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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chromothripsis-like patterns are recurring but heterogeneously distributed features in a survey of 22,347 cancer genome screens.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Chromothripsis is a recently discovered phenomenon of genomic rearrangement, possibly arising during a single genome-shattering event. This could provide an alternative paradigm in cancer development, replacing the gradual accumulation of genomic changes with a "one-off" catastrophic event. However, the term has been used with varying operational definitions, with the minimal consensus being a large number of locally clustered copy number aberrations. The mechanisms underlying these chromothripsis-like patterns (CTLP) and their specific impact on tumorigenesis are still poorly understood.
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Progenetix: 12 years of oncogenomic data curation.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) can be found in the majority of cancer genomes and are crucial for understanding the potential mechanisms underlying tumor initiation and progression. Since the first release in 2001, the Progenetix project (http://www.progenetix.org) has provided a reference resource dedicated to provide the most comprehensive collection of genome-wide CNA profiles. Reflecting the application of comparative genomic hybridization techniques to tens of thousands of cancer genomes, over the past 12 years our data curation efforts have resulted in a more than 60-fold increase in the number of cancer samples presented through Progenetix. In addition, new data exploration tools and visualization options have been added. In particular, the gene-specific CNA frequency analysis should facilitate the assignment of cancer genes to related cancer types. In addition, the new user file processing interface allows users to take advantage of the online tools, including various data representation options for proprietary data pre-publication. In this update article, we report recent improvements of the database in terms of content, user interface and online tools.
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SIL1 mutations and clinical spectrum in patients with Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder featuring cerebellar ataxia, early-onset cataracts, chronic myopathy, variable intellectual disability and delayed motor development. More recently, mutations in the SIL1 gene, which encodes an endoplasmic reticulum resident co-chaperone, were identified as the main cause of Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. Here we describe the results of SIL1 mutation analysis in 62 patients presenting with early-onset ataxia, cataracts and myopathy or combinations of at least two of these. We obtained a mutation detection rate of 60% (15/25) among patients with the characteristic Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome triad (ataxia, cataracts, myopathy) whereas the detection rate in the group of patients with more variable phenotypic presentation was below 3% (1/37). We report 16 unrelated families with a total of 19 different SIL1 mutations. Among these mutations are 15 previously unreported changes, including single- and multi-exon deletions. Based on data from our screening cohort and data compiled from the literature we found that SIL1 mutations are invariably associated with the combination of a cerebellar syndrome and chronic myopathy. Cataracts were observed in all patients beyond the age of 7 years, but might be missing in infants. Six patients with SIL1 mutations had no intellectual disability, extending the known wide range of cognitive capabilities in Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome to include normal intelligence. Modestly constant features were somatic growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities and pyramidal tract signs. Examination of mutant SIL1 expression in cultured patient lymphoblasts suggested that SIL1 mutations result in severely reduced SIL1 protein levels irrespective of the type and position of mutations. Our data broaden the SIL1 mutation spectrum and confirm that SIL1 is the major Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome gene. SIL1 patients usually present with the characteristic triad but cataracts might be missing in young children. As cognitive impairment is not obligatory, patients without intellectual disability but a Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome-compatible phenotype should receive SIL1 mutation analysis. Despite allelic heterogeneity and many families with private mutations, the phenotype related to SIL1 mutations is relatively homogenous. Based on SIL1 expression studies we speculate that this may arise from a uniform effect of different mutations on protein expression.
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Recurrent loss of heterozygosity in 1p36 associated with TNFRSF14 mutations in IRF4 translocation negative pediatric follicular lymphomas.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Pediatric follicular lymphoma is a rare disease that differs genetically and clinically from its adult counterpart. With the exception of pediatric follicular lymphoma with IRF4-translocation, the genetic events associated with these lymphomas have not yet been defined. We applied array-comparative genomic hybridization and molecular inversion probe assay analyses to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 18 patients aged 18 years and under with IRF4 translocation negative follicular lymphoma. All evaluable cases lacked t(14;18). Only 6 of 16 evaluable cases displayed chromosomal imbalances with gains or amplifications of 6pter-p24.3 (including IRF4) and deletion and copy number neutral-loss of heterozygosity in 1p36 (including TNFRSF14) being most frequent. Sequencing of TNFRSF14 located in the minimal region of loss in 1p36.32 showed nine mutations in 7 cases from our series. Two subsets of pediatric follicular lymphoma were delineated according to the presence of molecular alterations, one with genomic aberrations associated with higher grade and/or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma component and more widespread disease, and another one lacking genetic alterations associated with more limited disease.
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CDCOCA: a statistical method to define complexity dependence of co-occuring chromosomal aberrations.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Copy number alterations (CNA) play a key role in cancer development and progression. Since more than one CNA can be detected in most tumors, frequently co-occurring genetic CNA may point to cooperating cancer related genes. Existing methods for co-occurrence evaluation so far have not considered the overall heterogeneity of CNA per tumor, resulting in a preferential detection of frequent changes with limited specificity for each association due to the high genetic instability of many samples.
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Chromosome 11p15 duplication in Silver-Russell syndrome due to a maternally inherited translocation t(11;15).
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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The role of 11p15 disturbances in the aetiology of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is well established: in addition to hypomethylation of the H19/IGF2 differentially methylated regions, five patients with a duplication of maternal 11p15 material have been described. We report on a boy with SRS carrying a maternally inherited duplication of chromosome 11p15. The patient showed the typical clinical picture of SRS including severe intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction, relative macrocephaly, a prominent forehead, a triangular face, down-turned corners of the mouth and fifth digit clinodactyly. Body asymmetry was not observed. By molecular genetic analyses, MLPA and microsatellite typing detected a duplication of chromosome 11p15 and cytogenetic analysis showed an unbalanced translocation t(11;15)(p15.5:p12). The size of the duplicated region is approximately 8.8 Mb as determined by SNP-array analysis. The healthy mother carried a balanced reciprocal chromosome translocation t(11;15). Thus, there is an increased risk for further children with SRS due to 11p15 duplication. Additionally, the family is at risk for offspring with an 11p15 deletion and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome whereby the phenotype will be influenced by haploinsufficiency of additional genes at 11p15 due to the deletion. The balanced aberrant karyotype was identified in several other family members, but interestingly there was no history of recurrent miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death, or multiple congenital anomaly syndromes in the family.
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Identification of a 21q22 duplication in a Silver-Russell syndrome patient further narrows down the Down syndrome critical region.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Several duplications of chromosome 21q helped to narrow down the Down syndrome (DS) critical region (DSCR) to chromosomal band 21q22 with an approximate length of 5.4 Mb. Recently, it has been suggested that the facial gestalt of DS has been linked to the distal part of the DSCR whereas the proximal region harboring DSCR1/RCAN and DSCAM should be associated with the cardiac abnormalities. Here, we report on a patient with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and a paternally inherited 0.46 Mb duplication in 21q22 affecting the KCNE1 and DSCR1/RCAN genes. The identification of an involvement of KCNE1 was interesting because it encodes the beta-subunit of the KvLQT1 channel as the slow component of the cardiac delayed rectifier K(+) current. Since duplication of the KCNQ1 gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the same channel was reported recently in another SRS patient, we screened both genes for mutations in a cohort of SRS patients without detecting pathologic variants. We presume that the duplication of the two functionally linked genes in different patients with the same disorder is a coincidental finding. However, the lack of DS typical clinical features in our case allows us to further narrow down the DSCR in 21q22. We conclude that DSCR1/RCAN is not sufficient for generating phenotypic features associated with DS but our observation does not contradict a possible role for DSCR1/RCAN in mediating DYRK1A-based effects.
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Increased expression of cellular retinol-binding protein 1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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To investigate the genomic alterations in larynx carcinomas (LaCa) tissues and its prognostics values in predicting survival.
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Quantifying cancer progression with conjunctive Bayesian networks.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Cancer is an evolutionary process characterized by accumulating mutations. However, the precise timing and the order of genetic alterations that drive tumor progression remain enigmatic.
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Recurrent loss, but lack of mutations, of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene in T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia with TCL1A-TCRAD juxtaposition.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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In T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), chromosomal imbalances affecting the long arm of chromosome 22 are regarded as typical chromosomal aberrations secondary to a TCRAD-TCL1A fusion due to inv(14) or t(14;14). We analyzed recently obtained data from conventional karyotyping, SNP-chip array copy number mapping, genome-wide expression profiling, and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of inv(14)-positive T-PLL with respect to structural aberrations on chromosome 22. Combined gene chip and interphase FISH analyses revealed interstitial deletions on 22q in 4 of 12 cases, with one case additionally showing a terminal copy number gain. A minimally deleted region of approximately 9.1 Mb was delineated, from 16.2 Mb (22cen) to 25.3 Mb (22q12.1). The distal borders of copy number alterations spread over a region of approximately 8.8 Mb, from 25.2 Mb (22q12.1) to 34 Mb (22q12.3). Mutation screening of candidate tumor suppressor genes SMARCB1 and CHEK2 mapping to the minimally deleted and the breakpoint regions, respectively, in cases with hemizygous deletion, revealed no inactivating mutations. With gene expression profiling, no significantly downregulated genes were identified in the minimally deleted region. We therefore assume that haploinsufficiency or alternative pathomechanisms underlie chromosome 22 aberrations in T-PLL.
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High resolution copy number analysis of IRF4 translocation-positive diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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Translocations affecting chromosome subband 6p25.3 containing the IRF4 gene have been recently described as characteristic alterations in a molecularly distinct subset of germinal center B-cell-derived lymphomas. Secondary changes have yet only been described in few of these lymphomas. Here, we performed array-comparative genomic hybridization and molecular inversion probe microarray analyses on DNA from 12 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and two fresh-frozen IRF4 translocation-positive lymphomas, which together with the previously published data on nine cases allowed the extension of copy number analyses to a total of 23 of these lymphomas. All except one case carried chromosomal imbalances, most frequently gains in Xq28, 11q22.3-qter, and 7q32.1-qter and losses in 6q13-16.1, 15q14-22.31, and 17p. No recurrent copy-neutral losses of heterozygosity were observed. TP53 point mutations were detected in three of six cases with loss of 17p. Overall this study unravels a recurrent pattern of secondary genetic alterations in IRF4 translocation-positive lymphomas.
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Specific genomic regions are differentially affected by copy number alterations across distinct cancer types, in aggregated cytogenetic data.
PLoS ONE
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Regional genomic copy number alterations (CNA) are observed in the vast majority of cancers. Besides specifically targeting well-known, canonical oncogenes, CNAs may also play more subtle roles in terms of modulating genetic potential and broad gene expression patterns of developing tumors. Any significant differences in the overall CNA patterns between different cancer types may thus point towards specific biological mechanisms acting in those cancers. In addition, differences among CNA profiles may prove valuable for cancer classifications beyond existing annotation systems.
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Integrative genome-wide expression profiling identifies three distinct molecular subgroups of renal cell carcinoma with different patient outcome.
BMC Cancer
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by a number of diverse molecular aberrations that differ among individuals. Recent approaches to molecularly classify RCC were based on clinical, pathological as well as on single molecular parameters. As a consequence, gene expression patterns reflecting the sum of genetic aberrations in individual tumors may not have been recognized. In an attempt to uncover such molecular features in RCC, we used a novel, unbiased and integrative approach.
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DNA copy number alterations in central primitive neuroectodermal tumors and tumors of the pineal region: an international individual patient data meta-analysis.
J. Neurooncol.
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Little is known about frequency, association with clinical characteristics, and prognostic impact of DNA copy number alterations (CNA) on survival in central primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS-PNET) and tumors of the pineal region. Searches of MEDLINE, Pubmed, and EMBASE--after the original description of comparative genomic hybridization in 1992 and July 2010--identified 15 case series of patients with CNS-PNET and tumors of the pineal region whose tumors were investigated for genome-wide CNA. One additional case study was identified from contact with experts. Individual patient data were extracted from publications or obtained from investigators, and CNAs were converted to a digitized format suitable for data mining and subgroup identification. Summary profiles for genomic imbalances were generated from case-specific data. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and by univariable and multivariable Cox regression models. In their overall CNA profiles, low grade tumors of the pineal region clearly diverged from CNS-PNET and pineoblastoma. At a median follow-up of 89 months, 7-year OS rates of CNS-PNET, pineoblastoma, and low grade tumors of the pineal region were 22.9 ± 6, 0 ± 0, and 87.5 ± 12 %, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that histology (CNS-PNET), age (?2.5 years), and possibly recurrent CNAs were associated with unfavorable OS. DNA copy number profiling suggests a close relationship between CNS-PNET and pineoblastoma. Low grade tumors of the pineal region differed from CNS-PNET and pineoblastoma. Due to their high biological and clinical variability, a coordinated prospective validation in future studies is necessary to establish robust risk factors.
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2p21 Deletions in hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome.
Eur J Med Genet
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The significant role of the SLC3A1 gene in the aetiology of cystinuria is meanwhile well established and more than 130 point mutations have been reported. With the reports on genomic deletions including at least both SLC3A1 and the neighboured PREPL gene the spectrum of cystinuria mutations and of clinical symptoms could recently be enlarged: patients homozygous for these deletions suffer from a general neonatal hypotonia and growth retardation in addition to cystinuria. The hypotonia in these hypotonia-cystinuria (HCS) patients has been attributed to the total loss of the PREPL protein. Here we report on the clinical course and molecular findings in a HCS patient compound heterozygote for a new deletion in 2p21 and a previously reported deletion, both identified by molecular karyotyping. The diagnostic workup in this patient illustrates the need for a careful clinical examination in context with powerful molecular genetic tools in patients with unusual phenotypes. The identification of unique genomic alterations and their interpretation serves as a prerequisite for the individual counselling of patients and their families. In diagnostic strategies to identify the molecular basis of both cystinuria and hypotonia 2p21 deletions should be considered as the molecular basis of the phenotype.
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arrayMap: a reference resource for genomic copy number imbalances in human malignancies.
PLoS ONE
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The delineation of genomic copy number abnormalities (CNAs) from cancer samples has been instrumental for identification of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes and proven useful for clinical marker detection. An increasing number of projects have mapped CNAs using high-resolution microarray based techniques. So far, no single resource does provide a global collection of readily accessible oncogenomic array data.
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Improved multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis identifies a deleterious PMS2 allele generated by recombination with crossover between PMS2 and PMS2CL.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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Heterozygous PMS2 germline mutations are associated with Lynch syndrome. Up to one third of these mutations are genomic deletions. Their detection is complicated by a pseudogene (PMS2CL), which--owing to extensive interparalog sequence exchange--closely resembles PMS2 downstream of exon 12. A recently redesigned multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay identifies PMS2 copy number alterations with improved reliability when used with reference DNAs containing equal numbers of PMS2- and PMS2CL-specific sequences. We selected eight such reference samples--all publicly available--and used them with this assay to study 13 patients with PMS2-defective colorectal tumors. Three presented deleterious alterations: an Alu-mediated exon deletion; a 125-kb deletion encompassing PMS2 and four additional genes (two with tumor-suppressing functions); and a novel deleterious hybrid PMS2 allele produced by recombination with crossover between PMS2 and PMS2CL, with the breakpoint in intron 10 (the most 5 breakpoint of its kind reported thus far). We discuss mechanisms that might generate this allele in different chromosomal configurations (and their diagnostic implications) and describe an allele-specific PCR assay that facilitates its detection. Our data indicate that the redesigned PMS2 MLPA assay is a valid first-line option. In our series, it identified roughly a quarter of all PMS2 mutations.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.