize a coreceptor function for T?RIII in FGF2-mediated neuronal differentiation, while identifying potential therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers for neuroblastoma.
Sample preparation remains a challenge in untargeted metabolomics studies and no method currently results in complete extraction of all metabolite classes in human plasma. Because a large variety of molecules, with vast differences in dynamic range, could be involved in human disease, there is an urgent need to develop analytical techniques that result in comprehensive coverage of metabolites. Furthermore, analysis of more focused molecular classes could be necessary to more fully interrogate markers of human disease. However, such techniques, which generally involve multiple steps, often result in high variability. We have optimized a combined liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction method for plasma and have compared that to traditional methanol precipitation using spiked internal standards as controls. This method, based largely on previously published methods, results in 5 separate fractions enriched for aqueous species, phospholipids, fatty acids, neutral lipids, and hydrophobic lipids. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry as the analytical method, we detect over 3806 metabolites using the new method versus 1851 metabolites using methanol alone. Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of both internal standards (ISTDs) and endogenous metabolites demonstrate excellent reproducibility with CVs below 15% for the combined method compared to 30% using the methanol method. While both methods have applications for clinical metabolomics, fractionation resulted in greater overall coverage and can be used for initial classification of molecular species.
Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor of infancy, and mutations in several genes have been implicated as playing a role in tumor development. Here, we describe a pediatric patient with a constitutional microduplication of 2p24.3 who developed Stage 4 neuroblastoma at age 11 months. He represents the sixth patient described in the literature with partial trisomy 2p and neuroblastoma. All previous cases had duplication events spanning two genes implicated in neuroblastoma, MYCN and ALK. Our patient is unique because his duplicated region includes the MYCN gene only; the ALK gene is unaffected. These data, combined with the relatively high incidence of neuroblastoma reported in partial trisomy 2p patients, support the notion that MYCN duplication should be added to the growing list of genetic factors associated with an increased risk of neuroblastoma. The mechanism of increased risk is unclear, but the fact that our patient had dramatic amplification of MYCN in his tumor suggests that a germline duplication might predispose to further amplification. Additionally, our patient has several morphologic features common to patients with partial trisomy 2p including high forehead, hypertelorism, postaxial polydactyly, and developmental delay despite having a microduplication spanning approximately 1?Mb and including just three intact genes. This case may therefore help further delineate the genotype-phenotype correlations associated with partial trisomy 2p.
A multicenter prospective study was conducted to assess the safety and sustained effectiveness of a new instrument possessing multifunctionality as an ostium seeker, suction-irrigator, and malleable balloon-dilator indicated for treating multiple sinuses.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterised by oto-sino-pulmonary disease and situs abnormalities (Kartagener syndrome) due to abnormal structure and/or function of cilia. Most patients currently recognised to have PCD have ultrastructural defects of cilia; however, some patients have clinical manifestations of PCD and low levels of nasal nitric oxide, but normal ultrastructure, including a few patients with biallelic mutations in dynein axonemal heavy chain 11 (DNAH11).
To investigate autoantigens in ?-cells, we have used a panel of pathogenic T-cell clones that were derived from the NOD mouse. Our particular focus in this study was on the identification of the target antigen for the highly diabetogenic T-cell clone BDC-5.2.9.
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) due to explosive blast is common among military service members and often associated with long term psychological and cognitive disruptions. Little is known about the neurological effects of blast-related mTBI and whether they differ from those of civilian, non-blast mTBI. Given that brain damage from blasts may be diffuse and heterogeneous, we tested the hypothesis that blast mTBI is associated with subtle white matter disruptions in the brain that are spatially inconsistent across individuals. We used diffusion tensor imaging to examine white matter integrity, as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA), in a group of American military service members with (n=25) or without (n=33) blast-related mTBI who had been deployed as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom. History of civilian non-blast mTBI was equally common across groups, which enabled testing of both blast and non-blast mTBI effects on measures sensitive to (1) concentrated, spatially consistent (average FA within a region of interest [ROI]), (2) concentrated, spatially variable (number of ROIs with low average FA), and (3) diffuse (number of voxels with low FA) disruptions of white matter integrity. Blast mTBI was associated with a diffuse, global pattern of lower white matter integrity, and this pattern was not affected by previous civilian mTBI. Neither type of mTBI had an effect on the measures sensitive to more concentrated and spatially consistent white matter disruptions. Additionally, individuals with more than one blast mTBI tended to have a larger number of low FA voxels than individuals with a single blast injury. These results indicate that blast mTBI is associated with disrupted integrity of several white matter tracts, and that these disruptions are diluted by averaging across the large number of voxels within an ROI. The reported pattern of effects supports the conclusion that the neurological effects of blast mTBI are diffuse, widespread, and spatially variable.
We have directly resolved shock structures in pure aluminum in the first few hundred picoseconds subsequent to a dynamic load at peak stresses up to 43 GPa and strain rates in excess of 10(10)??s(-1). For strong shocks we obtain peak stresses, strain rates, and rise times. From these data, we directly validate the invariance of the dissipative action in the strong shock regime, and by comparing with data obtained at much lower strain rates show that this invariance is observed over at least 5 orders of magnitude in the strain rate. Over the same range, we similarly validate the fourth-power scaling of the strain rate with the peak stress (the Swegle-Grady relation).
Invasive species can have profound impacts on communities and it is increasingly recognized that such effects may be mediated by parasitism. The enemy release hypothesis posits that invaders may be successful and have high impacts owing to escape from parasitism. Alternatively, we hypothesize that parasites may increase host feeding rates and hence parasitized invaders may have increased community impacts. Here, we investigate the influence of parasitism on the predatory impact of the invasive freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex. Up to 70 per cent of individuals are infected with the acanthocephalan parasite Echinorhynchus truttae, but parasitized individuals were no different in body condition to those unparasitized. Parasitized individuals consumed significantly more prey (Asellus aquaticus; Isopoda) than did unparasitized individuals. Both parasitized and unparasitized individuals displayed Type-II functional responses (FRs), with the FR for parasitized individuals rising more steeply, with a higher asymptote, compared with unparasitized individuals. While the parasite reduced the fitness of individual females, we predict a minor effect on population recruitment because of low parasite prevalence in the peak reproductive period. The parasite thus has a large per capita effect on predatory rate but a low population fitness effect, and thus may enhance rather than reduce the impact of this invader.
Autoreactive CD4(+) T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, but the antigens that stimulate their responses have been difficult to identify and in most cases are not well defined. In the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes, we have identified the peptide WE14 from chromogranin A (ChgA) as the antigen for highly diabetogenic CD4(+) T cell clones. Peptide truncation and extension analysis shows that WE14 bound to the NOD mouse major histocompatibility complex class II molecule I-A(g7) in an atypical manner, occupying only the carboxy-terminal half of the I-A(g7) peptide-binding groove. This finding extends the list of T cell antigens in type 1 diabetes and supports the idea that autoreactive T cells respond to unusually presented self peptides.
Vorinostat (SAHA, Zolinza), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is assessed in nonclinical studies to support its approval for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Vorinostat is weakly mutagenic in the Ames assay; is clastogenic in rodent (ie, CHO) cells but not in normal human lymphocytes; and is weakly positive in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. No effects are observed on potassium ion currents in the hERG assay up to 300 microM (safety margin approximately 300-fold the approximately 1 microM serum concentration associated with the 400 mg/d maximum recommended human dose. No rat respiratory or central nervous system effects are found at 150 mg/kg (>2-fold maximum recommended human dose). No cardiovascular effects, including effects on QTc interval, are observed after a single oral dose (150 mg/kg) in dogs. Vorinostat is orally dosed daily in rats (controls, 20, 50, or 150 mg/kg/d) and dogs (controls, 60, 80, or 100/125/160 mg/kg/d) for 26 weeks with a 4-week recovery. Rat vorinostat-related adverse findings are decreased food consumption, weight loss, and hematologic changes; a no observed adverse effects level is not established. In dogs, adverse effects are primarily gastrointestinal; the no observed adverse effects level is 60 mg/kg/d (approximately 6-fold maximum recommended human dose). Toxicities are reversible and can be monitored in the clinic.
The time scale and/or products of photoinduced decomposition of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) were investigated at ambient pressure and compared with products formed at 8 GPa. Ultrafast time-resolved infrared and steady-state Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopies were used to probe TATB and its products after photoexcitation with a 5 ns pulse of 532 nm light. At ambient pressure, transient spectra of TATB indicate that the molecule has significantly decomposed within 60 ns; transient spectra also indicate that formation of CO(2), an observed decomposition product, is complete within 30-40 mus. Proof of principle time-resolved experiments at elevated pressures were performed and are discussed briefly. Comparison of steady-state FTIR spectra obtained at ambient and elevated pressure (ca. 8 GPa) indicate that the decomposition products vary with pressure. We find evidence for water as a decomposition product only at elevated pressure.
Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in four types of immune therapy-cytokine, vaccine, antibody and cellular therapy-to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies.
Women have lower circulating catecholamine levels during metabolic perturbations, such as exercise or hypoglycemia, but similar rates of systemic lipolysis. This suggests women may be more sensitive to the lipolytic action of catecholamines, while maintaining similar glucoregulatory effects. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to determine whether women have higher rates of systemic lipolysis compared with men in response to matched peripheral infusion of catecholamines, but similar rates of glucose turnover. Healthy, nonobese women (n = 11) and men (n = 10) were recruited and studied on 3 separate days with the following infusions: epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (NE), or the two combined. Tracer infusions of glycerol and glucose were used to determine systemic lipolysis and glucose turnover, respectively. Following basal measurements of substrate kinetics, the catecholamine infusion commenced, and measures of substrate kinetics continued for 60 min. Catecholamine concentrations were similarly elevated in women and men during each infusion: Epi, 182-197 pg/ml and NE, 417-507 pg/ml. There was a significant sex difference in glycerol rate of appearance and rate of disappearance with the catecholamine infusions (P < 0.0001), mainly due to a significantly greater glycerol turnover during the first 30 min of each infusion: glycerol rate of appearance during Epi was only 268 +/- 18 vs. 206 +/- 21 micromol/min in women and men, respectively; during NE, only 173 +/- 13 vs. 153 +/- 17 micromol/min, and during Epi+NE, 303 +/- 24 vs. 257 +/- 21 micromol/min. No sex differences were observed in glucose kinetics under any condition. In conclusion, these data suggest that women are more sensitive to the lipolytic action of catecholamines, but have no difference in their glucoregulatory response. Thus the lower catcholamine levels observed in women vs. men during exercise and other metabolic perturbations may allow women to maintain a similar or greater level of lipid mobilization while minimizing changes in glucose turnover.
The dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) is introduced as a novel tool for in situ processing of materials. Examples of various types of dynamic studies outline the advantages and differences of laser-based heating in the DTEM in comparison to conventional (resistive) heating in situ TEM methods. We demonstrate various unique capabilities of the drive laser, namely, in situ processing of nanoscale materials, rapid and high temperature phase transformations, and controlled thermal activation of materials. These experiments would otherwise be impossible without the use of the DTEM drive laser. Thus, the potential of the DTEM as a new technique to process and characterize the growth of a myriad of micro and nanostructures is demonstrated.
A new analytical method suitable for high throughput measurements of LTE(4) in human urine is described. The methodology utilizes on-line enrichment and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The novel LC/MS/MS method is rapid, linear from 5 to 500pg/ml in spiked urine samples of both healthy and asthmatic subjects and more accurate and precise than enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and previous LC/MS/MS methods. Results from sample integrity experiments and preliminary values of urinary LTE(4) from healthy adults and children are reported.
Less invasive instruments such as balloon catheters are available for sino-ostial dilation during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Currently, balloon catheter position is confirmed under fluoroscopic visualization. Radiation exposure has been an area of concern. This study was initiated to determine surgeon radiation exposure when fluoroscopy is used during ESS with balloon catheters.
Little research examines the organizational and contextual dynamics that affect decisions to adopt evidence-based programs as well as the feasibility of implementation with fidelity to the original model when new users adopt established programs. To understand how promising strategies can be disseminated widely, this study examines the adoption and implementation of two sexual violence prevention programs in new settings. Interviews were conducted with stake-holders to investigate the factors and dynamics related to the adoption and implementation of these programs. Additionally, the research team worked with the program developers to create measures of the fidelity of implementation, which were then administered at each site. The findings suggest that adoption decisions were based on perceived fit between the program and the adopting organizations values, goals, and local setting. After adoption, new sites were able to implement the program with fairly high levels of fidelity, given moderate investments in training and technical assistance.
Juvenile vitamin B(12) or cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency is notoriously difficult to explain due to numerous acquired and inherited causes. The consequences of insufficient Cbl are megaloblastic anemia, nutrient malabsorption, and neurological problems. The treatment is straightforward with parenteral Cbl supplementation that resolves most health issues without an urgent need to clarify their cause. Aside from being clinically unsatisfying, failing to elucidate the basis of Cbl deficiency means important information regarding recurrence risk is not available to the individual if the cause is contagious or inherited. Acquired causes have largely disappeared in the Modern World because they were mostly due to parasites or malnutrition. Today, perhaps the most common causes of juvenile Cbl deficiency are Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome and inherited intrinsic factor deficiency (IFD). Three genes are involved and genetic testing is complicated and not widely available. We used self-identified ancestry to accelerate and confirm the genetic diagnosis of IFD in three families of Chaldean origin. A founder mutation limited to Chaldeans from Iraq in the intrinsic factor gene GIF was identified as the cause. World events reshape the genetic structure of populations and inherited diseases in many ways. In this case, all the patients were diagnosed in the USA among recent immigrants from a single region. While IFD itself is not restricted to one kind of people, certain mutations are limited in their range but migrations relocate them along with their host population. As a result, self-identified ancestry as a stratifying characteristic should perhaps be considered in diagnostic strategies for rare genetic disorders.
The ubiquitously expressed phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly (PICALM) protein associates with the plasma membrane, binds clathrin, and plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Alterations of the human PICALM gene are present in aggressive hematopoietic malignancies, and genome-wide association studies have recently linked the PICALM locus to late-onset Alzheimers disease. Inactivating and hypomorphic Picalm mutations in mice cause different degrees of severity of anemia, abnormal iron metabolism, growth retardation and shortened lifespan. To understand PICALMs function, we studied the consequences of PICALM overexpression and characterized PICALM-deficient cells derived from mutant fit1 mice. Our results identify a role for PICALM in transferrin receptor (TfR) internalization and demonstrate that the C-terminal PICALM residues are critical for its association with clathrin and for the inhibitory effect of PICALM overexpression on TfR internalization. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that are deficient in PICALM display several characteristics of iron deficiency (increased surface TfR expression, decreased intracellular iron levels, and reduced cellular proliferation), all of which are rescued by retroviral PICALM expression. The proliferation defect of cells that lack PICALM results, at least in part, from insufficient iron uptake, since it can be corrected by iron supplementation. Moreover, PICALM-deficient cells are particularly sensitive to iron chelation. Taken together, these data reveal that PICALM plays a critical role in iron homeostasis, and offer new perspectives into the pathogenesis of PICALM-associated diseases.
Shock compression studies of pressed and confined ultrafine 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) powder were conducted using ultrashort ~300 ps, ~50 GPa shock waves. The recovered decomposition products were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. A substantial amount of shock-related chemistry was observed. Approximately 75% of the nitrogen atoms were liberated as gas-phase species, along with ~33% of the oxygen atoms, as a result of the applied shock. Furthermore, we observe C 1s binding energies suggesting the formation of sp(3) hybridized amorphous carbon. For comparison, a carbon nitride material was also prepared and characterized by thermally pyrolizing TATB. The shock-compressed TATB and the thermally pyrolized TATB are qualitatively different, suggesting that, carbon nitrides, a possible indicator of nitrogen-rich heterocycles precursors, are not a major product class for strongly overdriven shock conditions. These experimental conditions were, however, not detonation conditions, and the possible formation of nitrogen-rich heterocycles in actual detonations still exists.
Video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP) is a new approach to parathyroid exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism (PH). We examined the VAP learning curve and hypothesized that compared with conventional minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIS), VAP has similar complication rates and the added benefit of a shorter hospital length of stay. Using a case-control study design, patients with PH with single-focus imaging results undergoing VAP or MIS were compared during a 5-year VAP implementation period. VAP was possible in 18 per cent of patients undergoing initial parathyroid exploration. In comparing 125 VAP cases with 95 MIS control subjects, patients undergoing MIS had higher mean preoperative levels of calcium (P = 0.007) and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.008), greater mean adenoma weight (P < 0.001), and increased long-term mortality (4% MIS vs 0% VAP, P = 0.03). Mean operative time, in-house analgesia use, and operative complications did not differ. The rate of conversion from VAP to MIS was 14 per cent. Patients undergoing VAP were less likely to require an overnight hospital stay (P = 0.01). VAP is a safe surgical option for selected patients with PH, offering improved cosmesis with operative times comparable to conventional MIS. VAP can be done with a low conversion rate even during implementation and allows the added benefit of shorter hospital stay.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.