The amino acid-polyamine-organoCation (APC) superfamily is the second largest superfamily of secondary carriers currently known. In this study, we establish homology between previously recognized APC superfamily members and proteins of seven new families. These families include the PAAP (Putative Amino Acid Permease), LIVCS (Branched Chain Amino Acid:Cation Symporter), NRAMP (Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein), CstA (Carbon starvation A protein), KUP (K(+) Uptake Permease), BenE (Benzoate:H(+) Virginia Symporter), and AE (Anion Exchanger). The topology of the well-characterized human Anion Exchanger 1 (AE1) conforms to a UraA-like topology of 14 TMSs (12 ?-helical TMSs and 2 mixed coil/helical TMSs). All functionally characterized members of the APC superfamily use cation symport for substrate accumulation except for some members of the AE family which frequently use anion:anion exchange. We show how the different topologies fit into the framework of the common LeuT-like fold, defined earlier (Proteins. 2014 Feb;82(2):336-46), and determine that some of the new members contain previously undocumented topological variations. All new entries contain the two 5 or 7 TMS APC superfamily repeat units, sometimes with extra TMSs at the ends, the variations being greatest within the CstA family. New, functionally characterized members transport amino acids, peptides, and inorganic anions or cations. Except for anions, these are typical substrates of established APC superfamily members. Active site TMSs are rich in glycyl residues in variable but conserved constellations. This work expands the APC superfamily and our understanding of its topological variations.
The Agouti-like peptides including AgRP, ASIP and the teleost-specific A2 (ASIP2 and AgRP2) peptides have potent and diverse functional roles in feeding, pigmentation and background adaptation mechanisms. There are contradictory theories about the evolution of the Agouti-like peptide family as well the nomenclature. Here we performed comprehensive mining and annotation of vertebrate Agouti-like sequences. We identified A2 sequences from salmon, trout, seabass, cod, cichlid, tilapia, gilt-headed sea bream, Antarctic toothfish, rainbow smelt, common carp, channel catfish and interestingly also in lobe-finned fish. Moreover, we surprisingly found eight novel homologues from the kingdom of arthropods and three from fungi, some sharing the characteristic C-x(6)-C-C motif which are present in the Agouti-like sequences, as well as approximate sequence length (130 amino acids), positioning of the motif sequence and sharing of exon-intron structures that are similar to the other Agouti-like peptides providing further support for the common origin of these sequences. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the AgRP sequences cluster basally in the tree, suggesting that these sequences split from a cluster containing both the ASIP and the A2 sequences. We also used a novel approach to determine the statistical evidence for synteny, a sinusoidal Hough transform pattern recognition technique. Our analysis shows that the teleost AgRP2 resides in a chromosomal region that has synteny with Hsa 8, but we found no convincing synteny between the regions that A2, AgRP and ASIP reside in, which would support that the Agouti-like peptides were formed by whole genome tetraplodization events. Here we suggest that the Agouti-like peptide genes were formed through classical subsequent gene duplications where the AgRP is the most distantly related to the three other members of that group, first splitting from a common ancestor to ASIP and A2, and then later the A2 split from ASIP followed by a split resulting in ASIP2 and AgRP2.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.