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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Combined inhibition of PI3K? and PI3K? reduces fat mass by enhancing ?-MSH-dependent sympathetic drive.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Obesity is defined as an abnormal increase in white adipose tissue and has become a major medical burden worldwide. Signals from the brain control not only appetite but also energy expenditure, both of which contribute to body weight. We showed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of two phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K? and PI3K?) in mice reduced fat mass by promoting increased energy expenditure. This effect was accompanied by stimulation of lipolysis and the acquisition of the energy-burning characteristics of brown adipocytes by white adipocytes, a process referred to as "browning." The browning of the white adipocytes involved increased norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nervous system. We found that PI3K? and PI3K? together promoted a negative feedback loop downstream of the melanocortin 4 receptor in the central nervous system, which controls appetite and energy expenditure in the periphery. Analysis of mice with drug-induced sympathetic denervation suggested that these kinases controlled the sympathetic drive in the brain. Administration of inhibitors of both PI3K? and PI3K? to mice by intracerebroventricular delivery induced a 10% reduction in fat mass as quickly as 10 days. These results suggest that combined inhibition of PI3K? and PI3K? might represent a promising treatment for obesity.
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Note: Reliable low-vibration piezo-mechanical shutter.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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We present a mechanical shutter based on a bending piezo-actuator. The shutter features an active aperture of about 2 mm, allowing for full extinction and lossless transmission of a beam. Acoustic noise and mechanical vibrations produced are very low and the shutter is outstandingly long-lived; a test device has undergone 20 × 10(6) cycles without breaking. A reflector makes the shutter capable of reliably interrupting a beam with at least 2 W of cw power at 780 nm. The shutter is well suited to create pulses as short as 16 ms, while pulse lengths down to 1 ms are possible. The rise and fall times are approximately 120 µs, with a delay of 2 ms. Jitter stays below 10 µs, while long-term drifts stay well below 500 µs.
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Analysis of potentially predictive factors of efficacy of adjunct extended-release quetiapine fumarate in patients with major depressive disorder.
J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Identification of predictors of treatment response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may facilitate improved disease management. Data were pooled from two 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of extended-release quetiapine (quetiapine XR; 150 or 300 mg/day) as adjunct to ongoing antidepressant therapy. Effects of psychiatric history and baseline demographic and disease characteristics on efficacy outcomes (Week 6 Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] total score reduction) were evaluated in population subgroups (quetiapine XR both doses pooled, n = 616; placebo, n = 303). Baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) score and previous depressive episodes on Week 6 MADRS total score change, and baseline MADRS individual item scores on Week 6 change in CGI-Improvement score, were also evaluated. No major differences between responders and non-responders to quetiapine XR were observed for patient characteristics or demographic and disease characteristics. No suggestion of a predictive association was found between baseline CGI-S score, number of depressive episodes, and baseline MADRS item scores and efficacy outcomes. These analyses showed no major differences between responders and non-responders, and no predictive association between the parameters assessed and efficacy outcomes for adjunct quetiapine XR in patients with MDD and an inadequate response to prior antidepressant therapy.
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A study of the effectiveness of MP3 players to support family carers of people living with dementia at home.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: Music can be therapeutic to people with dementia; however, little is known about its effect on the family carers. This project aimed to (1) assess the effects of MP3 player use by a person with dementia on caregivers' mental health and wellbeing, including their self-care and health-promoting behavior and (2) determine whether MP3 player use increases caregivers' self-reported capacity to cope with their role. Methods: A pre-post quantitative and qualitative design was used. Carers completed a survey prior to commencing and four weeks after using the player. The survey included validated measures to assess the level of stress and coping among carers. Carers also kept a diary of the way they used the MP3 player. Half of the carers were interviewed about their experiences at the end of the study. Results: Of 59 people who started using the MP3 player, 51 carers completed the four-week study period and surveys. Use of the MP3 player significantly decreased psychological distress, significantly improved the mental health and wellbeing of carers, significantly increased caregiver self-efficacy to manage symptoms of dementia, and was reported to provide valued respite from the high level of vigilance required for caring for a person with dementia. Conclusion: An MP3 player loaded with music can be a low cost and relatively simple and effective additional strategy to support families caring for people with dementia in the community.
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Regional Citrate Anticoagulation for Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in the Perioperative Care of Liver Transplant Recipients: A Single Center Experience.
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Kidney injury with concomitant hemodialysis is a common finding in perioperative care of liver transplant patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate disturbances in acid-base status, electrolyte balance and citrate accumulation during hemodialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation in perioperative care of liver transplant recipients. A retrospective, single center evaluation was conducted of patients with severe liver dysfunction receiving renal replacement therapy in the perioperative care of liver transplantation in a multidisciplinary ICU of a university hospital. Within 5 days of ICU stay, 89 patients undergoing liver transplantation received regional citrate anticoagulation for hemodialysis. During the study period pH (7.39 [7.33/7.43] vs. 7.44 [7.39/7.47], P-value?=?0.014), base excess values (-0.9 [-5.08/2.35] vs. 4.3 [1.93/8.21], P-value?=?0.001) and standard bicarbonate (23.6 [20/26.9] vs. 28.2 [26.2/32.2], P-value?=?0.001) significantly increased, whereas lactate levels (2.6 [1.60/4.45] vs. 1.25 [0.98/1.9], P-value?=?0.071) and Catot /Caion -ratio decreased or remained below the upper reference. Hypocalcemia appeared mostly within 48?h after dialysis initiation. Although sodium levels increased during the observation, rates of hypernatremia were comparable between hemodialysis days 1 and 5. Hemodialysis using regional citrate anticoagulation remains a challenge in the perioperative care of liver transplant recipients. Major attention must be paid to acid-base disturbances and citrate accumulation within 48?h after dialysis initiation. Nevertheless, regional citrate anticoagulation in liver dysfunction is a feasible and valuable tool, when limitations and pitfalls are adequately considered.
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DSM-5 reviewed from different angles: goal attainment, rationality, use of evidence, consequences-part 2: bipolar disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, trauma- and stressor-related disorders, personality disorder
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Part 1 of this paper discussed several more general aspects of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and offered a detailed, paradigmatic analysis of changes made to the chapter on depressive disorders. This second part focusses on several other disorders, including bipolar and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The respective changes and their possible consequences are discussed under consideration of traditional psychiatric classification, particularly from the perspective of European traditions and on the basis of a PubMed search and review papers. The general conclusion is that even seemingly small changes such as the introduction of the mixed feature specifier can have far-reaching consequences. Contrary to the original plans, DSM-5 has not radically changed to become a primarily dimensional diagnostic system but has preserved the categorical system for most disorders. The ambivalence of the respective decision-making becomes apparent from the last minute decision to change the classification of personality disorders from dimensional back to categorical. The advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are discussed in this context. In DSM-5, only the chapter on addictive disorders has a somewhat dimensional structure. Also in contrast to the original intentions, DSM-5 has not used a more neurobiological approach to disorders by including biological markers to increase the objectivity of psychiatric diagnoses. Even in the most advanced field in terms of biomarkers, the neurocognitive disorders, the primarily symptom-based, descriptive approach has been preserved and the well-known amyloid-related and other biomarkers are not included. This is because, even after so many years of biomarker research, the results are still not considered to be robust enough to use in clinical practice.
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Exploitation of the hepatic stellate cell Raman signature for their detection in native tissue samples.
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) surround liver sinusoids and store retinol while they are quiescent. During fibrotic liver diseases and acute-on-chronic liver failure they change to the activated state in which they proliferate, lose their retinol content and deposit extracellular matrix molecules. The process of HSC activation is of utmost interest, but so far only insufficiently understood, because there is a lack of techniques to address the function of single HSCs in the tissue context. In this contribution, the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy for the label-free detection of HSCs in mouse liver samples is demonstrated. First, culture-induced activation of primary mouse HSCs is followed in vitro and characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. The HSC activation state is confirmed by immunofluorescence labeling of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ?-smooth muscle actin (ASMA). As expected, the unique Raman spectrum of retinol in quiescent HSCs is lost during activation. Nevertheless, successful discrimination of HSCs from primary hepatocytes is possible during all states of activation. A classification model based on principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) of the lipid droplet Raman data yields a prediction accuracy of 99%. The in vitro results are transferred to fresh liver slices and freshly sampled livers. Quiescent HSCs and a HSC transforming from quiescent to activated state are identified based on their Raman signature. This provides valuable information on HSC activation state in the liver.
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DSM-5 reviewed from different angles: goal attainment, rationality, use of evidence, consequences-part 1: general aspects and paradigmatic discussion of depressive disorders.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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DSM-5 was published in 2013 after about 10 years of preparation. Part 1 of this paper discusses several more general aspects of DSM-5 and offers a detailed, paradigmatic analysis of changes made to the chapter on depressive disorders. The background for the changes is analysed on the basis of a PubMed search and review papers on the classification of mental disorders in general and on empirical knowledge about individual disorders. Contrary to the original plans, DSM-5 has not introduced a primarily dimensional diagnostic system but has widely preserved the categorical system of disorders. Also, it has not adopted a more neurobiological approach to disorders by including biological markers to increase the objectivity of psychiatric diagnoses but has maintained the primarily symptom-based, descriptive approach. The criteria for some disorders have been changed, including affective, schizophrenic and addiction disorders, and a few new disorders have been added. A minimal version of the dimensional approach was realised through the introduction of several transnosological specifiers and the option to make symptom- or syndrome-related severity and dimensional assessments. These specifiers and assessments might allow a more individualised description of a patient's psychopathological state and more personalised treatment. However, most of the symptom- and syndrome-related assessments are not mandatory and therefore may not be used in clinical practice.
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Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase ? Affects LPS-Induced Disturbance of Blood-Brain Barrier Via Lipid Kinase-Independent Control of cAMP in Microglial Cells.
Neuromolecular Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key event in the development of sepsis-induced brain damage. BBB opening allows blood-born immune cells to enter the CNS to provoke a neuroinflammatory response. Abnormal expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) was shown to contribute to BBB opening. Using different mouse genotypes in a model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation, our present report reveals phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? (PI3K?) as a mediator of BBB deterioration and concomitant generation of MMP by microglia. Unexpectedly, microglia expressing lipid kinase-deficient mutant PI3K? exhibited similar MMP regulation as wild-type cells. Our data suggest kinase-independent control of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity by PI3K? as a crucial mediator of microglial cell activation, MMP expression and subsequent BBB deterioration. The results identify the suppressive effect of PI3K? on cAMP as a critical mediator of immune cell functions.
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Impact of plasma histones in human sepsis and their contribution to cellular injury and inflammation.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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IntroductionCirculating histones have been identified as mediators of damage in animal models of sepsis and in patients with trauma-associated lung injury. Despite existing controversies on actual histone concentrations, clinical implications and mechanism of action in various disease conditions, histone levels in human sepsis, association with disease progression and mediated effects on endothelial and immune cells remain unreported. This study aimed to determine histone levels and its clinical implication in septic patients and to elucidate histone-mediated effects ex-vivo.MethodsHistone levels, endogenous activated protein C (APC) levels and clinical data from two independent cohorts of septic patients were obtained. Histone levels were compared with various control groups including healthy individuals, intensive care unit (ICU) patients without sepsis, ICU patients with multiple organ failure and patients with minor or multiple trauma, all without infection. Endothelial and monocytic cells were stimulated with histones. Cellular integrity and sepsis prototypical cytokines were evaluated. The mechanism of action of histones via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was evaluated using a function blocking antibody. Histone degradation in plasma was studied by immunoblotting.ResultsHistone H4 levels were significantly elevated in patients with sepsis (cohort I; n¿=¿15 and cohort II; n¿=¿19) versus ICU controls (n¿=¿12), patients with multiple organ failure (n¿=¿12) or minor trauma (n¿=¿7), associated with need for renal replacement therapy and decrease in platelet count during disease progression, and remarkably were significantly associated with increased mortality rates in septic patients (ICU-, 28 day- and 90 day mortality rates). There was an inverse correlation between plasma histones and endogenous APC levels. Histone stimulation induced the release of sepsis prototypic cytokines and decreased cell integrity indicated by a significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Blocking of TLR4 decreased cellular cytotoxicity on endothelial cells. The calculated half-life of histones in spiked plasma was 4.6 minutes.ConclusionsHistone levels in septic patients are significantly increased and might mediate disease aggravation by cellular injury and inflammation via TLR4 signaling, which potentially results in multiple organ failure and fatal outcome.
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Critical role of large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels in leptin-induced neuroprotection of N-methyl-d-aspartate-exposed cortical neurons.
Pharmacol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of the adipokine leptin, and the molecular mechanism involved, have been studied in rat and mice cortical neurons exposed to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in vitro. In rat cortical neurons, leptin elicited neuroprotective effects against NMDA-induced cell death, which were concentration-dependent (10-100 ng/ml) and largest when the adipokine was preincubated for 2h before the neurotoxic stimulus. In both rat and mouse cortical neurons, leptin-induced neuroprotection was fully antagonized by paxilline (Pax, 0.01-1 ?M) and iberiotoxin (Ibtx, 1-100 nM), with EC50s of 38 ± 10 nM and 5 ± 2 nM for Pax and Ibtx, respectively, close to those reported for Pax- and Ibtx-induced Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) channels (Slo1 BK channels) blockade; the BK channel opener NS1619 (1-30 ?M) induced a concentration-dependent protection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Moreover, cortical neurons from mice lacking one or both alleles coding for Slo1 BK channel pore-forming subunits were insensitive to leptin-induced neuroprotection. Finally, leptin exposure dose-dependently (10-100 ng/ml) increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels in rat cortical neurons. In conclusion, our results suggest that Slo1 BK channel activation following increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels is a critical step for leptin-induced neuroprotection in NMDA-exposed cortical neurons in vitro, thus highlighting leptin-based intervention via BK channel activation as a potential strategy to counteract neurodegenerative diseases.
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"The Red Dress or the Blue?": How Do Staff Perceive That They Support Decision Making for People With Dementia Living in Residential Aged Care Facilities?
J Appl Gerontol
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Respect for a person's right to make choices and participate in decision making is generally seen as central to quality of life and well-being. When a person moves into a residential aged care facility (RACF), however, decision making becomes more complicated, particularly if the person has a diagnosis of dementia. Little is known about how staff in RACFs perceive that they support decision making for people with dementia within their everyday practice, and this article seeks to address this knowledge gap. The article reports on the findings of a qualitative study conducted in the states of Victoria and Queensland, Australia with 80 direct care staff members. Findings revealed that the participants utilized a number of strategies in their intention to support decision making for people with dementia, and had an overall perception that "a little effort goes a long way."
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The interplay between localized and propagating plasmonic excitations tracked in space and time.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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In this work, the mutual coupling and coherent interaction of propagating and localized surface plasmons within a model-type plasmonic assembly is experimentally demonstrated, imaged, and analyzed. Using interferometric time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy the interplay between ultrashort surface plasmon polariton wave packets and plasmonic nanoantennas is monitored on subfemtosecond time scales. The data reveal real-time insights into dispersion and localization of electromagnetic fields as governed by the elementary modes determining the functionality of plasmonic operation units.
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Supporting residents' expression of sexuality: the initial construction of a sexuality assessment tool for residential aged care facilities.
BMC Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Sexuality is a key component of quality of life and well-being and a need to express one's sexuality continues into old age. Staff and families in residential aged care facilities often find expressions of sexuality by residents, particularly those living with dementia, challenging and facilities often struggle to address individuals' needs in this area. This paper describes the development of an assessment tool which enables residential aged care facilities to identify how supportive their organisation is of all residents' expression of their sexuality, and thereby improve where required.
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Role of lithium augmentation in the management of major depressive disorder.
CNS Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The high rate of non-responders to initial treatment with antidepressants requires subsequent treatment strategies such as augmentation of antidepressants. Clinical guidelines recommend lithium augmentation as a first-line treatment strategy for non-responding depressed patients. The objectives of this review were to discuss the current place of lithium augmentation in the management of treatment-resistant depression and to review novel findings concerning lithium's mechanisms of action. We conducted a comprehensive and critical review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials, controlled and naturalistic comparator studies, and continuation-phase and discontinuation studies of lithium augmentation in major depression. The outcomes of interest were efficacy, factors allowing outcome prediction and results from preclinical studies investigating molecular mechanisms of lithium action. Substantial efficacy of lithium augmentation in the acute treatment of major depression has been demonstrated in more than 30 open-label studies and 10 placebo-controlled trials. In a meta-analysis addressing the efficacy of lithium in 10 randomized, controlled trials, it had a significant positive effect versus placebo, with an odds ratio of 3.11 corresponding to a number-needed-to-treat (NNT) of 5 and a mean response rate of 41.2% (versus 14.4% in the placebo group). The main limitations of these studies were the relatively small numbers of study participants and the fact that most studies included augmentation of tricyclic antidepressants, which are not in widespread use anymore. Evidence from continuation-phase studies is sparse but suggests that lithium augmentation should be maintained in the lithium-antidepressant combination for at least 1 year to prevent early relapses. Concerning outcome prediction, single studies have reported associations of better outcome rates with more severe depressive symptomatology, significant weight loss, psychomotor retardation, a history of more than three major depressive episodes and a family history of major depression. Additionally, one study suggested a predictive role of the -50T/C single nucleotide polymorphism of the glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3B) gene in the probability of response to lithium augmentation. With regard to novel mechanisms of action, GABAergic, neurotrophic and genetic effects might explain the effects of lithium augmentation. In conclusion, augmentation of antidepressants with lithium remains a first-line, evidence-based management option for patients with major depression who have not responded adequately to antidepressants. While the mechanisms of action are currently widely studied, further clinical research on the role of lithium potentiation of the current generation of antidepressants is warranted to reinforce its role as a gold-standard treatment for patients who respond inadequately to antidepressants.
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Raman spectroscopic identification of single bacterial cells under antibiotic influence.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The identification of pathogenic bacteria is a frequently required task. Current identification procedures are usually either time-consuming due to necessary cultivation steps or expensive and demanding in their application. Furthermore, previous treatment of a patient with antibiotics often renders routine analysis by culturing difficult. Since Raman microspectroscopy allows for the identification of single bacterial cells, it can be used to identify such difficult to culture bacteria. Yet until now, there have been no investigations whether antibiotic treatment of the bacteria influences the Raman spectroscopic identification. This study aims to rapidly identify bacteria that have been subjected to antibiotic treatment on single cell level with Raman microspectroscopy. Two strains of Escherichia coli and two species of Pseudomonas have been treated with four antibiotics, all targeting different sites of the bacteria. With Raman spectra from untreated bacteria, a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model is built, which successfully identifies the species of independent untreated bacteria. Upon treatment of the bacteria with subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and sulfamethoxazole, the LDA model achieves species identification accuracies of 85.4, 95.3, 89.9, and 97.3 %, respectively. Increasing the antibiotic concentrations has no effect on the identification performance. An ampicillin-resistant strain of E. coli and a sample of P. aeruginosa are successfully identified as well. General representation of antibiotic stress in the training data improves species identification performance, while representation of a specific antibiotic improves strain distinction capability. In conclusion, the identification of antibiotically treated bacteria is possible with Raman microspectroscopy for diverse antibiotics on single cell level.
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Relationship between sunlight and the age of onset of bipolar disorder: an international multisite study.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The onset of bipolar disorder is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. We previously found that a large increase in sunlight in springtime was associated with a lower age of onset. This study extends this analysis with more collection sites at diverse locations, and includes family history and polarity of first episode.
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Three-Year long-term outcome of 458 naturalistically treated inpatients with major depressive episode: severe relapse rates and risk factors.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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In randomized controlled trials, maintenance treatment for relapse prevention has been proven to be efficacious in patients responding in acute treatment, its efficacy in long-term outcome in "real-world patients" has yet to be proven. Three-year long-term data from a large naturalistic multisite follow-up were presented. Severe relapse was defined as suicide, severe suicide attempt, or rehospitalization. Next to relapse rates, possible risk factors including antidepressant medication were identified using univariate generalized log-rank tests and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model for time to severe relapse. Overall data of 458 patients were available for analysis. Of all patients, 155 (33.6%) experienced at least one severe relapse during the 3-year follow-up. The following variables were associated with a shorter time to a severe relapse in univariate and multivariate analyses: multiple hospitalizations, presence of avoidant personality disorder, continuing antipsychotic medication, and no further antidepressant treatment. In comparison with other studies, the observed rate of severe relapse during 3-year period is rather low. This is one of the first reports demonstrating a beneficial effect of long-term antidepressant medication on severe relapse rates in naturalistic patients. Concomitant antipsychotic medication may be a proxy marker for treatment resistant and psychotic depression.
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Attitudes towards family-staff relationships in Australian residential aged care settings: development and psychometric evaluation of the 'Family and Staff Relationship Attitude Tool' (FASRAT).
Australas J Ageing
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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To develop and psychometrically evaluate the Family and Staff Relationship Attitude Tool (FASRAT) for use in Australian residential aged care facilities to assess the attitudinal beliefs of residential aged care staff towards staff-family relationships.
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Assessment of right ventricular structure and function in mouse model of pulmonary artery constriction by transthoracic echocardiography.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Emerging clinical data support the notion that RV dysfunction is critical to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and heart failure(1-3). Moreover, the RV is significantly affected in pulmonary diseases such as pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). In addition, the RV is remarkably sensitive to cardiac pathologies, including left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, valvular disease or RV infarction(4). To understand the role of RV in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases, a reliable and noninvasive method to access the RV structurally and functionally is essential. A noninvasive trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) based methodology was established and validated for monitoring dynamic changes in RV structure and function in adult mice. To impose RV stress, we employed a surgical model of pulmonary artery constriction (PAC) and measured the RV response over a 7-day period using a high-frequency ultrasound microimaging system. Sham operated mice were used as controls. Images were acquired in lightly anesthetized mice at baseline (before surgery), day 0 (immediately post-surgery), day 3, and day 7 (post-surgery). Data was analyzed offline using software. Several acoustic windows (B, M, and Color Doppler modes), which can be consistently obtained in mice, allowed for reliable and reproducible measurement of RV structure (including RV wall thickness, end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions), and function (fractional area change, fractional shortening, PA peak velocity, and peak pressure gradient) in normal mice and following PAC. Using this method, the pressure-gradient resulting from PAC was accurately measured in real-time using Color Doppler mode and was comparable to direct pressure measurements performed with a Millar high-fidelity microtip catheter. Taken together, these data demonstrate that RV measurements obtained from various complimentary views using echocardiography are reliable, reproducible and can provide insights regarding RV structure and function. This method will enable a better understanding of the role of RV cardiac dysfunction.
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Early specific cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy in subjects at high risk for bipolar disorders: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Bipolar disorders (BD) are among the most severe mental disorders with first clinical signs and symptoms frequently appearing in adolescence and early adulthood. The long latency in clinical diagnosis (and subsequent adequate treatment) adversely affects the course of disease, effectiveness of interventions and health-related quality of life, and increases the economic burden of BD. Despite uncertainties about risk constellations and symptomatology in the early stages of potentially developing BD, many adolescents and young adults seek help, and most of them suffer substantially from symptoms already leading to impairments in psychosocial functioning in school, training, at work and in their social relationships. We aimed to identify subjects at risk of developing BD and investigate the efficacy and safety of early specific cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy (CBT) in this subpopulation.
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Comparative suitability of CFDA-SE and rhodamine 6G for in vivo assessment of leukocyte-endothelium interactions.
J Biophotonics
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Intravital fluorescence microscopy (IVM) is a predestined tool for investigating the fate of leukocytes during the process of leukocyte recruitment. In the present study, the commonly used dye for this purpose, rhodamine 6G, and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE) were compared for leukocytes labelling with respect to suitability for IVM studies. Their potential in labelling different leukocytes subpopulations as well as their fluorescence intensities were assessed by flow cytometry revealing distinct differences between both dyes. These differences had a profound impact on their application for in vivo imaging of leukocyte-endothelium interactions. In summary, CFDA-SE revealed superior in labelling leukocytes for in vivo microscopy with respect to image quality. In addition, we could show the efficiency of CFDA-SE also under disease condition in an animal model of sepsis.
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Genome-wide association study reveals two new risk loci for bipolar disorder.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable mental illness and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have robustly identified the first common genetic variants involved in disease aetiology. The data also provide strong evidence for the presence of multiple additional risk loci, each contributing a relatively small effect to BD susceptibility. Large samples are necessary to detect these risk loci. Here we present results from the largest BD GWAS to date by investigating 2.3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of 24,025 patients and controls. We detect 56 genome-wide significant SNPs in five chromosomal regions including previously reported risk loci ANK3, ODZ4 and TRANK1, as well as the risk locus ADCY2 (5p15.31) and a region between MIR2113 and POU3F2 (6q16.1). ADCY2 is a key enzyme in cAMP signalling and our finding provides new insights into the biological mechanisms involved in the development of BD.
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Ultrasonic assessment of myocardial microstructure.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Echocardiography is a widely accessible imaging modality that is commonly used to noninvasively characterize and quantify changes in cardiac structure and function. Ultrasonic assessments of cardiac tissue can include analyses of backscatter signal intensity within a given region of interest. Previously established techniques have relied predominantly on the integrated or mean value of backscatter signal intensities, which may be susceptible to variability from aliased data from low frame rates and time delays for algorithms based on cyclic variation. Herein, we describe an ultrasound-based imaging algorithm that extends from previous methods, can be applied to a single image frame and accounts for the full distribution of signal intensity values derived from a given myocardial sample. When applied to representative mouse and human imaging data, the algorithm distinguishes between subjects with and without exposure to chronic afterload resistance. The algorithm offers an enhanced surrogate measure of myocardial microstructure and can be performed using open-access image analysis software.
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Preoperative serum pattern analysis to predict the outcome of tonsillectomy in adults with chronic tonsillitis.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The method of classification and tree analysis (CART) was used to predict the outcome of tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis (CHT) analyzing patterns of serological markers. In a prospective case study of 24 adult patients with CHT in comparison to 24 patients with acute peritonsillar abscess (PTA) blood samples were assessed 1 day before (T-1) and 3 days after tonsillectomy. Outcome 6 months later (T180) was documented using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) and the Specific Benefits from Tonsillectomy Inventory (SBTI). In comparison to PTA, patients with CHT were at best classified by C-reactive protein with a cut-off value of <16.735 mg/dl. For CHT, immunoglobulin E ? 144.65 kU/l and the combination of monocytes ? 0.565 Gpt/l plus leucocytes >5.855 Gpt/l at T-1 were the best classificators for higher SBTI overall score and symptom score symptom score, respectively, at T180. A higher benefit subscore at T180 was associated to ?-globulin >15.85 % plus ?2-globulin >8.950% at T-1. The best classificator for better GBI overall score at T180 was an ASL titer >169.0 IU/ml or the combination of an ASL titer ? 169.0 IU/ml with lymphocytes ? 2.195 Gpt/l. Lymphocytes ? 2.195 Gpt/l were associated with higher GBI general subscore. Leukocytes ? 6.780 Gpt/l were related to higher GBI social support subscore. The combination of immunoglobulin A >1.360 g/l with procalcitonin level >0.058 ng/ml was the best combination to classify for higher physical health score. Instead of looking on isolated serologic markers, CART of multiple parameters seems to be more effective to predict the outcome of tonsillectomy for CHT.
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Screening for depression and high utilization of health care resources among patients in primary care.
Community Ment Health J
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of depression and the severity of depressive symptoms among primary care patients, who are high utilizers (HU) of health care resources. A cross-sectional, two-stage design was applied to screen for depression using the Brief Psychiatric Health Questionnaire and the Diagnostic Expert System for Psychiatric Disorders. A total of 38 primary care physicians accredited to practice in Berlin and Potsdam in Germany participated in the study. A total of 1,775 patients participated, 507 were identified as HU, 182 (36%) of these were depressed compared to 81 (11%) of the typical utilizers (p < 0.001). The depression score was higher and acute suicidality was more prevalent in HU than in typical utilizers (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that HU represent a population with a high prevalence of depression in primary care and should be considered for routine depression screening.
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The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data.
Paul M Thompson, Jason L Stein, Sarah E Medland, Derrek P Hibar, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Miguel E Rentería, Roberto Toro, Neda Jahanshad, Gunter Schumann, Barbara Franke, Margaret J Wright, Nicholas G Martin, Ingrid Agartz, Martin Alda, Saud Alhusaini, Laura Almasy, Jorge Almeida, Kathryn Alpert, Nancy C Andreasen, Ole A Andreassen, Liana G Apostolova, Katja Appel, Nicola J Armstrong, Benjamin Aribisala, Mark E Bastin, Michael Bauer, Carrie E Bearden, Orjan Bergmann, Elisabeth B Binder, John Blangero, Henry J Bockholt, Erlend Bøen, Catherine Bois, Dorret I Boomsma, Tom Booth, Ian J Bowman, Janita Bralten, Rachel M Brouwer, Han G Brunner, David G Brohawn, Randy L Buckner, Jan Buitelaar, Kazima Bulayeva, Juan R Bustillo, Vince D Calhoun, Dara M Cannon, Rita M Cantor, Melanie A Carless, Xavier Caseras, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, M Mallar Chakravarty, Kiki D Chang, Christopher R K Ching, Andrea Christoforou, Sven Cichon, Vincent P Clark, Patricia Conrod, Giovanni Coppola, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Joanne E Curran, Michael Czisch, Ian J Deary, Eco J C de Geus, Anouk den Braber, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Chantal Depondt, Lieuwe de Haan, Greig I de Zubicaray, Danai Dima, Rali Dimitrova, Srdjan Djurovic, Hongwei Dong, Gary Donohoe, Ravindranath Duggirala, Thomas D Dyer, Stefan Ehrlich, Carl Johan Ekman, Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Louise Emsell, Susanne Erk, Thomas Espeseth, Jesen Fagerness, Scott Fears, Iryna Fedko, Guillén Fernández, Simon E Fisher, Tatiana Foroud, Peter T Fox, Clyde Francks, Sophia Frangou, Eva Maria Frey, Thomas Frodl, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Sudheer Giddaluru, David C Glahn, Beata Godlewska, Rita Z Goldstein, Randy L Gollub, Hans J Grabe, Oliver Grimm, Oliver Gruber, Tulio Guadalupe, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Harald H H Göring, Saskia Hagenaars, Tomáš Hájek, Geoffrey B Hall, Jeremy Hall, John Hardy, Catharina A Hartman, Johanna Hass, Sean N Hatton, Unn K Haukvik, Katrin Hegenscheid, Andreas Heinz, Ian B Hickie, Beng-Choon Ho, David Hoehn, Pieter J Hoekstra, Marisa Hollinshead, Avram J Holmes, Georg Homuth, Martine Hoogman, L Elliot Hong, Norbert Hosten, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Kristy S Hwang, Clifford R Jack, Mark Jenkinson, Caroline Johnston, Erik G Jönsson, René S Kahn, Dalia Kasperaviciute, Sinead Kelly, Sungeun Kim, Peter Kochunov, Laura Koenders, Bernd Krämer, John B J Kwok, Jim Lagopoulos, Gonzalo Laje, Mikael Landén, Bennett A Landman, John Lauriello, Stephen M Lawrie, Phil H Lee, Stephanie Le Hellard, Herve Lemaitre, Cassandra D Leonardo, Chiang-Shan Li, Benny Liberg, David C Liewald, Xinmin Liu, Lorna M Lopez, Eva Loth, Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Michelle Luciano, Fabio Macciardi, Marise W J Machielsen, Glenda M Macqueen, Ulrik F Malt, René Mandl, Dara S Manoach, Jean-Luc Martinot, Mar Matarin, Karen A Mather, Manuel Mattheisen, Morten Mattingsdal, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Colm McDonald, Andrew M McIntosh, Francis J McMahon, Katie L McMahon, Eva Meisenzahl, Ingrid Melle, Yuri Milaneschi, Sebastian Mohnke, Grant W Montgomery, Derek W Morris, Eric K Moses, Bryon A Mueller, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Thomas W Mühleisen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Benson Mwangi, Matthias Nauck, Kwangsik Nho, Thomas E Nichols, Lars-Göran Nilsson, Allison C Nugent, Lars Nyberg, Rene L Olvera, Jaap Oosterlaan, Roel A Ophoff, Massimo Pandolfo, Melina Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Martina Papmeyer, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Godfrey D Pearlson, Brenda W Penninx, Charles P Peterson, Andrea Pfennig, Mary Phillips, G Bruce Pike, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Steven G Potkin, Benno Pütz, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Jerod Rasmussen, Marcella Rietschel, Mark Rijpkema, Shannon L Risacher, Joshua L Roffman, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Emma J Rose, Natalie A Royle, Dan Rujescu, Mina Ryten, Perminder S Sachdev, Alireza Salami, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Jonathan Savitz, Andrew J Saykin, Cathy Scanlon, Lianne Schmaal, Hugo G Schnack, Andrew J Schork, S Charles Schulz, Remmelt Schür, Larry Seidman, Li Shen, Jody M Shoemaker, Andrew Simmons, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Colin Smith, Jordan W Smoller, Jair C Soares, Scott R Sponheim, Emma Sprooten, John M Starr, Vidar M Steen, Stephen Strakowski, Lachlan Strike, Jessika Sussmann, Philipp G Sämann, Alexander Teumer, Arthur W Toga, Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Daniah Trabzuni, Sarah Trost, Jessica Turner, Martijn van den Heuvel, Nic J van der Wee, Kristel van Eijk, Theo G M van Erp, Neeltje E M van Haren, Dennis van 't Ent, Marie-José van Tol, Maria C Valdés Hernández, Dick J Veltman, Amelia Versace, Henry Völzke, Robert Walker, Henrik Walter, Lei Wang, Joanna M Wardlaw, Michael E Weale, Michael W Weiner, Wei Wen, Lars T Westlye, Heather C Whalley, Christopher D Whelan, Tonya White, Anderson M Winkler, Katharina Wittfeld, Girma Woldehawariat, Christiane Wolf, David Zilles, Marcel P Zwiers, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Peter R Schofield, Nelson B Freimer, Natalia S Lawrence, Wayne Drevets, .
Brain Imaging Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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Identifying early changes in myocardial microstructure in hypertensive heart disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The transition from healthy myocardium to hypertensive heart disease is characterized by a series of poorly understood changes in myocardial tissue microstructure. Incremental alterations in the orientation and integrity of myocardial fibers can be assessed using advanced ultrasonic image analysis. We used a modified algorithm to investigate left ventricular myocardial microstructure based on analysis of the reflection intensity at the myocardial-pericardial interface on B-mode echocardiographic images. We evaluated the extent to which the novel algorithm can differentiate between normal myocardium and hypertensive heart disease in humans as well as in a mouse model of afterload resistance. The algorithm significantly differentiated between individuals with uncomplicated essential hypertension (N?=?30) and healthy controls (N?=?28), even after adjusting for age and sex (P?=?0.025). There was a trend in higher relative wall thickness in hypertensive individuals compared to controls (P?=?0.08), but no difference between groups in left ventricular mass (P?=?0.98) or total wall thickness (P?=?0.37). In mice, algorithm measurements (P?=?0.026) compared with left ventricular mass (P?=?0.053) more clearly differentiated between animal groups that underwent fixed aortic banding, temporary aortic banding, or sham procedure, on echocardiography at 7 weeks after surgery. Based on sonographic signal intensity analysis, a novel imaging algorithm provides an accessible, non-invasive measure that appears to differentiate normal left ventricular microstructure from myocardium exposed to chronic afterload stress. The algorithm may represent a particularly sensitive measure of the myocardial changes that occur early in the course of disease progression.
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Characterizing N-dimensional anisotropic Brownian motion by the distribution of diffusivities.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Anisotropic diffusion processes emerge in various fields such as transport in biological tissue and diffusion in liquid crystals. In such systems, the motion is described by a diffusion tensor. For a proper characterization of processes with more than one diffusion coefficient, an average description by the mean squared displacement is often not sufficient. Hence, in this paper, we use the distribution of diffusivities to study diffusion in a homogeneous anisotropic environment. We derive analytical expressions of the distribution and relate its properties to an anisotropy measure based on the mean diffusivity and the asymptotic decay of the distribution. Both quantities are easy to determine from experimental data and reveal the existence of more than one diffusion coefficient, which allows the distinction between isotropic and anisotropic processes. We further discuss the influence on the analysis of projected trajectories, which are typically accessible in experiments. For the experimentally most relevant cases of two- and three-dimensional anisotropic diffusion, we derive specific expressions, determine the diffusion tensor, characterize the anisotropy, and demonstrate the applicability for simulated trajectories.
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Measurement of surface plasmon autocorrelation functions.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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In this paper we demonstrate the realization of an autocorrelator for the characterization of ultrashort surface plasmon polariton (SPP) pulses. A wedge shaped structure is used to continuously increase the time delay between two interfering SPPs. The autocorrelation signal is monitored by non-linear two-photon photoemission electron microscopy. The presented approach is applicable to other SPP sensitive detection schemes that provide only moderate spatial resolution and may therefore be of general interest in the field of ultrafast plasmonics.
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Combined dielectrophoresis-Raman setup for the classification of pathogens recovered from the urinary tract.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Rapid and effective methods of pathogen identifications are of major interest in clinical microbiological analysis to administer timely tailored antibiotic therapy. Raman spectroscopy as a label-free, culture-independent optical method is suitable to identify even single bacteria. However, the low bacteria concentration in body fluids makes it difficult to detect their characteristic molecular fingerprint directly in suspension. Therefore, in this study, Raman spectroscopy is combined with dielectrophoresis, which enables the direct translational manipulation of bacteria in suspensions with spatial nonuniform electrical fields so as to perform specific Raman spectroscopic characterization. A quadrupole electrode design is used to capture bacteria directly from fluids in well-defined microsized regions. With live/dead fluorescence viability staining, it is verified, that the bacteria survive this procedure for the relevant range of field strengths. The dielectrophoretic enrichment of bacteria allows for obtaining high quality Raman spectra in dilute suspensions with an integration time of only one second. As proof-of-principle study, the setup was tested with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, two bacterial strains that are commonly encountered in urinary tract infections. Furthermore, to verify the potential for dealing with real world samples, pathogens from patients urine have been analyzed. With the additional help of multivariate statistical analysis, a robust classification model could be built and allowed the classification of those two strains within a few minutes. In contrast, the standard microbiological diagnostics are based on very time-consuming cultivation tests. This setup holds the potential to reduce the crucial parameter diagnosis time by orders of magnitude.
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Extended-release quetiapine fumarate in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder: adjunct therapy.
Expert Rev Neurother
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Approximately half of the patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond insufficiently to current antidepressants, resulting in increased risk of relapse and residual symptoms. Strategies available include dose increase, combination with a second agent, switching antidepressants, adjunct treatment, psychotherapy or exercise. Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily extended-release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) adjunct to index antidepressant therapy in patients with MDD and an inadequate response to treatment were assessed in two acute studies as part of a global clinical trial program. Quetiapine XR significantly improved depressive symptoms versus placebo. Significant improvement in quality of life versus placebo was confined to elderly patients with MDD. Tolerability was consistent with the known pharmacological profile of quetiapine: the most common adverse events were dry mouth, somnolence, sedation, dizziness and fatigue. Quetiapine XR is approved in the EU, USA and several other countries worldwide as adjunctive treatment for patients with MDD and an inadequate response to previous antidepressants.
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Characteristics, symptomatology and naturalistic treatment in individuals at-risk for bipolar disorders: Baseline results in the first 180 help-seeking individuals assessed at the dresden high-risk project.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Considering results from the early recognition and intervention in psychosis, identification and treatment of individuals with at-risk states for the development of bipolar disorders (BD) could improve the course and severity of illness and prevent long-term consequences. Different approaches to define risk factors and groups have recently been published, data on treatment options are still missing.
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The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) task force report on antidepressant use in bipolar disorders.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders.
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Perioperative fluid therapy with tetrastarch and gelatin in cardiac surgery--a prospective sequential analysis*.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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To determine clinical outcomes of synthetic colloids, tetrastarch, and gelatin, used before and after cardiac surgery.
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Morphological tuning of the plasmon dispersion relation in dielectric-loaded nanofiber waveguides.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Understanding the impact of lateral mode confinement in plasmonic waveguides is of fundamental interest regarding potential applications in plasmonic devices. The knowledge of the frequency-wave vector dispersion relation provides the full information on electromagnetic field propagation in a waveguide. This Letter reports on the measurement of the real part of the surface plasmon polariton dispersion relation in the near infrared spectral regime for individual nanoscale plasmonic waveguides, which were formed by deposition of para-hexaphenylene (p-6P) based nanofibers on top of a gold film. A detailed structural characterization of the nanofibers provides accurate information on the dimensions of the investigated waveguides and enables us to quantify the effect of mode confinement by comparison with experimental results from continuous p-6P films and calculations based on the effective index method.
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World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders, part 1: update 2013 on the acute and continuation treatment of unipolar depressive disorders.
World J. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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This 2013 update of the practice guidelines for the biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders was developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP). The goal has been to systematically review all available evidence pertaining to the treatment of unipolar depressive disorders, and to produce a series of practice recommendations that are clinically and scientifically meaningful based on the available evidence. The guidelines are intended for use by all physicians seeing and treating patients with these conditions.
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Gender differences in thyroid system function: relevance to bipolar disorder and its treatment.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the functioning of the adult brain, and thyroid diseases impair both mood and cognition. This paper reviews gender differences in thyroid system function that are relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder.
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In vivo degradation of magnesium alloy LA63 scaffolds for temporary stabilization of biological myocardial grafts in a swine model.
Biomed Tech (Berl)
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Synthetic or biological patch materials used for surgical myocardial reconstruction are often fragile. Therefore, a transient support by degradable magnesium scaffolds can reduce the risk of dilation or rupture of the patch until physiological remodeling has led to a sufficient mechanical durability. However, there is evidence that magnesium implants can influence the growth and physiological behavior of the hosts cells and tissue. Hence, we epicardially implanted scaffolds of the magnesium fluoride-coated magnesium alloy LA63 in a swine model to assess biocompatibility and degradation kinetics. Chemical analysis of the pigs organs revealed no toxic accumulation of magnesium ions in the skeletal muscle, myocardium, liver, kidney, and bone of the pigs 1, 3, and 6 months postimplantation. The implants were surrounded by a fibrous granulation tissue, but no signs of necrosis were histologically evaluable. A sufficiently slow degradation rate of the magnesium alloy scaffold can be demonstrated via micro-computed tomography investigation. We conclude that stabilizing scaffolds of the magnesium fluoride-coated magnesium alloy LA63 can be used for epicardial application because no significant adverse effects to myocardial tissue were noted. Thus, degradable stabilizing scaffolds of this magnesium alloy with a slow degradation rate can extend the indication of innovative biological and synthetic patch materials.
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Clinical significance and diagnostic usefulness of serologic markers for improvement of outcome of tonsillectomy in adults with chronic tonsillitis.
J Negat Results Biomed
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The aim of the present study was to explore serological biomarkers which predict the outcome of tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis.
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Psychotherapeutic interventions in individuals at risk of developing bipolar disorder: a systematic review.
Early Interv Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Accumulating data show that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience substantial symptomatology months or years before full manifestation. Based on the need for early preventive interventions in BD as well as data suggesting effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions for BD, we aimed to review the evidence for psychotherapeutic treatments in help-seeking individuals considered at risk for BD (At-Risk-BD).
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Age-independent co-expression of antimicrobial gene clusters in the blood of septic patients.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Recent research has unravelled the clinical potential of profiling the blood transcriptome to diagnose diseases. However, resulting molecular marker sets comprised features with varying robustness and performance, depending on the dimension of training data. Thus, we investigated patterns that are inherent in large-scale data and suitable for feature selection in application to blood samples from septic patients. By integrating >300 microarray samples in correlation and enrichment analysis, we found general response patterns including a vast majority of co-expressed genes. Differentially expressed genes significantly mapped to immune response-associated categories and revealed strongly correlating upregulated genes related to antimicrobial functions. Classifiers using >20 uncorrelated features from enriched functional categories performed with 85% correct classification on average (10-fold cross-validation), comparable with correlated features, whilst single genes achieved up to 83% correct classifications in identifying septic patients. Independent interplatform comparison, however, validated only a subset of these features, including the antimicrobial cluster (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve >0.8). Based on these results, we propose feature selection for classification incorporating correlation and enriched functional categories to obtain robust marker candidates. Results of this transcriptomic meta-analysis suggest age-independent diagnostic opportunities, although further observational and animal interventional experiments are required to confirm the relevance of antimicrobial genes in sepsis.
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Evaluation of adjunct extended-release quetiapine fumarate on sleep disturbance and quality in patients with major depressive disorder and an inadequate response to on-going antidepressant therapy.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Sleep disturbance is common in depression and is a risk factor for recurrence and suicide. This analysis evaluated the effects of adjunct extended-release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) on sleep disturbance and quality in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and an inadequate response to on-going antidepressant therapy. Pooled data from two 6-wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were analysed post hoc. Patients received once-daily quetiapine XR [(150 mg/d), n = 309; (300 mg/d), n = 307] or placebo (n = 303) adjunct to on-going antidepressant therapy. Analyses included: change from randomization in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Item 4 (reduced sleep) score; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) Items 4 (insomnia-early), 5 (insomnia-middle) and 6 (insomnia-late) scores; HAMD sleep disturbance factor (Items 4+5+6); Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score. Change in MADRS total score was also evaluated in patients stratified by HAMD sleep disturbance factor score (high ? 4 and low < 4) at randomization. At week 6, adjunct quetiapine XR (150 and 300 mg/d) reduced MADRS Item 4, HAMD Items 4, 5 and 6, HAMD sleep disturbance factor and PSQI global scores from randomization vs. placebo (all p < 0.001). In patients with high sleep disturbance, quetiapine XR (both doses) improved depressive symptoms (MADRS total score) vs. placebo from week 1 onwards (p < 0.01). Adjunct quetiapine XR improved sleep disturbance and quality vs. placebo in patients with MDD and an inadequate response to on-going antidepressant treatment, and was effective against depressive symptoms in patients experiencing high sleep disturbance.
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The bipolar disorder prodrome revisited: Is there a symptomatic pattern?
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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To assess the phenomenology and course of pre-(hypo)manic and pre-depressed prodromal symptoms, including mood swings, as precursors of bipolar disorder (BD) in a German multi-center study.
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Surface plasmon polariton propagation in organic nanofiber based plasmonic waveguides.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Plasmonic wave packet propagation is monitored in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides realized from para-hexaphenylene nanofibers deposited onto a 60 nm thick gold film. Using interferometric time resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy we are able to determine phase and group velocity of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguiding mode (0.967c and 0.85c at ?(Laser) = 812nm) as well as the effective propagation length (39 ?m) along the fiber-gold interface. We furthermore observe that the propagation properties of the SPP waveguiding mode are governed by the cross section of the waveguide.
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[Early recognition centers for mental disorders - a complementary supply in the german health system].
Psychiatr Prax
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Mental disorders are identified and treated too late, because of stigma, deficient information in the population and lack of specific supply in the public health systems. Another problem is the deficient cooperation between psychiatry and child psychiatry. Therefore early recognition centers were founded, in Germany primarily with focus on psychosis and in research settings.
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Quetiapine XR monotherapy in major depressive disorder: a pooled analysis to assess the influence of baseline severity on efficacy.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The efficacy of quetiapine XR was investigated in patients with major depressive disorder and differing levels of baseline severity. Pooled data from four placebo-controlled monotherapy studies of quetiapine XR (50-300 mg/day) were analyzed. Post-hoc analyses were carried out to assess change from baseline in the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at endpoint (week 6 or 8) to week 1, and response (?50% reduction in MADRS total score) and remission (MADRS total score?10) rates at endpoint for all patients and six baseline severity cohorts (MADRS total score ?24, ?26, ?28, ?30, ?32, and ?34). In total, 1752 patients (all patients) were evaluated (MADRS score at baseline: ?24, n=1601; ?26, n=1467; ?28, n=1269; ?30, n=1038; ?32, n=745; and ?34, n=500). At endpoint, quetiapine XR reduced MADRS total score in all patients (P<0.001) and each severity cohort (?24, ?26, ?28, ?30, and ?32, P<0.001; ?34, P<0.01) versus placebo. Quetiapine XR also improved MADRS total score at week 1, response rates for each severity cohort, and remission rates in five out of six severity cohorts, versus placebo. Quetiapine XR monotherapy showed antidepressant effects in patients with major depressive disorder across different levels of baseline severity.
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We need to know whats going on: Views of family members toward the sexual expression of people with dementia in residential aged care.
Dementia (London)
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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This paper reports on a study which explored the views and attitudes of family members towards the sexual expression of residents with dementia in residential aged care facilities in two states in Australia. Recruitment was challenging and only seven family members agreed to an interview on this topic. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method. Family were generally supportive of residents rights to sexual expression, but only some types of behaviours were approved of. There was an acknowledgement that responding to residents sexuality was difficult for staff and many families believed that they should be kept informed of their relatives sexual behaviours and moreover be involved in decision making about it. Findings suggest the need for family education and a larger study to better understand the views and motivations of family carers and how these might impact on the sexual expression of the older person with dementia living in residential aged care.
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Hepatic excretory function in sepsis: implications from biophotonic analysis of transcellular xenobiotic transport in a rodent model.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Hepatobiliary elimination of endo- and xenobiotics is affected by different variables including hepatic perfusion, hepatocellular energy state and functional integrity of transporter proteins, all of which are altered during sepsis. A particular impairment of hepatocellular transport at the canalicular pole resulting in an accumulation of potentially hepatotoxic compounds would have major implications for critical care pharmacology and diagnostics. METHODS: Hepatic transcellular transport, that is, uptake and hepatobiliary excretion, was studied in a rodent model of severe polymicrobial sepsis by two different biophotonic techniques to obtain insights into the handling of potentially toxic endo- and xenobiotics in sepsis. Direct and indirect in vivo imaging of the liver was performed by intravital multifluorescence microscopy and non-invasive whole-body near-infrared (NIRF) imaging after administration of two different, primarily hepatobiliary excreted xenobiotics, the organic anionic dyes indocyanine green (ICG) and DY635. Subsequent quantitative data analysis enabled assessment of hepatic uptake and fate of these model substrates under conditions of sepsis. RESULTS: Fifteen hours after sepsis induction, animals displayed clinical and laboratory signs of multiple organ dysfunction, including moderate liver injury, cholestasis and an impairment of sinusoidal perfusion. With respect to hepatocellular transport of both dyes, excretion into bile was significantly delayed for both dyes and resulted in net accumulation of potentially cytotoxic xenobiotics in the liver parenchyma (for example, specific dye fluorescence in liver at 30 minutes in sham versus sepsis: ICG: 75% versus 89%; DY635 20% versus 40% of maximum fluorescence; P < 0.05). Transcutaneous assessment of ICG fluorescence by whole body NIRF imaging revealed a significant increase of ICG fluorescence from the 30th minute on in the bowel region of the abdomen in sham but not in septic animals, confirming a sepsis-associated failure of canalicular excretion. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatocytes accumulate organic anions under conditions of sepsis-associated organ dysfunction. These results have potential implications for monitoring liver function, critical care pharmacology and the understanding of drug-induced liver injury in the critically ill.
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Haplotypes of IL-12R?1 impact on the clinical phenotype of hidradenitis suppurativa.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Antigen presentation in chronic skin disorders is mediated through the interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 pathway and, hence, through the IL-12 receptor. Recent evidence suggesting dysregulated antigen presentation in skin lesions of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) led to investigate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene IL-12RB1 coding for the IL12-R?1 receptor subunit. Genomic DNA was isolated from 139 patients and 113 healthy controls; nine SNPs in the transcribed region of IL12RB1 were genotyped. No significant differences of genotype and allele frequencies were found between the two groups. Two common haplotypes were recognized, namely h1 and h2. Carriage of h2 related with minor frequency alleles was associated with a greater risk for the acquisition of Hurley III disease stage and with the involvement of a greater number of skin areas. Patients with the h1 haplotype presented disease at an older age. This is the genetic study enrolling the largest number of patients with HS to date. Although SNPs of IL12RB1 do not seem to convey genetic predisposition, they are associated directly with the phenotype of the disease.
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Omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure by directly activating large-conductance Ca²?-dependent K? channels.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), found abundantly in oily fish, may have diverse health-promoting effects, potentially protecting the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. However, the mechanisms underlying the purported health-promoting effects of DHA remain largely unclear, in part because molecular signaling pathways and effectors of DHA are only beginning to be revealed. In vascular smooth muscle cells, large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels provide a critical vasodilatory influence. We report here that DHA with an EC50 of ?500 nM rapidly and reversibly activates BK channels composed of the pore-forming Slo1 subunit and the auxiliary subunit ?1, increasing currents by up to ?20-fold. The DHA action is observed in cell-free patches and does not require voltage-sensor activation or Ca(2+) binding but involves destabilization of the closed conformation of the ion conduction gate. DHA lowers blood pressure in anesthetized wild-type but not in Slo1 knockout mice. DHA ethyl ester, contained in dietary supplements, fails to activate BK channels and antagonizes the stimulatory effect of DHA. Slo1 BK channels are thus receptors for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, and these fatty acids--unlike their ethyl ester derivatives--activate the channels and lower blood pressure. This finding has practical implications for the use of omega-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals for the general public and also for the critically ill receiving omega-3-enriched formulas.
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The "DGPPN-Cohort": A national collaboration initiative by the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGPPN) for establishing a large-scale cohort of psychiatric patients.
Heike Anderson-Schmidt, Lothar Adler, Chadiga Aly, Ion-George Anghelescu, Michael Bauer, Jessica Baumgärtner, Joachim Becker, Roswitha Bianco, Thomas Becker, Cosima Bitter, Dominikus Bönsch, Karoline Buckow, Monika Budde, Martin Bührig, Jürgen Deckert, Sara Y Demiroglu, Detlef Dietrich, Michael Dümpelmann, Uta Engelhardt, Andreas J Fallgatter, Daniel Feldhaus, Christian Figge, Here Folkerts, Michael Franz, Katrin Gade, Wolfgang Gaebel, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Oliver Gruber, Verena Gullatz, Linda Gusky, Urs Heilbronner, Krister Helbing, Ulrich Hegerl, Andreas Heinz, Tilman Hensch, Christoph Hiemke, Markus Jäger, Anke Jahn-Brodmann, Georg Juckel, Franz Kandulski, Wolfgang P Kaschka, Tilo Kircher, Manfred Köller, Carsten Konrad, Johannes Kornhuber, Marina Krause, Axel Krug, Mahsa Lee, Markus Leweke, Klaus Lieb, Mechthild Mammes, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Moritz Mühlbacher, Matthias J Müller, Vanessa Nieratschker, Barbara Nierste, Jacqueline Ohle, Andrea Pfennig, Marlenna Pieper, Matthias Quade, Daniela Reich-Erkelenz, Andreas Reif, Markus Reitt, Bernd Reininghaus, Eva Z Reininghaus, Matthias Riemenschneider, Otto Rienhoff, Patrik Roser, Dan Rujescu, Rebecca Schennach, Harald Scherk, Max Schmauss, Frank Schneider, Alexandra Schosser, Björn H Schott, Sybille G Schwab, Jens Schwanke, Daniela Skrowny, Carsten Spitzer, Sebastian Stierl, Judith Stöckel, Susanne Stübner, Andreas Thiel, Hans-Peter Volz, Martin von Hagen, Henrik Walter, Stephanie H Witt, Thomas Wobrock, Jürgen Zielasek, Jörg Zimmermann, Antje Zitzelsberger, Wolfgang Maier, Peter G Falkai, Marcella Rietschel, Thomas G Schulze.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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The German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGPPN) has committed itself to establish a prospective national cohort of patients with major psychiatric disorders, the so-called DGPPN-Cohort. This project will enable the scientific exploitation of high-quality data and biomaterial from psychiatric patients for research. It will be set up using harmonised data sets and procedures for sample generation and guided by transparent rules for data access and data sharing regarding the central research database. While the main focus lies on biological research, it will be open to all kinds of scientific investigations, including epidemiological, clinical or health-service research.
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Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs.
, S Hong Lee, Stephan Ripke, Benjamin M Neale, Stephen V Faraone, Shaun M Purcell, Roy H Perlis, Bryan J Mowry, Anita Thapar, Michael E Goddard, John S Witte, Devin Absher, Ingrid Agartz, Huda Akil, Farooq Amin, Ole A Andreassen, Adebayo Anjorin, Richard Anney, Verneri Anttila, Dan E Arking, Philip Asherson, Maria H Azevedo, Lena Backlund, Judith A Badner, Anthony J Bailey, Tobias Banaschewski, Jack D Barchas, Michael R Barnes, Thomas B Barrett, Nicholas Bass, Agatino Battaglia, Michael Bauer, Mònica Bayés, Frank Bellivier, Sarah E Bergen, Wade Berrettini, Catalina Betancur, Thomas Bettecken, Joseph Biederman, Elisabeth B Binder, Donald W Black, Douglas H R Blackwood, Cinnamon S Bloss, Michael Boehnke, Dorret I Boomsma, Gerome Breen, René Breuer, Richard Bruggeman, Paul Cormican, Nancy G Buccola, Jan K Buitelaar, William E Bunney, Joseph D Buxbaum, William F Byerley, Enda M Byrne, Sian Caesar, Wiepke Cahn, Rita M Cantor, Miguel Casas, Aravinda Chakravarti, Kimberly Chambert, Khalid Choudhury, Sven Cichon, C Robert Cloninger, David A Collier, Edwin H Cook, Hilary Coon, Bru Cormand, Aiden Corvin, William H Coryell, David W Craig, Ian W Craig, Jennifer Crosbie, Michael L Cuccaro, David Curtis, Darina Czamara, Susmita Datta, Geraldine Dawson, Richard Day, Eco J De Geus, Franziska Degenhardt, Srdjan Djurovic, Gary J Donohoe, Alysa E Doyle, Jubao Duan, Frank Dudbridge, Eftichia Duketis, Richard P Ebstein, Howard J Edenberg, Josephine Elia, Sean Ennis, Bruno Etain, Ayman Fanous, Anne E Farmer, I Nicol Ferrier, Matthew Flickinger, Eric Fombonne, Tatiana Foroud, Josef Frank, Barbara Franke, Christine Fraser, Robert Freedman, Nelson B Freimer, Christine M Freitag, Marion Friedl, Louise Frisén, Louise Gallagher, Pablo V Gejman, Lyudmila Georgieva, Elliot S Gershon, Daniel H Geschwind, Ina Giegling, Michael Gill, Scott D Gordon, Katherine Gordon-Smith, Elaine K Green, Tiffany A Greenwood, Dorothy E Grice, Magdalena Gross, Detelina Grozeva, Weihua Guan, Hugh Gurling, Lieuwe de Haan, Jonathan L Haines, Hakon Hakonarson, Joachim Hallmayer, Steven P Hamilton, Marian L Hamshere, Thomas F Hansen, Annette M Hartmann, Martin Hautzinger, Andrew C Heath, Anjali K Henders, Stefan Herms, Ian B Hickie, Maria Hipolito, Susanne Hoefels, Peter A Holmans, Florian Holsboer, Witte J Hoogendijk, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Christina M Hultman, Vanessa Hus, Andrés Ingason, Marcus Ising, Stéphane Jamain, Edward G Jones, Ian Jones, Lisa Jones, Jung-Ying Tzeng, Anna K Kähler, René S Kahn, Radhika Kandaswamy, Matthew C Keller, James L Kennedy, Elaine Kenny, Lindsey Kent, Yunjung Kim, George K Kirov, Sabine M Klauck, Lambertus Klei, James A Knowles, Martin A Kohli, Daniel L Koller, Bettina Konte, Ania Korszun, Lydia Krabbendam, Robert Krasucki, Jonna Kuntsi, Phoenix Kwan, Mikael Landén, Niklas Långström, Mark Lathrop, Jacob Lawrence, William B Lawson, Marion Leboyer, David H Ledbetter, Phil H Lee, Todd Lencz, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Douglas F Levinson, Cathryn M Lewis, Jun Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Dan-Yu Lin, Don H Linszen, Chunyu Liu, Falk W Lohoff, Sandra K Loo, Catherine Lord, Jennifer K Lowe, Susanne Lucae, Donald J MacIntyre, Pamela A F Madden, Elena Maestrini, Patrik K E Magnusson, Pamela B Mahon, Wolfgang Maier, Anil K Malhotra, Shrikant M Mane, Christa L Martin, Nicholas G Martin, Manuel Mattheisen, Keith Matthews, Morten Mattingsdal, Steven A McCarroll, Kevin A McGhee, James J McGough, Patrick J McGrath, Peter McGuffin, Melvin G McInnis, Andrew McIntosh, Rebecca McKinney, Alan W McLean, Francis J McMahon, William M McMahon, Andrew McQuillin, Helena Medeiros, Sarah E Medland, Sandra Meier, Ingrid Melle, Fan Meng, Jobst Meyer, Christel M Middeldorp, Lefkos Middleton, Vihra Milanova, Ana Miranda, Anthony P Monaco, Grant W Montgomery, Jennifer L Moran, Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Gunnar Morken, Derek W Morris, Eric M Morrow, Valentina Moskvina, Pierandrea Muglia, Thomas W Mühleisen, Walter J Muir, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Michael Murtha, Richard M Myers, Inez Myin-Germeys, Michael C Neale, Stan F Nelson, Caroline M Nievergelt, Ivan Nikolov, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Willem A Nolen, Markus M Nöthen, John I Nurnberger, Evaristus A Nwulia, Dale R Nyholt, Colm O'Dushlaine, Robert D Oades, Ann Olincy, Guiomar Oliveira, Line Olsen, Roel A Ophoff, Urban Osby, Michael J Owen, Aarno Palotie, Jeremy R Parr, Andrew D Paterson, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, Brenda W Penninx, Michele L Pergadia, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Benjamin S Pickard, Jonathan Pimm, Joseph Piven, Danielle Posthuma, James B Potash, Fritz Poustka, Peter Propping, Vinay Puri, Digby J Quested, Emma M Quinn, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Henrik B Rasmussen, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Karola Rehnström, Andreas Reif, Marta Ribasés, John P Rice, Marcella Rietschel, Kathryn Roeder, Herbert Roeyers, Lizzy Rossin, Aribert Rothenberger, Guy Rouleau, Douglas Ruderfer, Dan Rujescu, Alan R Sanders, Stephan J Sanders, Susan L Santangelo, Joseph A Sergeant, Russell Schachar, Martin Schalling, Alan F Schatzberg, William A Scheftner, Gerard D Schellenberg, Stephen W Scherer, Nicholas J Schork, Thomas G Schulze, Johannes Schumacher, Markus Schwarz, Edward Scolnick, Laura J Scott, Jianxin Shi, Paul D Shilling, Stanley I Shyn, Jeremy M Silverman, Susan L Slager, Susan L Smalley, Johannes H Smit, Erin N Smith, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, David St Clair, Matthew State, Michael Steffens, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, John S Strauss, Jana Strohmaier, T Scott Stroup, James S Sutcliffe, Peter Szatmari, Szabocls Szelinger, Srinivasa Thirumalai, Robert C Thompson, Alexandre A Todorov, Federica Tozzi, Jens Treutlein, Manfred Uhr, Edwin J C G van den Oord, Gerard van Grootheest, Jim van Os, Astrid M Vicente, Veronica J Vieland, John B Vincent, Peter M Visscher, Christopher A Walsh, Thomas H Wassink, Stanley J Watson, Myrna M Weissman, Thomas Werge, Thomas F Wienker, Ellen M Wijsman, Gonneke Willemsen, Nigel Williams, A Jeremy Willsey, Stephanie H Witt, Wei Xu, Allan H Young, Timothy W Yu, Stanley Zammit, Peter P Zandi, Peng Zhang, Frans G Zitman, Sebastian Zöllner, Bernie Devlin, John R Kelsoe, Pamela Sklar, Mark J Daly, Michael C O'Donovan, Nicholas Craddock, Patrick F Sullivan, Jordan W Smoller, Kenneth S Kendler, Naomi R Wray.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohns disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.
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Regional cardiac dysfunction and dyssynchrony in a murine model of afterload stress.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Small animal models of afterload stress have contributed much to our present understanding of the progression from hypertension to heart failure. High-sensitivity methods for phenotyping cardiac function in vivo, particular in the setting of compensated cardiac hypertrophy, may add new information regarding alterations in cardiac performance that can occur even during the earliest stages of exposure to pressure overload. We have developed an echocardiographic analytical method, based on speckle-tracking-based strain analyses, and used this tool to rapidly phenotype cardiac changes resulting from afterload stress in a small animal model. Adult mice were subjected to ascending aortic constriction, with and without subsequent reversal of the pressure gradient. In this model of compensated hypertrophic cardiac remodeling, conventional echocardiographic measurements did not detect changes in left ventricular (LV) function at the early time points examined. Strain analyses, however, revealed a decrement in basal longitudinal myofiber shortening that was induced by aortic constriction and improved following relief of the pressure gradient. Furthermore, we observed that pressure overload resulted in LV segmental dyssynchrony that was attenuated with return of the afterload to baseline levels. Herein, we describe the use of echocardiographic strain analyses for cardiac phenotyping in a mouse model of pressure overload. This method provides evidence of dyssynchrony and regional myocardial dysfunction that occurs early with compensatory hypertrophy, and improves following relief of aortic constriction. Importantly, these findings illustrate the utility of a rapid, non-invasive method for characterizing early cardiac dysfunction, not detectable by conventional echocardiography, following afterload stress.
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Pooled analysis of sustained response rates for extended release quetiapine fumarate as monotherapy or adjunct to antidepressant therapy in patients with major depressive disorder.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Clinical trials are not generally powered to analyze outcomes such as sustained response. We evaluated sustained response rates for patients with major depressive disorder receiving quetiapine XR as monotherapy or adjunct therapy.
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Alternative 5 untranslated regions are involved in expression regulation of human heme oxygenase-1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The single nucleotide polymorphism rs2071746 and a (GT)n microsatellite within the human gene encoding heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) are associated with incidence or outcome in a variety of diseases. Most of these associations involve either release of heme or oxidative stress. Both polymorphisms are localized in the promoter region, but previously reported correlations with heme oxygenase-1 expression remain not coherent. This ambiguity suggests a more complex organization of the 5 gene region which we sought to investigate more fully. We evaluated the 5 end of HMOX1 and found a novel first exon 1a placing the two previously reported polymorphisms in intronic or exonic positions within the 5 untranslated region respectively. Expression of exon 1a can be induced in HepG2 hepatoma cells by hemin and is a repressor of heme oxygenase-1 translation as shown by luciferase reporter assays. Moreover, minigene approaches revealed that the quantitative outcome of alternative splicing within the 5 untranslated region is affected by the (GT)n microsatellite. This data supporting an extended HMOX1 gene model and provide further insights into expression regulation of heme oxygenase-1. Alternative splicing within the HMOX1 5 untranslated region contributes to translational regulation and is a mechanistic feature involved in the interplay between genetic variations, heme oxygenase-1 expression and disease outcome.
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Assessment of Response to Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorder: A Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) Report.
Mirko Manchia, Mazda Adli, Nirmala Akula, Raffaella Ardau, Jean-Michel Aubry, Lena Backlund, Claudio Em Banzato, Bernhard T Baune, Frank Bellivier, Susanne Bengesser, Joanna M Biernacka, Clara Brichant-Petitjean, Elise Bui, Cynthia V Calkin, Andrew Tai Ann Cheng, Caterina Chillotti, Sven Cichon, Scott Clark, Piotr M Czerski, Clarissa Dantas, Maria Del Zompo, J Raymond Depaulo, Sevilla D Detera-Wadleigh, Bruno Etain, Peter Falkai, Louise Frisén, Mark A Frye, Jan Fullerton, Sebastien Gard, Julie Garnham, Fernando S Goes, Paul Grof, Oliver Gruber, Ryota Hashimoto, Joanna Hauser, Urs Heilbronner, Rebecca Hoban, Liping Hou, Stéphane Jamain, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Layla Kassem, Tadafumi Kato, John R Kelsoe, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Sebastian Kliwicki, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Ichiro Kusumi, Gonzalo Laje, Catharina Lavebratt, Marion Leboyer, Susan G Leckband, Carlos A López Jaramillo, Mario Maj, Alain Malafosse, Lina Martinsson, Takuya Masui, Philip B Mitchell, Frank Mondimore, Palmiero Monteleone, Audrey Nallet, Maria Neuner, Tomas Novak, Claire O'Donovan, Urban Osby, Norio Ozaki, Roy H Perlis, Andrea Pfennig, James B Potash, Daniela Reich-Erkelenz, Andreas Reif, Eva Reininghaus, Sara Richardson, Guy A Rouleau, Janusz K Rybakowski, Martin Schalling, Peter R Schofield, Oliver K Schubert, Barbara Schweizer, Florian Seemüller, Maria Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Giovanni Severino, Lisa R Seymour, Claire Slaney, Jordan W Smoller, Alessio Squassina, Thomas Stamm, Jo Steele, Pavla Stopkova, Sarah K Tighe, Alfonso Tortorella, Gustavo Turecki, Naomi R Wray, Adam Wright, Peter P Zandi, David Zilles, Michael Bauer, Marcella Rietschel, Francis J McMahon, Thomas G Schulze, Martin Alda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the "Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder" scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study.
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Hospital discharge as experienced by family carers of people with dementia: a case for quality improvement.
J Healthc Qual
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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To explore whether hospital discharge practices meets the needs of the family carer of a person with dementia. Qualitative methodology utilizing semistructured interviews with the primary family carer of a person with dementia after hospital discharge. Purposive sampling methods were used to recruit family carers within 2 months of discharge from hospitals in the state of Victoria, Australia. Twenty-five family carers were interviewed. Key issues that families found problematic include: coordination of discharge planning, the ability of the staff to address family members needs, poor engagement with family, and perceived lapses in care delivery. Findings suggest that a number of changes to hospital processes and health professionals practices are needed in order to better meet the transitional needs of family carers of people with dementia. Considerations for practice to improve the quality of hospital discharge preparation for family carers of people with dementia are provided.
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Glucocorticoid receptor dimerization is required for survival in septic shock via suppression of interleukin-1 in macrophages.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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Sepsis is controlled by endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs). Previous studies provided evidence that crosstalk of the monomeric GC receptor (GR) with proinflammatory transcription factors is the crucial mechanism underlying the suppressive GC effect. Here we demonstrate that mice with a dimerization-deficient GR (GR(dim)) are highly susceptible to sepsis in 2 different models, namely cecal ligation and puncture and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock. TNF-? is normally regulated in these mice, but down-regulation of IL-6 and IL-1? is diminished. LPS-treated macrophages derived from GR(dim) mice are largely resistant to GC actions in vitro in terms of morphology, surface marker expression, and gene expression. Treatment with recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist improved survival of GR(dim) mice and mice lacking the GR in macrophages (GR(LysMCre)) mice. This suggests that regulation of IL-1? in macrophages by GCs is pivotal to control sepsis.
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General and comparative efficacy and effectiveness of antidepressants in the acute treatment of depressive disorders: a report by the WPA section of pharmacopsychiatry.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2011
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Current gold standard approaches to the treatment of depression include pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic interventions with social support. Due to current controversies concerning the efficacy of antidepressants in randomized controlled trials, the generalizability of study findings to wider clinical practice and the increasing importance of socioeconomic considerations, it seems timely to address the uncertainty of concerned patients and relatives, and their treating psychiatrists and general practitioners. We therefore discuss both the efficacy and clinical effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of depressive disorders. We explain and clarify useful measures for assessing clinically meaningful antidepressant treatment effects and the types of studies that are useful for addressing uncertainties. This includes considerations of methodological issues in randomized controlled studies, meta-analyses, and effectiveness studies. Furthermore, we summarize the differential efficacy and effectiveness of antidepressants with distinct pharmacodynamic properties, and differences between studies using antidepressants and/or psychotherapy. We also address the differential effectiveness of antidepressant drugs with differing modes of action and in varying subtypes of depressive disorder. After highlighting the clinical usefulness of treatment algorithms and the divergent biological, psychological, and clinical efforts to predict the effectiveness of antidepressant treatments, we conclude that the spectrum of different antidepressant treatments has broadened over the last few decades. The efficacy and clinical effectiveness of antidepressants is statistically significant, clinically relevant, and proven repeatedly. Further optimization of treatment can be helped by clearly structured treatment algorithms and the implementation of psychotherapeutic interventions. Modern individualized antidepressant treatment is in most cases a well-tolerated and efficacious approach to minimize the negative impact of otherwise potentially devastating and life-threatening outcomes in depressive disorders.
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Wnt signaling exerts an antiproliferative effect on adult cardiac progenitor cells through IGFBP3.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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Recent work in animal models and humans has demonstrated the presence of organ-specific progenitor cells required for the regenerative capacity of the adult heart. In response to tissue injury, progenitor cells differentiate into specialized cells, while their numbers are maintained through mechanisms of self-renewal. The molecular cues that dictate the self-renewal of adult progenitor cells in the heart, however, remain unclear.
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How to compare diffusion processes assessed by single-particle tracking and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Heterogeneous diffusion processes occur in many different fields such as transport in living cells or diffusion in porous media. A characterization of the transport parameters of such processes can be achieved by ensemble-based methods, such as pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG NMR), or by trajectory-based methods obtained from single-particle tracking (SPT) experiments. In this paper, we study the general relationship between both methods and its application to heterogeneous systems. We derive analytical expressions for the distribution of diffusivities from SPT and further relate it to NMR spin-echo diffusion attenuation functions. To exemplify the applicability of this approach, we employ a well-established two-region exchange model, which has widely been used in the context of PFG NMR studies of multiphase systems subjected to interphase molecular exchange processes. This type of systems, which can also describe a layered liquid with layer-dependent self-diffusion coefficients, has also recently gained attention in SPT experiments. We reformulate the results of the two-region exchange model in terms of SPT-observables and compare its predictions to that obtained using the exact transformation which we derived.
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Hyporeactivity of ventral striatum towards incentive stimuli in unmedicated depressed patients normalizes after treatment with escitalopram.
J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) involves deficits in the reward system. While neuroimaging studies have focused on affective stimulus processing, few investigations have directly addressed deficits in the anticipation of incentives. We examined neural responses during gain and loss anticipation in patients with MDD before and after treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Fifteen adults with MDD and 15 healthy participants, matched for age, verbal IQ and smoking habits, were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a monetary incentive delay task. Patients were scanned drug-free and after 6 weeks of open-label treatment with escitalopram; controls were scanned twice at corresponding time points. We compared the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response during the anticipation of gain and loss with a neutral condition. A repeated measures ANOVA was calculated to identify effects of group (MDD vs. controls), time (first vs. second scan) and group-by-time interaction. Severity of depression was measured with the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression and the Beck Depression Inventory. MDD patients showed significantly less ventral striatal activation during anticipation of gain and loss compared with controls before, but not after, treatment. There was a significant group-by-time interaction during anticipation of loss in the left ventral striatum due to a signal increase in patients after treatment. Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness was associated with the severity of depression and in particular anhedonic symptoms. These findings suggest that MDD patients show ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during incentive cue processing, which normalizes after successful treatment.
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Nanoparticles targeting the infarcted heart.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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We report a nanoparticulate system capable of targeting the heart after myocardial infarction (MI). Targeting is based on overexpression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor in the infarcted heart. Liposomes 142 nm in diameter were conjugated with a ligand specific to AT1. The nanoparticles were able to specifically target cardiac cells in vitro, and in the infarcted heart after intravenous injection in vivo. This system may be useful for delivering therapeutic agents specifically to the infarcted heart.
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Hospital discharge: recommendations for performance improvement for family carers of people with dementia.
Aust Health Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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BACKGROUND; It is acknowledge that discharge planning benefits both consumers and hospitals. What is not widely understood is the experience that the family carer of a person with a dementia has and whether the hospitals meet their in-hospital and post-hospital needs.
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Executive summary of the report by the WPA section on pharmacopsychiatry on general and comparative efficacy and effectiveness of antidepressants in the acute treatment of depressive disorders.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Current gold standard in the treatment of depression includes pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic strategies together with social support. Due to the actually discussed controversies concerning the differential efficacy of antidepressants, a contribution to a comprehensive clarification seems to be necessary to avert further deterioration and uncertainty from patients, relatives, and their treating psychiatrists and general practitioners. Both efficacy and clinical effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of depressive disorders can be confirmed. Clinically meaningful antidepressant treatment effects were confirmed in different types of studies. Methodological issues of randomized controlled studies, meta-analyses, and effectiveness studies will be discussed. Furthermore, actual data about the differential efficacy and effectiveness of antidepressants with distinct pharmacodynamic properties and about outcome differences in studies using antidepressants and/or psychotherapy are discussed. This is followed by a clinically oriented depiction-the differential clinical effectiveness of different pharmacodynamic modes of action of antidepressants in different subtypes of depressive disorders. It can be summarized that the spectrum of different antidepressant treatments has broadened during the last decades. The efficacy and clinical effectiveness of antidepressants is statistically significant and clinically relevant and proven repeatedly. For further optimizing antidepressant treatment plans, clearly structured treatment algorithms and the implementation of psychotherapy seem to be useful. A modern individualized antidepressant treatment in most cases is a well-tolerated and efficacious tool to minimize the negative impact of the otherwise devastating and life-threatening outcome of depressive disorders.
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Hypothyroidism and mood disorders: integrating novel insights from brain imaging techniques.
Thyroid Res
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Thyroid hormones play a critical role in brain development but also in the adult human brain by modulating metabolic activity. Hypothyroid states are associated with both functional and structural brain alterations also seen in patients with major depression. Recent animal experimental and preclinical data indicate subtle changes in myelination, microvascular density, local neurogenesis, and functional networks. The translational validity of such studies is obviously limited. Clinical evidence for neurobiological correlates of different stages and severities of hypothyroidism and effects of pharmacological intervention is lacking but may be achieved using advanced imaging techniques, e.g. functional and quantitative MRI techniques applied to patients with hypothyroidism before and after hormone replacement therapy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.