Primitive reflexes can reappear with diseases of the brain, particularly those affecting the frontal lobes. Most studies on primitive reflexes have reported an association between such reflexes and brain damage, and the clinical symptoms of dementia. These reflexes can also be present during eating; however, their effects on eating function are difficult to evaluate. The purpose of the present study was to identify the frequency at which primitive reflexes reappear in elderly people, and to determine the effects that such reflexes have on eating function, nutritional status and prognosis.
Speech-language pathologists use surface electromyography biofeedback as a tool to facilitate swallowing treatment, particularly to improve swallowing strength and coordination. The present study sought to establish normative data of swallowing muscular activity as measured by surface electrodes in order to compare the performance of patients with dysphagia to normal swallow performance.
A new tongue pressure device consisting of a simple and safe disposable probe and manometer has been developed. This report describes a study that examined the validity of the new device, comparing it to a widely used tongue pressure manometer, the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI), and to the stable adhered three air-filled bulbs manometry system. The first test compared maximum tongue pressure measured with the new device and the IOPI (13 male, 9 female, 25.0 years). The second test compared maximum tongue pressure and swallowing tongue pressure measured with the new device and the three-bulb device (13 male, 9 female, 31.0 years). Significant correlations of maximum tongue pressure were found between the new device and the IOPI in the first test (p < 0.05). In the second test, significant correlations of maximum tongue pressure were found between the new device at the anterior and middle sensors (p < 0.05) but not at the posterior sensor of the three-bulb device. Significant correlations of swallowing tongue pressure between the new device and the three-bulb device were found (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that the measurements by the new simple tongue pressure device are closely equivalent to those of the IOPI and three-bulb devices, demonstrating that the new device is capable of accurately measuring the pressure generated by the whole tongue.
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