Reconstruction for single sutural synostosis typically involves cranial reshaping to correct for compensatory growth changes. Current remodeling techniques involve obliteration of both pathologic and normal sutures. Presented here is a case report describing a new approach to the treatment of single cranial synostosis. The concept involves excision of the offending suture and transient plating of the remaining functional sutures. Compensatory sutures are then allowed to direct the growth forces to the area of the synostosis, leading to the reversal of the compensatory shape deformity. This more natural approach leaves functioning sutures intact and allows for their active participation in the reshaping process.
Diagnostic codes are used widely within health care for billing, quality assessment, and to measure clinical outcomes. The US health care system will transition to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), in October 2015. Little is known about how this transition will affect pediatric practices. The objective of this study was to examine how the transition to ICD-10-CM may result in ambiguity of clinical information and financial disruption for pediatricians.
Environmental insults during sensitive periods can affect hippocampal development and function, but little is known about peripheral infection, especially in humans and other animals whose brain is gyrencephalic and experiences major perinatal growth. Using a piglet model, the present study showed that inoculation on postnatal day 7 with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) caused microglial activation within the hippocampus with 82% and 43% of isolated microglia being MHC II(+) 13 and 20 d after inoculation, respectively. In control piglets, <5% of microglia isolated from the hippocampus were MHC II(+). PRRSV piglets were febrile (p < 0.0001), anorectic (p < 0.0001), and weighed less at the end of the study (p = 0.002) compared with control piglets. Increased inflammatory gene expression (e.g., IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and IFN-?) was seen across multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, whereas reductions in CD200, NGF, and MBP were evident. In a test of spatial learning, PRRSV piglets took longer to acquire the task, had a longer latency to choice, and had a higher total distance moved. Overall, these data demonstrate that viral respiratory infection is associated with a marked increase in activated microglia in the hippocampus, neuroinflammation, and impaired performance in a spatial cognitive task. As respiratory infections are common in human neonates and infants, approaches to regulate microglial cell activity are likely to be important.
The 2012 American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Certification Affairs Committee was charged with developing guidelines for the desired professional development pathways for clinical pharmacists. This document summarizes recommendations for postgraduate education and training for graduates of U.S. schools and colleges of pharmacy and describes the preferred pathways for achieving, demonstrating, and maintaining competence as clinical pharmacists. After initial licensure within the state or jurisdiction in which the pharmacist intends to practice, completion of an accredited PGY1 pharmacy residency is recommended to further develop the knowledge and skills needed to optimize medication therapy outcomes. An accredited PGY2 pharmacy residency should be completed if a pharmacist wishes to seek employment in a specific therapeutic area or practice setting, if such a residency exists. Clinical pharmacists intending to conduct advanced research that is competitive for federal funding are encouraged to complete a fellowship or graduate education. Initial certification by the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) or other appropriate sponsoring organizations should be completed in the desired primary therapeutic area or practice setting within 2 years after accepting a position within the desired specific therapeutic area or practice setting. Clinical pharmacists subsequently will need to meet the requirements to maintain pharmacist licensure and board certification. Traineeships, practice-based activities, and certificate programs can be used to obtain additional knowledge and skills that support professional growth. Pharmacists are strongly encouraged to adopt a lifelong, systematic process for professional development and work with ACCP and other professional organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of innovative strategies to assess core practice competencies.
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that acetylcholine can directly modulate immune function in peripheral tissues including the spleen and gastrointestinal tract. However, the anatomical relationships between the peripheral cholinergic system and immune cells located in these lymphoid tissues remain unclear due to inherent technical difficulties with currently available neuroanatomical methods. In this study, mice with specific expression of the tdTomato fluorescent protein in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-expressing cells were used to label preganglionic and postganglionic cholinergic neurons and their projections to lymphoid tissues. Notably, our anatomical observations revealed an abundant innervation in the intestinal lamina propria of the entire gastrointestinal tract principally originating from cholinergic enteric neurons. The aforementioned innervation frequently approached macrophages, plasma cells, and lymphocytes located in the lamina propria and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes in the interfollicular areas of Peyers patches. In addition to the above innervation, we observed labeled epithelial cells in the gallbladder and lower intestines, as well as Microfold cells and T-cells within Peyers patches. In contrast, we found only a sparse innervation in the spleen consisting of neuronal fibers of spinal origin present around arterioles and in lymphocyte-containing areas of the white pulp. Lastly, a small population of ChAT-expressing lymphocytes was identified in the spleen including both T- and B-cells. In summary, this study describes the variety of cholinergic neuronal and nonneuronal cells in a position to modulate gastrointestinal and splenic immunity in the mouse.
During systemic infection, inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 are produced in excess in the brain of aged mice and induce severe behavioral deficits. However, no studies have examined how pro-inflammatory IL-6 trans-signaling is involved in the exaggerated production of IL-6 in the aged brain, nor the extent to which IL-6 trans-signaling affects other markers of neuroinflammation, adhesion molecules, and behavior. Therefore, this study investigated in aged mice the presence of IL-6 signaling subunits in microglia; the central effects of soluble gp130 (sgp130)-a natural inhibitor of the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway-on IL-6 production in microglia; and the effects of sgp130 given intracerebroventricularly (ICV) on neuroinflammation and sickness behavior caused by i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we show that microglia isolated from aged mice have higher expression of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) compared to microglia from adults; and the level of mRNA for ADAM17, the enzyme responsible for shedding membrane-bound IL-6R in trans-signaling, is higher in the hippocampus of aged mice compared to adults. Additionally, we show in aged mice that peripheral LPS challenge elicits a hyperactive IL-6 response in microglia, and selective blockade of trans-signaling by ICV injection of sgp130 mitigates this. The sgp130-associated inhibition of IL-6 was paralleled by amelioration of exaggerated and protracted sickness behavior in aged mice. Taken together, the results show that microglia are important regulators of the IL-6 trans-signaling response in the aged brain and sgp130 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory arm of IL-6 signaling.
A female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed vaginal and trunk discharge. Cultures were positive for pan-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally and monitored by serum levels. After being trained at 10 mo to accept oral dosing, treatment was changed and rifampin was added. Oral medications were administered for another 10 mo. A year after completion of therapy, the vaginal discharge increased and cultures yielded M. tuberculosis, resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Treatment with oral ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and enrofloxacin and intramuscular amikacin was initiated. Although followup cultures became negative, adverse reactions to medications precluded treatment completion. Due to public health concerns related to multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the elephant was euthanized. Postmortem smears from the lung, peribronchial, and abdominal lymph nodes yielded acid-fast bacteria, although cultures were negative. This case highlights important considerations in the treatment of M. tuberculosis in animals and the need for a consistent approach to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.
Excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the senescent brain in response to peripheral immune stimulation is thought to induce behavioral pathology, however, few studies have examined if the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines is accompanied by an increase in cytokine signaling. Here, we focused on IL-6 as a prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokine and used phosphorylated STAT3 as a marker of IL-6 signaling. In an initial study, IL-6 mRNA and the magnitude and duration of STAT3 activation were increased in the hippocampus of senescent mice compared to adults after i.p. injection of LPS. The LPS-induced increase in STAT3 activity was ablated in aged IL-6(-/-) mice, suggesting IL-6 is a key driver of STAT3 activity in the aged brain. To determine if IL-6 activated the classical or trans-signaling pathway, before receiving LPS i.p., aged mice were injected ICV with sgp130, an antagonist of the trans-signaling pathway. Importantly, the LPS-induced increases in both IL-6 and STAT3 activity in the hippocampus were inhibited by sgp130. To assess hippocampal function, aged mice were injected ICV with sgp130 and i.p. with LPS immediately after the acquisition phase of contextual fear conditioning, and immobility was assessed in the retention phase 48h later. LPS reduced immobility in aged mice, indicating immune activation interfered with memory consolidation. However, sgp130 blocked the deficits in contextual fear conditioning caused by LPS. Taken together, the results suggest IL-6 trans-signaling is increased in the senescent brain following peripheral LPS challenge and that sgp130 may protect against infection-related neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction in the aged.
An accurate measurement of BSA involved in patients injured by burns is critical in determining initial fluid requirements, nutritional needs, and criteria for tertiary center admissions. The rule of nines and the Lund-Browder chart are commonly used to calculate the BSA involved. However, their accuracy in all patient populations, namely obese patients, remains to be proven. Detailed BSA measurements were obtained from 163 adult patients according to linear formulas defined previously for individual body segments. Patients were then grouped based on body mass index (BMI). The contribution of individual body segments to the TBSA was determined based on BMI, and the validity of existing measurement tools was examined. Significant errors were found when comparing all groups with the rule of nines, which overestimated the contribution of the head and arms to the TBSA while underestimating the trunk and legs for all BMI groups. A new rule is proposed to minimize error, assigning 5% of the TBSA to the head and 15% of the TBSA to the arms across all BMI groups, while alternating the contribution of the trunk/legs as follows: normal-weight 35/45%, obese 40/40%, and morbidly obese 45/35%. Current modalities used to determine BSA burned are subject to significant errors, which are magnified as BMI increases. This new method provides increased accuracy in estimating the BSA involved in patients with burn injury regardless of BMI.
Interleukin (IL)-6 is produced in the brain during peripheral infection and plays an important but poorly understood role in sickness behavior. Therefore, this study investigated the capacity of soluble gp130 (sgp130), a natural inhibitor of the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway to regulate IL-6 production in microglia and neurons in vitro and its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behavior in vivo.
To determine the feasibility of educating adults about their risk of prediabetes/diabetes in a community pharmacy, to determine the common risk factors for prediabetes/diabetes in adults visiting a community pharmacy, and to assess any association between risk factors and age.
Iron deficiency is common throughout the world and has been linked to cognitive impairments. Using neonatal piglets to model human infants, we assessed the impact of iron deficiency on spatial learning and memory. Artificially reared piglets were fed 1 of 3 liquid diets with varying concentrations of iron: control (CON), mildly deficient (MID), or severely deficient (SID; 100, 25.0, or 10.0 mg iron/kg milk solids, respectively) for 4 wk. Relative to CON, SID and MID piglets had reduced hemoglobin (P < 0.05) as well as magenta skin color (P < 0.001), which correlated with hematocrit (R(2) = 0.76; P < 0.001). SID and MID hemoglobin differed at wk 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). In a hippocampal-dependent, spatial, T-maze task, SID piglets were unable to acquire the task (post hoc contrast: first vs. last day of acquisition), while MID piglets demonstrated deficits in reversal learning (P = 0.032). Iron concentrations in the liver (P < 0.001), serum (P = 0.003), and hippocampus (P = 0.004), but not prefrontal cortex, were lower in MID and SID compared with CON piglets. The level of the transferrin receptor mRNA (TFR) was greater in the prefrontal cortex of CON piglets than in MID and SID piglets (P = 0.001) but not the hippocampus. Gene expression of several neurotrophic factors and proinflammatory cytokines, as well as whole-brain and hippocampal volume, were not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, neonatal iron deficiency leads to cognitive impairment, which may be due in part to a reduced iron concentration in the hippocampus.
The genesis and growth of a successful 14-year partnership between the University of Oklahoma (OU) college of pharmacy and the OU Medical Center (OUMC) department of pharmacy are described.
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