JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa metalloendopeptidase, Mep72, a member of the Vfr regulon.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vfr (the virulence factor regulator) enhances P. aeruginosa virulence by positively regulating the expression of numerous virulence genes. A previous microarray analysis identified numerous genes positively regulated by Vfr in strain PAK, including the yet uncharacterized PA2782 and PA2783.
Related JoVE Video
A novel subtilisin-like serine protease of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is induced by thyroid hormone and degrades antimicrobial peptides.
Fungal Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B. dendrobatidis), a chytrid fungus, is one of the major contributors to the global amphibian decline. The fungus infects both tadpoles and adult amphibians. Tadpoles are infected in their keratinized mouthparts, and infected adults exhibit hyperkeratosis and loss of righting reflex. Infections of adults may result in death from cardiac arrest in susceptible species. Thyroid hormone plays a key role in amphibian metamorphosis. The occurrence of B. dendrobatidis in tadpoles during metamorphosis may result in exposure of the fungus to host morphogens including TH. This exposure may induce gene expression in the fungus contributing to invasion and colonization of the host. Here, we demonstrate movement of fungal zoospores toward TH. Additionally, expression of a subtilisin-like serine protease is up-regulated in B. dendrobatidis cells exposed to TH. A gene encoding this protease was cloned from B. dendrobatidis and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was partially purified and characterized. The similarity between subtilases of human dermatophytes and the B. dendrobatidis subtilisin-like serine protease suggests the importance of this enzyme in B. dendrobatidis pathogenicity. Cleavage of frog skin antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) by this B. dendrobatidis subtilisin-like serine protease suggests a role for this enzyme in fungal survival and colonization.
Related JoVE Video
Absorption, distribution, and biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in B6C3F1 mice (Mus musculus).
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Absorption, distribution, and biotransformation are 3 critical aspects affecting toxicant action in animals. In the present study, B6C3F1 mice (Mus musculus) were exposed for 28 d to contaminated feed that contained 1 of 5 different hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) concentrations: 0?mg/kg, 0.5?mg/kg, 5?mg/kg, 50?mg/kg, and 500?mg/kg. The authors quantified RDX and its reductive transformation products hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in the stomach, intestine, plasma, liver, and brain of these mice. Average RDX concentrations followed a dose-dependent pattern for all matrices tested. No controls had concentrations above limits of detection. Average RDX concentrations in tissues of exposed mice ranged from 11.1?ng/mL to 182?ng/mL, 25.6?ng/g to 3319?ng/g, 123?ng/g to 233?ng/g, 144?ng/g to 35?900?ng/g, and 51.1?ng/g to 2697?ng/g in the plasma, brain, liver, stomach, and intestine, respectively. A considerable amount of RDX was present in the brain, especially in the highest-exposure group. This is consistent with the widely observed central nervous system effects caused by ?-aminobutyric acid inhibition associated with RDX exposure. N-nitroso metabolites of RDX were also present in tested tissues in a dose-dependent pattern. Average MNX concentrations in the stomachs of mice exposed to RDX ranged from nondetectable in control exposures to 490?ng/g in the highest-exposure groups. In the brain, MNX accumulated at a maximum average concentration of 165.1?ng/g, suggesting the potential formation of MNX from RDX within the brain. At higher exposures, DNX and TNX were present in the stomach, plasma, and brain of mice. The presence of RDX metabolites at notable amounts in different tissues suggests that RDX can transform into its N-nitroso metabolites in vivo by an undefined mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
Role of Vfr in regulating exotoxin A production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) production depends on the virulence-factor regulator Vfr. Recent evidence indicates that the P. aeruginosa iron-starvation sigma factor PvdS also enhances ETA production through the ETA-regulatory gene regA. Mutants defective in vfr, regA and pvdS, plasmids that overexpress these genes individually and lacZ transcriptional/translational fusion plasmids were utilized to examine the relationship between vfr, regA and pvdS in regulating P. aeruginosa ETA production. ETA concentration and regA expression were reduced significantly in PAODeltavfr, but pvdS expression was not affected. Overexpression of Vfr produced a limited increase in ETA production in PAODeltapvdS, but not PAODeltaregA. Additionally, overexpression of either RegA or PvdS did not enhance ETA production in PAODeltavfr. RT-PCR analysis showed that iron did not affect the accumulation of vfr mRNA in PAO1. These results suggest that: (i) Vfr enhances toxA expression in PAO1 both directly and indirectly through regA, but not through pvdS; (ii) vfr expression is not regulated by iron; and (iii) both Vfr and PvdS cooperate in the presence of RegA to achieve a maximum level of toxA expression.
Related JoVE Video
The role of secretion systems and small molecules in soft-rot enterobacteriaceae pathogenicity.
Annu Rev Phytopathol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soft-rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE), which belong to the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya, consist mainly of broad host-range pathogens that cause wilt, rot, and blackleg diseases on a wide range of plants. They are found in plants, insects, soil, and water in agricultural regions worldwide. SRE encode all six known protein secretion systems present in gram-negative bacteria, and these systems are involved in attacking host plants and competing bacteria. They also produce and detect multiple types of small molecules to coordinate pathogenesis, modify the plant environment, attack competing microbes, and perhaps to attract insect vectors. This review integrates new information about the role protein secretion and detection and production of ions and small molecules play in soft-rot pathogenicity.
Related JoVE Video
Microbiome analysis among bats describes influences of host phylogeny, life history, physiology and geography.
Mol. Ecol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metagenomic methods provide an experimental approach to inform the relationships between hosts and their microbial inhabitants. Previous studies have provided the conceptual realization that microbiomes are dynamic among hosts and the intimacy of relation between micro- and macroorganisms. Here, we present an intestinal microflora community analysis for members of the order Chiroptera and investigate the relative influence of variables in shaping observed microbiome relationships. The variables ranged from those considered to have ancient and long-term influences (host phylogeny and life history) to the relatively transient variable of host reproductive condition. In addition, collection locality data, representing the geographic variable, were included in analyses. Results indicate a complex influence of variables in shaping sample relationships in which signal for host phylogeny is recovered at broad taxonomic levels (family), whereas intrafamilial analyses disclosed various degrees of resolution for the remaining variables. Although cumulative probabilities of assignment indicated both reproductive condition and geography influenced relationships, comparison of ecological measures among groups revealed statistical differences between most variable classifications. For example, ranked ecological diversity was associated with host phylogeny (deeper coalescences among families were associated with more microfloral diversity), dietary strategy (herbivory generally retained higher diversity than carnivory) and reproductive condition (reproductively active females displayed more diverse microflora than nonreproductive conditions). Overall, the results of this study describe a complex process shaping microflora communities of wildlife species as well as provide avenues for future research that will further inform the nature of symbiosis between microflora communities and hosts.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.