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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
rpoS regulated core genes involved in the competitive fitness of Salmonella enterica Kentucky in the chicken intestine.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Salmonella Kentucky has become the most frequently isolated serovar from poultry in the United States over the past decade. Despite its prevalence in poultry, it causes few human illnesses in the U.S. The dominance of S. Kentucky in poultry does not appear to be due to single introduction of a clonal strain; and its reduced virulence appears to correlate with the absence of virulence genes grvA, sseI, sopE, and sodC1. S. Kentucky's prevalence in poultry is possibly attributed to its metabolic adaptation to the chicken cecum. While there were no difference in the growth rate of S. Kentucky and S. Typhimurium grown microaerophilicly in cecal contents, S. Kentucky persisted longer when co-infected with S. Typhimurium in chickens. The in vivo advantage that S. Kentucky has over S. Typhimurium appears to be due to differential regulation of core Salmonella genes via the stationary phase sigma factor, rpoS. Microarray analysis of Salmonella grown in cecal contents in vitro, identified several metabolic genes, motility and adherence genes differentially, activated in S. Kentucky. The contribution of four of these operons (mgl, prp, nar, and csg) to Salmonella colonization in chickens was assessed. Deletion of mgl and csg reduced S. Kentucky persistence in competition studies in chickens infected with wild-type and mutant strains. Subtle mutations affecting differential regulation of core Salmonella genes appear to be important in Salmonella's adaptation to its animal host and especially in S. Kentucky's emergence as the dominant serovar in poultry.
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Genomic epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis based on population structure of prevalent lineages.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains from 2 different sequencing platforms. Five major genetic lineages were recognized, which revealed possible patterns of geographic and epidemiologic distribution. Analyses on the population dynamics and evolutionary history estimated that major lineages emerged during the 17th-18th centuries and diversified during the 1920s and 1950s.
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High-throughput assay to phenotype Salmonella enterica Typhimurium association, invasion, and replication in macrophages.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Salmonella species are zoonotic pathogens and leading causes of food borne illnesses in humans and livestock. Understanding the mechanisms underlying Salmonella-host interactions are important to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of Salmonella infection. The Gentamicin protection assay to phenotype Salmonella association, invasion and replication in phagocytic cells was adapted to allow high-throughput screening to define the roles of deletion mutants of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in host interactions using RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Under this protocol, the variance in measurements is significantly reduced compared to the standard protocol, because wild-type and multiple mutant strains can be tested in the same culture dish and at the same time. The use of multichannel pipettes increases the throughput and enhances precision. Furthermore, concerns related to using less host cells per well in 96-well culture dish were addressed. Here, the protocol of the modified in vitro Salmonella invasion assay using phagocytic cells was successfully employed to phenotype 38 individual Salmonella deletion mutants for association, invasion and intracellular replication. The in vitro phenotypes are presented, some of which were subsequently confirmed to have in vivo phenotypes in an animal model. Thus, the modified, standardized assay to phenotype Salmonella association, invasion and replication in macrophages with high-throughput capacity could be utilized more broadly to study bacterial-host interactions.
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The small RNA RyhB homologs from Salmonella typhimurium participate in the response to S-nitrosoglutathione-induced stress.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Typically, the expression of sRNAs is activated in response to environmental stimuli in order to regulate gene expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms. In the present work we show that the Salmonellatyphimurium paralogous sRNAs RyhB-1 and RyhB-2 are induced in response to the nitrosating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Inactivation of these sRNAs decreased S. typhimurium resistance to GSNO and increased the levels of nitrosylated proteins. These results prompted us to evaluate a possible role of these sRNAs in nitrosative stress resistance. RNA profiling was used as a screen to identify novel RyhB-1 and RyhB-2 regulated targets. A subset of genes was filtered based on their potential role in the response to nitrosative stress and their expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in wild type, single and double mutant strains (?ryhB1, ?ryhB2 and ?ryhB1 ?ryhB2) treated with GSNO. In response to GSNO RyhB-1 and RyhB-2 negatively regulate the expression of the genes cyoABC (cytochrome bo oxidase), cydB (cytochrome bd oxidase), cybC (cytochrome b-562), and positively regulate the nirBCD operon (nitrite reductase system). Together, these results suggest that RyhB-1 and RyhB-2 finely tune the expression of genes coding for cytochrome oxidases and the nitrate reductase system, allowing the cell to cope with GSNO-induced stress.
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Identification of a Salmonella ancillary copper detoxification mechanism by a comparative analysis of the genome-wide transcriptional response to copper and zinc excess.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Copper and zinc are essential metal ions, but toxic in excess. Bacteria have evolved different strategies to control their intracellular concentrations, ensuring proper supply while avoiding toxicity, including the induction of metal-specific as well as non-specific mechanisms. We compared the transcriptional profiles of Salmonella Typhimurium after exposure to either copper or zinc ions in both rich and minimal media. Besides metal-specific regulatory networks many global stress-response pathways react to an excess of either of these metal ions. Copper excess affects both zinc and iron homeostasis by inducing transcription of these metal-specific regulons. In addition to the control of zinc-specific regulons, zinc excess affects the Cpx regulon and the ?(E) envelope-stress responses. Finally, novel metal-specific upregulated genes were detected including a new copper-detoxification pathway that involves the siderophore enterobactin and the outer-membrane protein TolC. This work sheds light onto the transcriptional landscape of Salmonella after copper or zinc overload, and discloses a new mechanism of copper detoxification.
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Integrative analysis of Salmonellosis in Israel reveals association of Salmonella enterica Serovar 9,12:l,v:- with extraintestinal infections, dissemination of endemic S. enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 biotypes, and severe underreporting of outbreaks.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Salmonella enterica is the leading etiologic agent of bacterial food-borne outbreaks worldwide. This ubiquitous species contains more than 2,600 serovars that may differ in their host specificity, clinical manifestations, and epidemiology. To characterize salmonellosis epidemiology in Israel and to study the association of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars with invasive infections, 48,345 Salmonella cases reported and serotyped at the National Salmonella Reference Center between 1995 and 2012 were analyzed. A quasi-Poisson regression was used to identify irregular clusters of illness, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in conjunction with whole-genome sequencing was applied to molecularly characterize strains of interest. Three hundred twenty-nine human salmonellosis clusters were identified, representing an annual average of 23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 20 to 26) potential outbreaks. We show that the previously unsequenced S. enterica serovar 9,12:l,v:- belongs to the B clade of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, and we show its frequent association with extraintestinal infections, compared to other NTS serovars. Furthermore, we identified the dissemination of two prevalent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 clones in Israel, which are genetically distinct from other global DT104 isolates. Accumulatively, these findings indicate a severe underreporting of Salmonella outbreaks in Israel and provide insights into the epidemiology and genomics of prevalent serovars, responsible for recurring illness.
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Role of the adjacent stroma cells in prostate cancer development and progression: synergy between TGF-? and IGF signaling.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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This review postulates the role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I/IGF-II) signaling in stromal cells during prostate carcinogenesis and progression. It is known that stromal cells have a reciprocal relationship to the adjacent epithelial cells in the maintenance of structural and functional integrity of the prostate. An interaction between TGF-? and IGF signaling occupies a central part in this stromal-epithelial interaction. An increase in TGF-? and IGF signaling will set off the imbalance of this relationship and will lead to cancer development. A continuous input from TGF-? and IGF in the tumor microenvironment will result in cancer progression. Understanding of these events can help prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of prostate cancer.
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Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Strains Isolated from Agricultural Sources.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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We report the draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strain CVM42234, isolated from chick feed in 2012, and S. Cubana strain 76814, isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 bp, respectively.
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Identification of Novel Factors Involved in Modulating Motility of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium can move through liquid using swimming motility, and across a surface by swarming motility. We generated a library of targeted deletion mutants in Salmonella Typhimurium strain ATCC14028, primarily in genes specific to Salmonella, that we have previously described. In the work presented here, we screened each individual mutant from this library for the ability to move away from the site of inoculation on swimming and swarming motility agar. Mutants in genes previously described as important for motility, such as flgF, motA, cheY are do not move away from the site of inoculation on plates in our screens, validating our approach. Mutants in 130 genes, not previously known to be involved in motility, had altered movement of at least one type, 9 mutants were severely impaired for both types of motility, while 33 mutants appeared defective on swimming motility plates but not swarming motility plates, and 49 mutants had reduced ability to move on swarming agar but not swimming agar. Finally, 39 mutants were determined to be hypermotile in at least one of the types of motility tested. Both mutants that appeared non-motile and hypermotile on plates were assayed for expression levels of FliC and FljB on the bacterial surface and many of them had altered levels of these proteins. The phenotypes we report are the first phenotypes ever assigned to 74 of these open reading frames, as they are annotated as 'hypothetical genes' in the Typhimurium genome.
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Defined single-gene and multi-gene deletion mutant collections in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We constructed two collections of targeted single gene deletion (SGD) mutants and two collections of targeted multi-gene deletion (MGD) mutants in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium 14028s. The SGD mutant collections contain (1), 3517 mutants in which a single gene is replaced by a cassette containing a kanamycin resistance (KanR) gene oriented in the sense direction (SGD-K), and (2), 3376 mutants with a chloramphenicol resistance gene (CamR) oriented in the antisense direction (SGD-C). A combined total of 3773 individual genes were deleted across these SGD collections. The MGD collections contain mutants bearing deletions of contiguous regions of three or more genes and include (3), 198 mutants spanning 2543 genes replaced by a KanR cassette (MGD-K), and (4), 251 mutants spanning 2799 genes replaced by a CamR cassette (MGD-C). Overall, 3476 genes were deleted in at least one MGD collection. The collections with different antibiotic markers permit construction of all viable combinations of mutants in the same background. Together, the libraries allow hierarchical screening of MGDs for different phenotypic followed by screening of SGDs within the target MGD regions. The mutants of these collections are stored at BEI Resources (www.beiresources.org) and publicly available.
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Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx) of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS) based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets) whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.
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Novel determinants of intestinal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium identified in bovine enteric infection.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Cattle are naturally infected with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and exhibit pathological features of enteric salmonellosis that closely resemble those in humans. Cattle are the most relevant model of gastrointestinal disease resulting from nontyphoidal Salmonella infection in an animal with an intact microbiota. We utilized this model to screen a library of targeted single-gene deletion mutants to identify novel genes of Salmonella Typhimurium required for survival during enteric infection. Fifty-four candidate mutants were strongly selected, including numerous mutations in genes known to be important for gastrointestinal survival of salmonellae. Three genes with previously unproven phenotypes in gastrointestinal infection were tested in bovine ligated ileal loops. Two of these mutants, STM3602 and STM3846, recapitulated the phenotype observed in the mutant pool. Complementation experiments successfully reversed the observed phenotypes, directly linking these genes to the colonization defects of the corresponding mutant strains. STM3602 encodes a putative transcriptional regulator that may be involved in phosphonate utilization, and STM3846 encodes a retron reverse transcriptase that produces a unique RNA-DNA hybrid molecule called multicopy single-stranded DNA. The genes identified in this study represent an exciting new class of virulence determinants for further mechanistic study to elucidate the strategies employed by Salmonella to survive within the small intestines of cattle.
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A sample selection strategy to boost the statistical power of signature detection in cancer expression profile studies.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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In case-control profiling studies, increasing the sample size does not always improve statistical power because the variance may also be increased if samples are highly heterogeneous. For instance, tumor samples used for gene expression assay are often heterogeneous in terms of tissue composition or mechanism of progression, or both; however, such variation is rarely taken into account in expression profiles analysis. We use a prostate cancer prognosis study as an example to demonstrate that solely recruiting more patient samples may not increase power for biomarker detection at all. In response to the heterogeneity due to mixed tissue, we developed a sample selection strategy termed Stepwise Enrichment by which samples are systematically culled based on tumor content and analyzed with t-test to determine an optimal threshold for tissue percentage. The selected tissue-percentage threshold identified the most significant data by balancing the sample size and the sample homogeneity; therefore, the power is substantially increased for identifying the prognostic biomarkers in prostate tumor epithelium cells as well as in prostate stroma cells. This strategy can be generally applied to profiling studies where the level of sample heterogeneity can be measured or estimated.
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The EAL domain containing protein STM2215 (rtn) is needed during Salmonella infection and has cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Salmonella?Typhimurium gene STM2215 (rtn) is conserved among many enterobacteriaceae. Mutants lacking STM2215 poorly colonized the liver and spleen in intraperitoneal infection of mice and poorly colonized the intestine and deeper tissues in oral infection. These phenotypes were complemented by a wild-type copy of STM2215 provided in trans. STM2215 deletion mutants grew normally in J774A.1 murine macrophages but were unable to invade Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells. Consistent with this finding, mutants in STM2215 produced lower levels of effectors of the TTSS-1. STM2215 is a predicted c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, but lacks identifiable sensor domains. Biochemical analysis of STM2215 determined that it is located in the inner membrane and has c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity in vitro dependent on an intact EAL motif. Unlike some previously identified members of this family, STM2215 did not affect motility, was expressed on plates, and in liquid media at late exponential and early stationary phase during growth. Defined mutations in STM2215 revealed that neither the predicted periplasmic domain nor the anchoring of the protein to the inner membrane is necessary for the activity of this protein during infection. However, the EAL domain of STM2215 is required during infection, suggesting that its phosphodiesterase activity is necessary during infection.
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Mapping and regulation of genes within Salmonella pathogenicity island 12 that contribute to in vivo fitness of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Salmonella pathogenicity island 12 (SPI-12) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a 15-kb region that encompasses genes STM2230 to STM2245 and encodes a remnant phage known to contribute to bacterial virulence. In mouse infection experiments and replication assays in macrophages, we demonstrated a role for four genes in SPI-12 for bacterial survival in the host. STM2239, a potential Q antiterminator, showed a prominent contribution to bacterial fitness. Transcriptional reporter experiments, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and immunoblotting demonstrated that the virulence regulator SsrB and STM2239 contribute to transcriptional activation of genes in SPI-12. SsrB was found to indirectly regulate this locus by transcriptional read-through from the sspH2 (STM2241) promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that STM2239 copurified with the promoter regulating STM2237, suggesting that STM2239 may function as an antiterminator to activate adjacent genes. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage genes may be adapted by pathogenic bacteria to improve fitness in the host.
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Natural products and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) signaling in cancer development and progression.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Actions of many herbal medicine products for cancer treatment are linked to an altered production of TGF-? in the target cells. An altered TGF-? production in the target cells will have profound effects on the patients. Therefore, it is important that we review the pros and cons of these products on cancer development and progression in terms of TGF-? signaling. It has been well established that TGF-? is growth inhibitory to benign cells or early stages of cancer cells but it is tumor promoting and metastatic for advanced malignancies. Further, many dietary components can alter gene-specific DNA methylation levels in systemic and in target tissues. Since TGF-? signaling in cancer is closely linked to the DNA methylation profiles, we also review the effect of dietary components on DNA methylation. In light of this knowledge, it is important to note that many natural products that can induce TGF-? production in the target cells may be beneficial in preventing cancer development but may be harmful for cancer patients, especially when they harbor advanced stage cancer. A discussion of the effect of herbal natural products on cancer can be divided into three categories. The first category of herbal medicine products will be those related to the induction of cancer as far as TGF-? is concerned. Since TGF-? is growth inhibitory and pro-apoptosis to benign cells, any herbal medication that can induce the production of TGF-? in the target cells will be beneficial to the patients. However, such herbal medicine may not necessarily be beneficial for patients with established and advanced cancer. The second category of herbal products will inhibit TGF-? signaling and will reduce TGF-? mediated growth promotion and metastasis in advanced cancers. For patients with established and advanced cancer, agents that can inhibit the production of TGF-? may also inhibit cancer growth and metastasis. Finally, the third category of herbal products has no impact on TGF-? signaling, such as lycopene.
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Use of a promiscuous, constitutively-active bacterial enhancer-binding protein to define the ??? (RpoN) regulon of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Sigma54, or RpoN, is an alternative ? factor found widely in eubacteria. A significant complication in analysis of the global ??? regulon in a bacterium is that the ??? RNA polymerase holoenzyme requires interaction with an active bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) to initiate transcription at a ???-dependent promoter. Many bacteria possess multiple bEBPs, which are activated by diverse environmental stimuli. In this work, we assess the ability of a promiscuous, constitutively-active bEBP-the AAA+ ATPase domain of DctD from Sinorhizobium meliloti-to activate transcription from all ???-dependent promoters for the characterization of the ??? regulon of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2.
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Evolutionary Genomics of Salmonella enterica Subspecies.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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ABSTRACT Six subspecies are currently recognized in Salmonella enterica. Subspecies I (subspecies enterica) is responsible for nearly all infections in humans and warm-blooded animals, while five other subspecies are isolated principally from cold-blooded animals. We sequenced 21 phylogenetically diverse strains, including two representatives from each of the previously unsequenced five subspecies and 11 diverse new strains from S. enterica subspecies enterica, to put this species into an evolutionary perspective. The phylogeny of the subspecies was partly obscured by abundant recombination events between lineages and a relatively short period of time within which subspeciation took place. Nevertheless, a variety of different tree-building methods gave congruent evolutionary tree topologies for subspeciation. A total of 285 gene families were identified that were recruited into subspecies enterica, and most of these are of unknown function. At least 2,807 gene families were identified in one or more of the other subspecies that are not found in subspecies I or Salmonella bongori. Among these gene families were 13 new candidate effectors and 7 new candidate fimbrial clusters. A third complete type III secretion system not present in subspecies enterica (I) isolates was found in both strains of subspecies salamae (II). Some gene families had complex taxonomies, such as the type VI secretion systems, which were recruited from four different lineages in five of six subspecies. Analysis of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rates indicated that the more-recently acquired regions in S. enterica are undergoing faster fixation rates than the rest of the genome. Recently acquired AT-rich regions, which often encode virulence functions, are under ongoing selection to maintain their high AT content. IMPORTANCE We have sequenced 21 new genomes which encompass the phylogenetic diversity of Salmonella, including strains of the previously unsequenced subspecies arizonae, diarizonae, houtenae, salamae, and indica as well as new diverse strains of subspecies enterica. We have deduced possible evolutionary paths traversed by this very important zoonotic pathogen and identified novel putative virulence factors that are not found in subspecies I. Gene families gained at the time of the evolution of subspecies enterica are of particular interest because they include mechanisms by which this subspecies adapted to warm-blooded hosts.
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Probing the ArcA regulon under aerobic/ROS conditions in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is part of the oxidative burst encountered upon internalization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) by phagocytic cells. It has previously been established that, the ArcAB two-component system plays a critical role in ROS resistance, but the genes regulated by the system remained undetermined to date. We therefore investigated the ArcA regulon in aerobically growing S. Typhimurium before and after exposure to H?O? by querying gene expression and other physiological changes in wild type and ?arcA strains.
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Virulence gene profiling and pathogenicity characterization of non-typhoidal Salmonella accounted for invasive disease in humans.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Human infection with non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS) infrequently causes invasive systemic disease and bacteremia. To understand better the nature of invasive NTS (iNTS), we studied the gene content and the pathogenicity of bacteremic strains from twelve serovars (Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Choleraesuis, Dublin, Virchow, Newport, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:- and Hadar). Comparative genomic hybridization using a Salmonella enterica microarray revealed a core of 3233 genes present in all of the iNTS strains, which include the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1-5, 9, 13, 14; five fimbrial operons (bcf, csg, stb, sth, sti); three colonization factors (misL, bapA, sinH); and the invasion gene, pagN. In the iNTS variable genome, we identified 16 novel genomic islets; various NTS virulence factors; and six typhoid-associated virulence genes (tcfA, cdtB, hlyE, taiA, STY1413, STY1360), displaying a wider distribution among NTS than was previously known. Characterization of the bacteremic strains in C3H/HeN mice showed clear differences in disease manifestation. Previously unreported characterization of serovars Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Bredeney and Virchow in the mouse model showed low ability to elicit systemic disease, but a profound and elongated shedding of serovars Schwarzengrund and 9,12:l,v:- (as well as Enteritidis and Heidelberg) due to chronic infection of the mouse. Phenotypic comparison in macrophages and epithelial cell lines demonstrated a remarkable intra-serovar variation, but also showed that S. Typhimurium bacteremic strains tend to present lower intracellular growth than gastroenteritis isolates. Collectively, our data demonstrated a common core of virulence genes, which might be required for invasive salmonellosis, but also an impressive degree of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, highlighting that bacteremia is a complex phenotype, which cannot be attributed merely to an enhanced invasion or intracellular growth of a particular strain.
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A single step multiplex PCR for identification of six diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and Salmonella.
Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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E. coli is generally a commensal but includes some highly pathogenic strains carrying additional genes in plasmids and/or the chromosome. Based on these genes the pathogenic strains are divided into pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC) and diffusely adherent (DAEC) E. coli. Here, previously developed multiplex PCR strategies for these strains were integrated into one single step multiplex that differentiates all these E. coli pathotypes, usually based on multiple characteristic PCR products. This multiplex PCR works reliably for colony PCR. Two additional markers were added: one to detect most Enterobacteriacea, which acts as a positive control for successful PCR, and one to distinguish Salmonella. The multiplex correctly classified a set of 45 reference strains by colony PCR and 71 (45+26) strains by in silico PCR. It was then used to interrogate 44 clinical strains from bovine hosts resulting in detection of EAEC and DAEC determinants.
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The intestinal fatty acid propionate inhibits Salmonella invasion through the post-translational control of HilD.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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To cause disease, Salmonella must invade the intestinal epithelium employing genes encoded within Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI1). We show here that propionate, a fatty acid abundant in the intestine of animals, repressed SPI1 at physiologically relevant concentration and pH, reducing expression of SPI1 transcriptional regulators and consequently decreasing expression and secretion of effector proteins, leading to reduced bacterial penetration of cultured epithelial cells. Essential to repression was hilD, which occupies the apex of the regulatory cascade within SPI1, as loss of only this gene among those of the regulon prevented repression of SPI1 transcription by propionate. Regulation through hilD, however, was achieved through the control of neither transcription nor translation. Instead, growth of Salmonella in propionate significantly reduced the stability of HilD. Extending protein half-life using a Lon protease mutant demonstrated that protein stability itself did not dictate the effects of propionate and suggested modification of HilD with subsequent degradation as the means of action. Furthermore, repression was significantly lessened in a mutant unable to produce propionyl-CoA, while further metabolism of propionyl-CoA appeared not to be required. These results suggest a mechanism of control of Salmonella virulence in which HilD is post-translationally modified using the high-energy intermediate propionyl-CoA.
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Consequences of disrupting Salmonella AI-2 signaling on interactions within soft rots.
Phytopathology
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Within soft rots, Salmonella spp. reach population densities 10- to 100-fold higher than within intact plants. The hypothesis that Salmonella spp. exchange AI-2 signals with Pectobacterium carotovorum to increase its competitive fitness was tested using mutants involved in AI-2 production (luxS) or perception (lsrACDBF or lsrG). Co-infections of a wild-type Salmonella sp. and its AI-2 mutants (at ?3 to 10(4)) were established in green or red tomato (FL 47 or Campari for 3 or 5 days) as well as tomato co-infected with Pectobacterium (at 10(9)) or its luxS mutant. There were no significant differences in the competitive fitness of Salmonella, indicating that AI-2 signaling is not a major input in the interactions between these organisms under the tested conditions. A Salmonella lsrG::tnpR-lacZ resolvase in vivo expression technology (RIVET) reporter, constructed to monitor AI-2-related gene expression, responded strongly to the luxS deletion but only weakly to external sources of AI-2. Growth in soft rots generally decreased RIVET resolution; however, the effect was not correlated to the luxS genotype of the Pectobacterium sp. The results of this study show that AI-2 signaling offers no significant benefit to Salmonella spp. in this model of colonization of tomato or soft rots.
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Characterization of an acid-inducible sulfatase in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Sulfatases of enteric bacteria can provide access to heavily sulfated mucosal glycans. In this study, we show that aslA (STM0084) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encodes a sulfatase that requires mildly acidic pH for its expression and activity. AslA is not regulated by sulfur compounds or tyramine but requires the EnvZ-OmpR and PhoPQ regulatory systems, which play an important role in pathogenesis.
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Genome-wide analysis of histone H3 acetylation patterns in AML identifies PRDX2 as an epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor gene.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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With the use of ChIP on microarray assays in primary leukemia samples, we report that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts exhibit significant alterations in histone H3 acetylation (H3Ac) levels at > 1000 genomic loci compared with CD34(+) progenitor cells. Importantly, core promoter regions tended to have lower H3Ac levels in AML compared with progenitor cells, which suggested that a large number of genes are epigenetically silenced in AML. Intriguingly, we identified peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) as a novel potential tumor suppressor gene in AML. H3Ac was decreased at the PRDX2 gene promoter in AML, which correlated with low mRNA and protein expression. We also observed DNA hypermethylation at the PRDX2 promoter in AML. Low protein expression of the antioxidant PRDX2 gene was clinically associated with poor prognosis in patients with AML. Functionally, PRDX2 acted as inhibitor of myeloid cell growth by reducing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in response to cytokines. Forced PRDX2 expression inhibited c-Myc-induced leukemogenesis in vivo on BM transplantation in mice. Taken together, epigenome-wide analyses of H3Ac in AML led to the identification of PRDX2 as an epigenetically silenced growth suppressor, suggesting a possible role of ROS in the malignant phenotype in AML.
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Molecular and cellular characterization of a Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi a outbreak strain and the human immune response to infection.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Enteric fever is an invasive life-threatening systemic disease caused by the Salmonella enterica human-adapted serovars Typhi and Paratyphi. Increasing incidence of infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and the spreading of its antibiotic-resistant derivates pose a significant health concern in some areas of the world. Herein, we describe a molecular and phenotypic characterization of an S. Paratyphi A strain accounted for a recent paratyphoid outbreak in Nepal that affected at least 37 travelers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the outbreak isolates revealed one genetic clone (pulsotype), confirming a single infecting source. Genetic profiling of the outbreak strain demonstrated the contribution of specific bacteriophages as a prime source of genetic diversity among clinical isolates of S. Paratyphi A. Phenotypic characterization in comparison with the S. Paratyphi A ATCC 9150 reference sequenced strain showed differences in flagellar morphology and increased abilities of the outbreak strain with respect to its motility, invasion into nonphagocytic cells, intracellular multiplication, survival within macrophages, and higher induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) secreted by host cells. Collectively, these differences suggest an enhanced virulence potential of this strain and demonstrate an interesting phenotypic variation among S. Paratyphi A isolates. In vivo profiling of 16 inflammatory cytokines in patients infected with the outbreak strain revealed a common profile of a remarkable gamma interferon (IFN-?) induction together with elevated concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-15, but not IL-12, which was previously demonstrated as elevated in nontyphoidal Salmonella infections. This apparent profile implies a distinct immune response to paratyphoid infections.
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Infection of mice by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis involves additional genes that are absent in the genome of serovar Typhimurium.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes a systemic, typhoid-like infection in newly hatched poultry and mice. In the present study, a library of 54,000 transposon mutants of S. Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) strain P125109 was screened for mutants deficient in the in vivo colonization of the BALB/c mouse model using a microarray-based negative-selection screening. Mutants in genes known to contribute to systemic infection (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 [SPI-2], aro, rfa, rfb, phoP, and phoQ) and enteric infection (e.g., SPI-1 and SPI-5) in this and other Salmonella serovars displayed colonization defects in our assay. In addition, a strong attenuation was observed for mutants in genes and genomic islands that are not present in S. Typhimurium or in most other Salmonella serovars. These genes include a type I restriction/modification system (SEN4290 to SEN4292), the peg fimbrial operon (SEN2144A to SEN2145B), a putative pathogenicity island (SEN1970 to SEN1999), and a type VI secretion system remnant SEN1001, encoding a hypothetical protein containing a lysin motif (LysM) domain associated with peptidoglycan binding. Proliferation defects for mutants in these individual genes and in exemplar genes for each of these clusters were confirmed in competitive infections with wild-type S. Enteritidis. A ?SEN1001 mutant was defective for survival within RAW264.7 murine macrophages in vitro. Complementation assays directly linked the SEN1001 gene to phenotypes observed in vivo and in vitro. The genes identified here may perform novel virulence functions not characterized in previous Salmonella models.
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Salmonella exploits Arl8B-directed kinesin activity to promote endosome tubulation and cell-to-cell transfer.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium establishes a replicative niche, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), in host cells. Here we demonstrate that these bacteria exploit the function of Arl8B, an Arf family GTPase, during infection. Following infection, Arl8B localized to SCVs and to tubulated endosomes that extended along microtubules in the host cell cytoplasm. Arl8B(+) tubules partially colocalized with LAMP1 and SCAMP3. Formation of LAMP1(+) tubules (the Salmonella-induced filaments phenotype; SIFs) required Arl8B expression. SIFs formation is known to require the activity of kinesin-1. Here we find that Arl8B is required for kinesin-1 recruitment to SCVs. We have previously shown that SCVs undergo centrifugal movement to the cell periphery at 24 h post infection and undergo cell-to-cell transfer to infect neighbouring cells, and that both phenotypes require kinesin-1 activity. Here we demonstrate that Arl8B is required for migration of the SCV to the cell periphery 24 h after infection and for cell-to-cell transfer of bacteria to neighbouring cells. These results reveal a novel host factor co-opted by S. Typhimurium to manipulate the host endocytic pathway and to promote the spread of infection within a host.
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Hydrogen-stimulated carbon acquisition and conservation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can utilize molecular hydrogen for growth and amino acid transport during anaerobic growth. Via microarray we identified H(2) gas-affected gene expression changes in Salmonella. The addition of H(2) caused altered expression of 597 genes, of which 176 genes were upregulated and 421 were downregulated. The significantly H(2)-upregulated genes include those that encode proteins involved in the transport of iron, manganese, amino acids, nucleosides, and sugars. Genes encoding isocitrate lyase (aceA) and malate synthase (aceB), both involved in the carbon conserving glyoxylate pathway, and genes encoding the enzymes of the d-glucarate and d-glycerate pathways (gudT, gudD, garR, garL, garK) are significantly upregulated by H(2). Cells grown with H(2) showed markedly increased AceA enzyme activity compared to cells without H(2). Mutant strains with deletion of either aceA or aceB had reduced H(2)-dependent growth rates. Genes encoding the glutamine-specific transporters (glnH, glnP, glnQ) were upregulated by H(2), and cells grown with H(2) showed increased [(14)C]glutamine uptake. Similarly, the mannose uptake system genes (manX, manY) were upregulated by H(2,) and cells grown with H(2) showed about 2.0-fold-increased [(14)C]d-mannose uptake compared to the cells grown without H(2). Hydrogen stimulates the expression of genes involved in nutrient and carbon acquisition and carbon-conserving pathways, linking carbon and energy metabolism to sustain H(2)-dependent growth.
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The Fur regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium: identification of new Fur targets.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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The Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcriptional regulator that controls iron homeostasis in bacteria. Although the regulatory role of Fur in Escherichia coli is well characterized, most of the studies were conducted under routine culture conditions, i.e., in ambient oxygen concentration. To reveal potentially novel aspects of the Fur regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under oxygen conditions similar to that encountered in the host, we compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s) and its isogenic ?fur strain under anaerobic conditions.
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The accuracy of survival time prediction for patients with glioma is improved by measuring mitotic spindle checkpoint gene expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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Identification of gene expression changes that improve prediction of survival time across all glioma grades would be clinically useful. Four Affymetrix GeneChip datasets from the literature, containing data from 771 glioma samples representing all WHO grades and eight normal brain samples, were used in an ANOVA model to screen for transcript changes that correlated with grade. Observations were confirmed and extended using qPCR assays on RNA derived from 38 additional glioma samples and eight normal samples for which survival data were available. RNA levels of eight major mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes (BUB1, BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD1L1, MAD2L1, CDC20, TTK) significantly correlated with glioma grade and six also significantly correlated with survival time. In particular, the level of BUB1B expression was highly correlated with survival time (p<0.0001), and significantly outperformed all other measured parameters, including two standards; WHO grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67) labeling index. Measurement of the expression levels of a small set of SAC genes may complement histological grade and other clinical parameters for predicting survival time.
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Olympus PlasmaButton transurethral vaporization technique for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Can J Urol
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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This article will describe an efficient and effective method of using Olympus PlasmaButton (Olympus, Southborough, MA, USA) for transurethral vaporizations of the prostate (TUVP).
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Diagnosis of prostate cancer using differentially expressed genes in stroma.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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More than one million prostate biopsies are performed in the United States every year. A failure to find cancer is not definitive in a significant percentage of patients due to the presence of equivocal structures or continuing clinical suspicion. We have identified gene expression changes in stroma that can detect tumor nearby. We compared gene expression profiles of 13 biopsies containing stroma near tumor and 15 biopsies from volunteers without prostate cancer. About 3,800 significant expression changes were found and thereafter filtered using independent expression profiles to eliminate possible age-related genes and genes expressed at detectable levels in tumor cells. A stroma-specific classifier for nearby tumor was constructed on the basis of 114 candidate genes and tested on 364 independent samples including 243 tumor-bearing samples and 121 nontumor samples (normal biopsies, normal autopsies, remote stroma, as well as stroma within a few millimeters of tumor). The classifier predicted the tumor status of patients using tumor-free samples with an average accuracy of 97% (sensitivity = 98% and specificity = 88%) whereas classifiers trained with sets of 100 randomly generated genes had no diagnostic value. These results indicate that the prostate cancer microenvironment exhibits reproducible changes useful for categorizing the presence of tumor in patients when a prostate sample is derived from near the tumor but does not contain any recognizable tumor.
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Analysis of the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that must successfully adapt to the broad fluctuations in the concentration of dissolved dioxygen encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, ArcA (Aerobic Respiratory Control) helps the cells to sense and respond to the presence of dioxygen. The global role of ArcA in E. coli is well characterized; however, little is known about its role in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium.
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Experimental annotation of post-translational features and translated coding regions in the pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Complete and accurate genome annotation is crucial for comprehensive and systematic studies of biological systems. However, determining protein-coding genes for most new genomes is almost completely performed by inference using computational predictions with significant documented error rates (> 15%). Furthermore, gene prediction programs provide no information on biologically important post-translational processing events critical for protein function.
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Abrogation of the twin arginine transport system in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium leads to colonization defects during infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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TatC (STM3975) is a highly conserved component of the Twin Arginine Transport (Tat) systems that is required for transport of folded proteins across the inner membrane in gram-negative bacteria. We previously identified a ?tatC mutant as defective in competitive infections with wild type ATCC14028 during systemic infection of Salmonella-susceptible BALB/c mice. Here we confirm these results and show that the ?tatC mutant is internalized poorly by cultured J774-A.1 mouse macrophages a phenotype that may be related to the systemic infection defect. This mutant is also defective for short-term intestinal and systemic colonization after oral infection of BALB/c mice and is shed in reduced numbers in feces from orally infected Salmonella-resistant (CBA/J) mice. We show that the ?tatC mutant is highly sensitive to bile acids perhaps resulting in the defect in intestinal infection that we observe. Finally, the ?tatC mutant has an unusual combination of motility phenotypes in Salmonella; it is severely defective for swimming motility but is able to swarm well. The ?tatC mutant has a lower amount of flagellin on the bacterial surface during swimming motility but normal levels under swarming conditions.
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The CpxR/CpxA two-component system up-regulates two Tat-dependent peptidoglycan amidases to confer bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptide.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2010
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We demonstrate that the twin arginine translocation (Tat) system contributes to bacterial resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). Our results show that a deletion at the tatC gene, which encodes a subunit of the Tat complex, caused Salmonella and Escherichia coli to become susceptible to protamine. We screened chromosomal loci that encode known and predicted Tat-dependent proteins and found that two N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases, encoded by amiA and amiC, elevated bacterial resistance to protamine and ?-helical peptides magainin 2 and melittin but not to ?-sheet defensin HNP-1 and lipopeptide polymyxin B. Genetic analysis suggests that transcription of both amiA and amiC loci in Salmonella is up-regulated by the CpxR/CpxA two-component system when nlpE is overexpressed. A footprinting analysis reveals that CpxR protein can interact with amiA and amiC promoters at the CpxR box, which is localized between the predicted -10 and -35 regions but present on different strands in these two genes. In addition, our results show that activation of the CpxR/CpxA system can facilitate protamine resistance because nlpE overexpression elevates this resistance in the wild-type strain but not the cpxR deletion mutant. Thus, we uncover a new transcriptional regulation pathway in which the Cpx envelope stress response system modulates the integrity of the cell envelope in part by controlling peptidoglycan amidase activity, which confers bacterial resistance to protamine and ?-helical CAMPs. Our studies have important implications for understanding transcriptional regulation of peptidoglycan metabolism and also provide new insights into the role of the bacterial envelope in CAMP resistance.
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Stem cell-like micro-RNA signature driven by Myc in aggressive liver cancer.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2010
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Myc activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatoblastoma (HB), a rare embryonal neoplasm derived from liver progenitor cells. Here, microRNA (miR) expression profiling of 65 HBs evidenced differential patterns related to developmental stage and Myc activity. Undifferentiated aggressive HBs overexpressed the miR-371-3 cluster with concomitant down-regulation of the miR-100/let-7a-2/miR-125b-1 cluster, evoking an ES cell expression profile. ChIP and Myc inhibition assays in hepatoma cells demonstrated that both miR clusters are regulated by Myc in an opposite manner. We show that the two miR clusters exert antagonistic effects on cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. Moreover, their combined deregulation cooperated in modulating the hepatic tumor phenotype, implicating stem cell-like regulation of Myc-dependent miRs in poorly differentiated HBs. Importantly, a four-miR signature representative of these clusters efficiently stratified HB patients, and when applied to 241 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), it identified invasive tumors with a poor prognosis. Our data argue that Myc-driven reprogramming of miR expression patterns contributes to the aggressive phenotype of liver tumors originating from hepatic progenitor cells.
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Humanized nonobese diabetic-scid IL2rgammanull mice are susceptible to lethal Salmonella Typhi infection.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever, is host-adapted to humans and unable to cause disease in mice. Here, we show that S. Typhi can replicate in vivo in nonobese diabetic (NOD)-scid IL2rgamma(null) mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (hu-SRC-SCID mice) to cause a lethal infection with pathological and inflammatory cytokine responses resembling human typhoid. In contrast, S. Typhi does not exhibit net replication or cause illness in nonengrafted or immunocompetent control animals. Screening of transposon pools in hu-SRC-SCID mice revealed both known and previously unknown Salmonella virulence determinants, including Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Our observations indicate that the presence of human immune cells allows the in vivo replication of S. Typhi in mice. The hu-SRC-SCID mouse provides an unprecedented opportunity to gain insights into S. Typhi pathogenesis and devise strategies for the prevention of typhoid fever.
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In silico estimates of tissue components in surgical samples based on expression profiling data.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Tissue samples from many diseases have been used for gene expression profiling studies, but these samples often vary widely in the cell types they contain. Such variation could confound efforts to correlate expression with clinical parameters. In principle, the proportion of each major tissue component can be estimated from the profiling data and used to triage samples before studying correlations with disease parameters. Four large gene expression microarray data sets from prostate cancer, whose tissue components were estimated by pathologists, were used to test the performance of multivariate linear regression models for in silico prediction of major tissue components. Ten-fold cross-validation within each data set yielded average differences between the pathologists predictions and the in silico predictions of 8% to 14% for the tumor component and 13% to 17% for the stroma component. Across independent data sets that used similar platforms and fresh frozen samples, the average differences were 11% to 12% for tumor and 12% to 17% for stroma. When the models were applied to 219 arrays of "tumor-enriched" samples in the literature, almost one quarter were predicted to have 30% or less tumor cells. Furthermore, there was a 10.5% difference in the average predicted tumor content between 37 recurrent and 42 nonrecurrent cancer patients. As a result, genes that correlated with tissue percentage generally also correlated with recurrence. If such a correlation is not desired, then some samples might be removed to rebalance the data set or tissue percentages might be incorporated into the prediction algorithm. A web service, "CellPred," has been designed for the in silico prediction of sample tissue components based on expression data.
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Increased HDAC1 deposition at hematopoietic promoters in AML and its association with patient survival.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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Epigenetic changes play a crucial role in leukemogenesis. HDACs are frequently recruited to target gene promoters by balanced translocation derived oncogenic fusion proteins. As important epigenetic effector mechanisms, histone deacetylases (HDAC) have emerged as potential therapeutic targets. However, the patterns of HDAC1 localization and the role of HDACs in leukemia pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. Using ChIP-Chip analyses we analyzed HDAC1 deposition patterns at more than 10,000 gene promoters in a large cohort of leukemia patients and CD34+ controls. HDAC1 binding was significantly increased in AML blasts compared to CD34+ progenitor cells at 130 gene promoters whereas decreased binding was observed at 66 gene promoters. Distinct HDAC1 binding patterns occurred in AML subtypes with balanced translocations t(15;17), t(8;21) and inv(16). In addition, a more generalized signature was established, that revealed an AML specific pattern of HDAC1 distribution. Many of the HDAC1-binding altered promoters regulate genes involved in hematopoiesis, transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. HDAC1 binding patterns were associated with patients event free survival. This is the first study to determine HDAC1 modification patterns in a large number of AML and ALL specimens. Our findings suggest that dyslocalization of HDAC1 is a common feature in AML. Importantly, HDAC1 modifications possess prognostic power for patient survival. Our findings suggest that altered HDAC1 localization is an explanation for the observed benefit of HDAC inhibitors in AML therapy.
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Distinct DNA methylation profiles between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of human uterine cervix.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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Alterations in DNA methylation offer unique prospects as tumor markers. The big limitation in cervical cancer research is that it is too hard to obtain the pure normal tissue from a cervical cancer mass. So, we first profile type-specific DNA methylation of major two types of human uterine cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma (ACA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), to establish a precise source of marker research. To assess the DNA methylation status of promoter regions in human uterine cervical ACAs and SCCs, fresh frozen tissues were obtained from bulky tumor masses to minimize the contamination from normal tissues and two array platforms using digestion with methylation-sensitive restriction-enzyme HpaII, ligation, and PCR were performed: an array of 11,994 (approximately 1.5 kb) PCR products from 10,445 promoter regions, and an array of 355,264 oligonucleotides for 18,212 HpaII fragments in 12,617 promoter regions. Loci near 21 genes showed significant differences between six ACA and four SCC from the analysis of two array data. Real-time PCR-based validation was performed on 13 loci using other nearby candidate methylation targets in the same promoter. Methylation patterns of 11 of 13 linked loci concurred with the microarray results. Four loci were further studied using tissues from additional patients (23 ACA and 24 SCC). Hypermethylation of loci in PAK6 and NOGOR most strongly correlated with ACA. Therefore, we have identified the 21 genes with differential methylation pattern between ACA and SCC and, furthermore, we found that PAK6 and NOGOR could be useful markers of ACA to be distinct from SCC.
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Profiling of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation levels predicts transcription factor activity and survival in acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is commonly associated with alterations in transcription factors because of altered expression or gene mutations. These changes might induce leukemia-specific patterns of histone modifications. We used chromatin-immunoprecipitation on microarray to analyze histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) patterns in primary AML (n = 108), acute lymphoid leukemia (n = 28), CD34(+) cells (n = 21) and white blood cells (n = 15) specimens. Hundreds of promoter regions in AML showed significant alterations in H3K9me3 levels. H3K9me3 deregulation in AML occurred preferentially as a decrease in H3K9me3 levels at core promoter regions. The altered genomic regions showed an overrepresentation of cis-binding sites for ETS and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response elements (CREs) for transcription factors of the CREB/CREM/ATF1 family. The decrease in H3K9me3 levels at CREs was associated with increased CRE-driven promoter activity in AML blasts in vivo. AML-specific H3K9me3 patterns were not associated with known cytogenetic abnormalities. But a signature derived from H3K9me3 patterns predicted event-free survival in AML patients. When the H3K9me3 signature was combined with established clinical prognostic markers, it outperformed prognosis prediction based on clinical parameters alone. These findings demonstrate widespread changes of H3K9me3 levels at gene promoters in AML. Signatures of histone modification patterns are associated with patient prognosis in AML.
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Specific responses of Salmonella enterica to tomato varieties and fruit ripeness identified by in vivo expression technology.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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Recent outbreaks of vegetable-associated gastroenteritis suggest that enteric pathogens colonize, multiply and persist in plants for extended periods of time, eventually infecting people. Genetic and physiological pathways, by which enterics colonize plants, are still poorly understood.
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Evaluating oligonucleotide properties for DNA microarray probe design.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Most current microarray oligonucleotide probe design strategies are based on probe design factors (PDFs), which include probe hybridization free energy (PHFE), probe minimum folding energy (PMFE), dimer score, hairpin score, homology score and complexity score. The impact of these PDFs on probe performance was evaluated using four sets of microarray comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) data, which included two array manufacturing methods and the genomes of two species. Since most of the hybridizing DNA is equimolar in CGH data, such data are ideal for testing the general hybridization properties of almost all candidate oligonucleotides. In all our data sets, PDFs related to probe secondary structure (PMFE, hairpin score and dimer score) are the most significant factors linearly correlated with probe hybridization intensities. PHFE, homology and complexity score are correlating significantly with probe specificities, but in a non-linear fashion. We developed a new PDF, pseudo probe binding energy (PPBE), by iteratively fitting dinucleotide positional weights and dinucleotide stacking energies until the average residue sum of squares for the model was minimized. PPBE showed a better correlation with probe sensitivity and a better specificity than all other PDFs, although training data are required to construct a PPBE model prior to designing new oligonucleotide probes. The physical properties that are measured by PPBE are as yet unknown but include a platform-dependent component. A practical way to use these PDFs for probe design is to set cutoff thresholds to filter out bad quality probes. Programs and correlation parameters from this study are freely available to facilitate the design of DNA microarray oligonucleotide probes.
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High-throughput screening for salmonella avirulent mutants that retain targeting of solid tumors.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Salmonella has a natural ability to target a wide range of tumors in animal models. However, strains used for cancer therapy have generally been selected only for their avirulence rather than their tumor-targeting ability. To select Salmonella strains that are avirulent and yet efficient in tumor targeting, a necessary criterion for clinical applications, we measured the relative fitness of 41,000 Salmonella transposon insertion mutants growing in mouse models of human prostate and breast cancer. Two classes of potentially safe mutants were identified. Class 1 mutants showed reduced fitness in normal tissues and unchanged fitness in tumors (e.g., mutants in htrA, SPI-2, and STM3120). Class 2 mutants showed reduced fitness in tumors and normal tissues (e.g., mutants in aroA and aroD). In a competitive fitness assay in human PC-3 tumors growing in mice, class 1 mutant STM3120 had a fitness advantage over class 2 mutants aroA and aroD, validating the findings of the initial screening of a large pool of transposon mutants and indicating a potential advantage of class 1 mutants for delivery of cancer therapeutics. In addition, an STM3120 mutant successfully targeted tumors after intragastric delivery, opening up the oral route as an option for therapy administration.
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Spontaneous excision of the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis-specific defective prophage-like element phiSE14.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has emerged as a major health problem worldwide in the last few decades. DNA loci unique to S. Enteritidis can provide markers for detection of this pathogen and may reveal pathogenic mechanisms restricted to this serovar. An in silico comparison of 16 Salmonella genomic sequences revealed the presence of an approximately 12.5-kb genomic island (GEI) specific to the sequenced S. Enteritidis strain NCTC13349. The GEI is inserted at the 5 end of gene ydaO (SEN1377), is flanked by 308-bp imperfect direct repeats (attL and attR), and includes 21 open reading frames (SEN1378 to SEN1398), encoding primarily phage-related proteins. Accordingly, this GEI has been annotated as the defective prophage SE14 in the genome of strain NCTC13349. The genetic structure and location of phiSE14 are conserved in 99 of 103 wild-type strains of S. Enteritidis studied here, including reference strains NCTC13349 and LK5. Notably, an extrachromosomal circular form of phiSE14 was detected in every strain carrying this island. The presence of attP sites in the circular forms detected in NCTC13349 and LK5 was confirmed. In addition, we observed spontaneous loss of a tetRA-tagged version of phiSE14, leaving an empty attB site in the genome of strain NCTC13349. Collectively, these results demonstrate that phiSE14 is an unstable genetic element that undergoes spontaneous excision under standard growth conditions. An internal fragment of phiSE14 designated Sdf I has been used as a serovar-specific genetic marker in PCR-based detection systems and as a tool to determine S. Enteritidis levels in experimental infections. The instability of this region may require a reassessment of its suitability for such applications.
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Genome sequence of Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 and comparative genomic hybridization analysis with other Cronobacter species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2010
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The genus Cronobacter (formerly called Enterobacter sakazakii) is composed of five species; C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis, C. muytjensii, and C. dublinensis. The genus includes opportunistic human pathogens, and the first three species have been associated with neonatal infections. The most severe diseases are caused in neonates and include fatal necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis. The genetic basis of the diversity within the genus is unknown, and few virulence traits have been identified.
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TabSQL: a MySQL tool to facilitate mapping user data to public databases.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2010
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With advances in high-throughput genomics and proteomics, it is challenging for biologists to deal with large data files and to map their data to annotations in public databases.
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Fitness costs and stability of a high-level ciprofloxacin resistance phenotype in Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis: reduced infectivity associated with decreased expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 genes.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2009
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The fitness costs associated with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance were examined for phenotypically and genotypically characterized ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis mutants (104-cip and 5408-cip; MIC, >32 microg/ml). The stability of the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype in both mutants was investigated to assess whether clones with better fitness could emerge in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. Mutants 104-cip and 5408-cip displayed altered morphology on agar and by electron microscopy, reduced growth rates, motility and invasiveness in Caco-2 cells, and increased sensitivity to environmental stresses. Microarray data revealed decreased expression of virulence and motility genes in both mutants. Two clones, 104-revert and 1A-revertC2, with ciprofloxacin MICs of 3 and 2 microg/ml, respectively, were recovered from separate lineages of 104-cip after 20 and 70 passages, respectively, on antibiotic-free agar. All fitness costs, except motility, were reversed in 104-revert. Potential mechanisms associated with reversal of the resistance phenotype were examined. Compared to 104-cip, both 104-revert and 1A-revertC2 showed decreased expression of acrB and soxS but still overexpressed marA. Both acquired additional mutations in SoxR and ParC, and 1A-revertC2 acquired two mutations in MarA. The altered porin and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles observed in 104-cip were reversed. In contrast, 5408-cip showed no reversal in fitness costs and maintained its high-level ciprofloxacin resistance for 200 passages on antibiotic-free agar. In conclusion, high-level ciprofloxacin resistance in S. Enteritidis is associated with fitness costs. In the absence of antibiotic selection pressure, isolates may acquire mutations enabling reversion to an intermediate-level ciprofloxacin resistance phenotype associated with less significant fitness costs.
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WebArrayDB: cross-platform microarray data analysis and public data repository.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Cross-platform microarray analysis is an increasingly important research tool, but researchers still lack open source tools for storing, integrating and analyzing large amounts of microarray data obtained from different array platforms.
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Analysis of pools of targeted Salmonella deletion mutants identifies novel genes affecting fitness during competitive infection in mice.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Pools of mutants of minimal complexity but maximal coverage of genes of interest facilitate screening for genes under selection in a particular environment. We constructed individual deletion mutants in 1,023 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes, including almost all genes found in Salmonella but not in related genera. All mutations were confirmed simultaneously using a novel amplification strategy to produce labeled RNA from a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, introduced during the construction of each mutant, followed by hybridization of this labeled RNA to a Typhimurium genome tiling array. To demonstrate the ability to identify fitness phenotypes using our pool of mutants, the pool was subjected to selection by intraperitoneal injection into BALB/c mice and subsequent recovery from spleens. Changes in the representation of each mutant were monitored using T7 transcripts hybridized to a novel inexpensive minimal microarray. Among the top 120 statistically significant spleen colonization phenotypes, more than 40 were mutations in genes with no previously known role in this model. Fifteen phenotypes were tested using individual mutants in competitive assays of intraperitoneal infection in mice and eleven were confirmed, including the first two examples of attenuation for sRNA mutants in Salmonella. We refer to the method as Array-based analysis of cistrons under selection (ABACUS).
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Genome-wide analysis of the PreA/PreB (QseB/QseC) regulon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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The Salmonella PreA/PreB two-component system (TCS) is an ortholog of the QseBC TCS of Escherichia coli. In both Salmonella and E. coli, this system has been shown to affect motility and virulence in response to quorum-sensing and hormonal signals, and to affect the transcription of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) pmrAB operon, which encodes an important virulence-associated TCS.
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Global systems-level analysis of Hfq and SmpB deletion mutants in Salmonella: implications for virulence and global protein translation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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Using sample-matched transcriptomics and proteomics measurements it is now possible to begin to understand the impact of post-transcriptional regulatory programs in Enterobacteria. In bacteria post-transcriptional regulation is mediated by relatively few identified RNA-binding protein factors including CsrA, Hfq and SmpB. A mutation in any one of these three genes, csrA, hfq, and smpB, in Salmonella is attenuated for mouse virulence and unable to survive in macrophages. CsrA has a clearly defined specificity based on binding to a specific mRNA sequence to inhibit translation. However, the proteins regulated by Hfq and SmpB are not as clearly defined. Previous work identified proteins regulated by hfq using purification of the RNA-protein complex with direct sequencing of the bound RNAs and found binding to a surprisingly large number of transcripts. In this report we have used global proteomics to directly identify proteins regulated by Hfq or SmpB by comparing protein abundance in the parent and isogenic hfq or smpB mutant. From these same samples we also prepared RNA for microarray analysis to determine if alteration of protein expression was mediated post-transcriptionally. Samples were analyzed from bacteria grown under four different conditions; two laboratory conditions and two that are thought to mimic the intracellular environment. We show that mutants of hfq and smpB directly or indirectly modulate at least 20% and 4% of all possible Salmonella proteins, respectively, with limited correlation between transcription and protein expression. These proteins represent a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for many biological processes including host cell invasion, motility, central metabolism, LPS biosynthesis, two-component regulatory systems, and fatty acid metabolism. Our results represent one of the first global analyses of post-transcriptional regulons in any organism and suggest that regulation at the translational level is widespread and plays an important role in virulence regulation and environmental adaptation for Salmonella.
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The wisdom of the commons: ensemble tree classifiers for prostate cancer prognosis.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Classification and regression trees have long been used for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Nevertheless, instability and variable selection bias, as well as overfitting, are well-known problems of tree-based methods. In this article, we investigate whether ensemble tree classifiers can ameliorate these difficulties, using data from two recent studies of radical prostatectomy in prostate cancer.
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Coordinated regulation of virulence during systemic infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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To cause a systemic infection, Salmonella must respond to many environmental cues during mouse infection and express specific subsets of genes in a temporal and spatial manner, but the regulatory pathways are poorly established. To unravel how micro-environmental signals are processed and integrated into coordinated action, we constructed in-frame non-polar deletions of 83 regulators inferred to play a role in Salmonella enteriditis Typhimurium (STM) virulence and tested them in three virulence assays (intraperitoneal [i.p.], and intragastric [i.g.] infection in BALB/c mice, and persistence in 129X1/SvJ mice). Overall, 35 regulators were identified whose absence attenuated virulence in at least one assay, and of those, 14 regulators were required for systemic mouse infection, the most stringent virulence assay. As a first step towards understanding the interplay between a pathogen and its host from a systems biology standpoint, we focused on these 14 genes. Transcriptional profiles were obtained for deletions of each of these 14 regulators grown under four different environmental conditions. These results, as well as publicly available transcriptional profiles, were analyzed using both network inference and cluster analysis algorithms. The analysis predicts a regulatory network in which all 14 regulators control the same set of genes necessary for Salmonella to cause systemic infection. We tested the regulatory model by expressing a subset of the regulators in trans and monitoring transcription of 7 known virulence factors located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). These experiments validated the regulatory model and showed that the response regulator SsrB and the MarR type regulator, SlyA, are the terminal regulators in a cascade that integrates multiple signals. Furthermore, experiments to demonstrate epistatic relationships showed that SsrB can replace SlyA and, in some cases, SlyA can replace SsrB for expression of SPI-2 encoded virulence factors.
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Novel genetic tools for studying food-borne Salmonella.
Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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Nontyphoidal Salmonellae are highly prevalent food-borne pathogens. High-throughput sequencing of Salmonella genomes is expanding our knowledge of the evolution of serovars and epidemic isolates. Genome sequences have also allowed the creation of complete microarrays. Microarrays have improved the throughput of in vivo expression technology (IVET) used to uncover promoters active during infection. In another method, signature tagged mutagenesis (STM), pools of mutants are subjected to selection. Changes in the population are monitored on a microarray, revealing genes under selection. Complete genome sequences permit the construction of pools of targeted in-frame deletions that have improved STM by minimizing the number of clones and the polarity of each mutant. Together, genome sequences and the continuing development of new tools for functional genomics will drive a revolution in the understanding of Salmonellae in many different niches that are critical for food safety.
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L-asparaginase II produced by Salmonella typhimurium inhibits T cell responses and mediates virulence.
Cell Host Microbe
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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium avoids clearance by the host immune system by suppressing T cell responses; however, the mechanisms that mediate this immunosuppression remain unknown. We show that S. Typhimurium inhibit T cell responses by producing L-Asparaginase II, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. L-Asparaginase II is necessary and sufficient to suppress T cell blastogenesis, cytokine production, and proliferation and to downmodulate expression of the T cell receptor. Furthermore, S. Typhimurium-induced inhibition of T cells in vitro is prevented upon addition of L-asparagine. S. Typhimurium lacking the L-Asparaginase II gene (STM3106) are unable to inhibit T cell responses and exhibit attenuated virulence in vivo. L-Asparaginases are used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia through mechanisms that likely involve amino acid starvation of leukemic cells, and these findings indicate that pathogens similarly use L-asparagine deprivation to limit T cell responses.
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Comparative analysis of genome sequences covering the seven cronobacter species.
PLoS ONE
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Species of Cronobacter are widespread in the environment and are occasional food-borne pathogens associated with serious neonatal diseases, including bacteraemia, meningitis, and necrotising enterocolitis. The genus is composed of seven species: C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis, C. dublinensis, C. muytjensii, C. universalis, and C. condimenti. Clinical cases are associated with three species, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis and, in particular, with C. sakazakii multilocus sequence type 4. Thus, it is plausible that virulence determinants have evolved in certain lineages.
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Live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccine with improved safety in immuno-compromised mice.
PLoS ONE
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Live attenuated vaccines are of great value for preventing infectious diseases. They represent a delicate compromise between sufficient colonization-mediated adaptive immunity and minimizing the risk for infection by the vaccine strain itself. Immune defects can predispose to vaccine strain infections. It has remained unclear whether vaccine safety could be improved via mutations attenuating a vaccine in immune-deficient individuals without compromising the vaccines performance in the normal host. We have addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea and a live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain (ssaV). Vaccination with this strain elicited protective immunity in wild type mice, but a fatal systemic infection in immune-deficient cybb(-/-)nos2(-/-) animals lacking NADPH oxidase and inducible NO synthase. In cybb(-/-)nos2(-/-) mice, we analyzed the attenuation of 35 ssaV strains carrying one additional mutation each. One strain, Z234 (ssaV SL1344_3093), was >1000-fold attenuated in cybb(-/-)nos2(-/-) mice and ?100 fold attenuated in tnfr1(-/-) animals. However, in wt mice, Z234 was as efficient as ssaV with respect to host colonization and the elicitation of a protective, O-antigen specific mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) response. These data suggest that it is possible to engineer live attenuated vaccines which are specifically attenuated in immuno-compromised hosts. This might help to improve vaccine safety.
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An accurate prostate cancer prognosticator using a seven-gene signature plus Gleason score and taking cell type heterogeneity into account.
PLoS ONE
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One of the major challenges in the development of prostate cancer prognostic biomarkers is the cellular heterogeneity in tissue samples. We developed an objective Cluster-Correlation (CC) analysis to identify gene expression changes in various cell types that are associated with progression. In the Cluster step, samples were clustered (unsupervised) based on the expression values of each gene through a mixture model combined with a multiple linear regression model in which cell-type percent data were used for decomposition. In the Correlation step, a Chi-square test was used to select potential prognostic genes. With CC analysis, we identified 324 significantly expressed genes (68 tumor and 256 stroma cell expressed genes) which were strongly associated with the observed biochemical relapse status. Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) was then utilized to develop a seven-gene classifier. The Classifier has been validated using two independent Data Sets. The overall prediction accuracy and sensitivity is 71% and 76%, respectively. The inclusion of the Gleason sum to the seven-gene classifier raised the prediction accuracy and sensitivity to 83% and 76% respectively based on independent testing. These results indicated that our prognostic model that includes cell type adjustments and using Gleason score and the seven-gene signature has some utility for predicting outcomes for prostate cancer for individual patients at the time of prognosis. The strategy could have applications for improving marker performance in other cancers and other diseases.
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Global transcriptional analysis of dehydrated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
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Despite the scientific and industrial importance of desiccation tolerance in Salmonella, knowledge regarding its genetic basis is still scarce. In the present study, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of dehydrated and water-suspended Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using microarrays. Dehydration induced expression of 90 genes and downregulated that of 7 genes. Ribosomal structural genes represented the most abundant functional group with a relatively higher transcription during dehydration. Other main induced functional groups included genes involved in amino acid metabolism, energy production, ion transport, transcription, and stress response. The highest induction was observed in the kdpFABC operon, encoding a potassium transport channel. Knockout mutations were generated in nine upregulated genes. Five mutants displayed lower tolerance to desiccation, implying the involvement of the corresponding genes in the adaptation of Salmonella to desiccation. These included genes encoding the isocitrate-lyase AceA, the lipid A biosynthesis palmitoleoyl-acyltransferase Ddg, the modular iron-sulfur cluster scaffolding protein NifU, the global regulator Fnr, and the alternative sigma factor RpoE. Notably, these proteins were previously implicated in the response of Salmonella to oxidative stress, heat shock, and cold shock. A strain with a mutation in the structural gene kdpA had a tolerance to dehydration comparable to that of the parent strain, implying that potassium transport through this system is dispensable for early adaptation to the dry environment. Nevertheless, this mutant was significantly impaired in long-term persistence during cold storage. Our findings indicate the involvement of a relatively small fraction of the Salmonella genome in transcriptional adjustment from water to dehydration, with a high prevalence of genes belonging to the protein biosynthesis machinery.
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Expression changes in the stroma of prostate cancer predict subsequent relapse.
PLoS ONE
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Biomarkers are needed to address overtreatment that occurs for the majority of prostate cancer patients that would not die of the disease but receive radical treatment. A possible barrier to biomarker discovery may be the polyclonal/multifocal nature of prostate tumors as well as cell-type heterogeneity between patient samples. Tumor-adjacent stroma (tumor microenvironment) is less affected by genetic alteration and might therefore yield more consistent biomarkers in response to tumor aggressiveness. To this end we compared Affymetrix gene expression profiles in stroma near tumor and identified a set of 115 probe sets for which the expression levels were significantly correlated with time-to-relapse. We also compared patients that chemically relapsed shortly after prostatectomy (<1 year), and patients that did not relapse in the first four years after prostatectomy. We identified 131 differentially expressed microarray probe sets between these two categories. 19 probe sets (15 genes overlapped between the two gene lists with p<0.0001). We developed a PAM-based classifier by training on samples containing stroma near tumor: 9 rapid relapse patient samples and 9 indolent patient samples. We then tested the classifier on 47 different samples, containing 90% or more stroma. The classifier predicted the risk status of patients with an average accuracy of 87%. This is the first general tumor microenvironment-based prognostic classifier. These results indicate that the prostate cancer microenvironment exhibits reproducible changes useful for predicting outcomes for patients.
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The NsrR regulon in nitrosative stress resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
Mol. Microbiol.
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Nitric oxide (NO·) is an important mediator of innate immunity. The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella has evolved mechanisms to detoxify and evade the antimicrobial actions of host-derived NO· produced during infection. Expression of the NO·-detoxifying flavohaemoglobin Hmp is controlled by the NO·-sensing transcriptional repressor NsrR and is required for Salmonella virulence. In this study we show that NsrR responds to very low NO· concentrations, suggesting that it plays a primary role in the nitrosative stress response. Additionally, we have defined the NsrR regulon in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium 14028s using transcriptional microarray, qRT-PCR and in silico methods. A novel NsrR-regulated gene designated STM1808 has been identified, along with hmp, hcp-hcr, yeaR-yoaG, ygbA and ytfE. STM1808 and ygbA are important for S. Typhimurium growth during nitrosative stress, and the hcp-hcr locus plays a supportive role in NO· detoxification. ICP-MS analysis of purified STM1808 suggests that it is a zinc metalloprotein, with histidine residues H32 and H82 required for NO· resistance and zinc binding. Moreover, STM1808 and ytfE promote Salmonella growth during systemic infection of mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that NsrR-regulated genes in addition to hmp are important for NO· detoxification, nitrosative stress resistance and Salmonella virulence.
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High-throughput comparison of gene fitness among related bacteria.
BMC Genomics
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The contribution of a gene to the fitness of a bacterium can be assayed by whether and to what degree the bacterium tolerates transposon insertions in that gene. We use this fact to compare the fitness of syntenic homologous genes among related Salmonella strains and thereby reveal differences not apparent at the gene sequence level.
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Selection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi genes involved during interaction with human macrophages by screening of a transposon mutant library.
PLoS ONE
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The human-adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes a systemic infection known as typhoid fever. This disease relies on the ability of the bacterium to survive within macrophages. In order to identify genes involved during interaction with macrophages, a pool of approximately 10(5) transposon mutants of S. Typhi was subjected to three serial passages of 24 hours through human macrophages. Mutants recovered from infected macrophages (output) were compared to the initial pool (input) and those significantly underrepresented resulted in the identification of 130 genes encoding for cell membrane components, fimbriae, flagella, regulatory processes, pathogenesis, and many genes of unknown function. Defined deletions in 28 genes or gene clusters were created and mutants were evaluated in competitive and individual infection assays for uptake and intracellular survival during interaction with human macrophages. Overall, 26 mutants had defects in the competitive assay and 14 mutants had defects in the individual assay. Twelve mutants had defects in both assays, including acrA, exbDB, flhCD, fliC, gppA, mlc, pgtE, typA, waaQGP, SPI-4, STY1867-68, and STY2346. The complementation of several mutants by expression of plasmid-borne wild-type genes or gene clusters reversed defects, confirming that the phenotypic impairments within macrophages were gene-specific. In this study, 35 novel phenotypes of either uptake or intracellular survival in macrophages were associated with Salmonella genes. Moreover, these results reveal several genes encoding molecular mechanisms not previously known to be involved in systemic infection by human-adapted typhoidal Salmonella that will need to be elucidated.
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Virulence of 32 Salmonella strains in mice.
PLoS ONE
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Virulence and persistence in the BALB/c mouse gut was tested for 32 strains of Salmonella enterica for which genome sequencing is complete or underway, including 17 serovars within subspecies I (enterica), and two representatives of each of the other five subspecies. Only serovar Paratyphi C strain BAA1715 and serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 were fully virulent in mice. Three divergent atypical Enteritidis strains were not virulent in BALB/c, but two efficiently persisted. Most of the other strains in all six subspecies persisted in the mouse intestinal tract for several weeks in multiple repeat experiments although the frequency and level of persistence varied considerably. Strains with heavily degraded genomes persisted very poorly, if at all. None of the strains tested provided immunity to Typhimurium infection. These data greatly expand on the known significant strain-to-strain variation in mouse virulence and highlight the need for comparative genomic and phenotypic studies.
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