Over 35,000 cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) are reported worldwide each year. Culex tritaeniorhynchus is the primary vector of the JE virus, while wading birds are natural reservoirs and swine amplifying hosts. As part of a JE risk analysis, the ecological niche modeling programme, Maxent, was used to develop a predictive model for the distribution of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in the Republic of Korea, using mosquito collection data, temperature, precipitation, elevation, land cover and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The resulting probability maps from the model were consistent with the known environmental limitations of the mosquito with low probabilities predicted for forest covered mountains. July minimum temperature and land cover were the most important variables in the model. Elevation, summer NDVI (July-September), precipitation in July, summer minimum temperature (May-August) and maximum temperature for fall and winter months also contributed to the model. Comparison of the Cx. tritaeniorhynchus model to the distribution of JE cases in the Republic of Korea from 2001 to 2009 showed that cases among a highly vaccinated Korean population were located in high-probability areas for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. No recent JE cases were reported from the eastern coastline, where higher probabilities of mosquitoes were predicted, but where only small numbers of pigs are raised. The geographical distribution of reported JE cases corresponded closely with the predicted high-probability areas for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, making the map a useful tool for health risk analysis that could be used for planning preventive public health measures.
A previously described modular high-throughput screening system was used to characterize the spatial repellent, contact irritant, and toxicant chemical actions of 14 compounds historically used or under investigation for vector control. The response of F1-F4 Aedes aegypti (Thailand strain) to various concentrations of 4 organochlorines (chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, methoxychlor); 4 pyrethroids (alphacypermethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin); 3 organophosphates (chlorpyrophos methyl, fenitrothion, malathion); 2 carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur); and 1 pyrazole (chlorfenapyr) were evaluated. Results show chemicals exert different combinations of contact irritant, spatial repellent, and toxic actions. This is true even within the same chemical class. These actions can be ordered for each chemical based on the testing dose at which the specific response is elicited. Data also indicate that behavioral responses to spatial repellent and contact irritant actions are separate (or independent) from the toxic action of a compound. Results from pyrethroid and DDT assays also show chemicals can induce behavior-modifying actions, such as contact irritancy and spatial repellency, which will reduce man-vector contact, despite evidence of insecticide resistance within the test population. These findings support previous laboratory and field studies showing man-vector contact and disease transmission are routinely interrupted by spatial repellent and contact irritant actions of common public health insecticides. Studies similar to that presented here can be used as baseline evidence for expected vector responses and support best approaches for more detailed behavioral research.
As part of a field ecology study of arbovirus and malaria activity in the Amazon Basin, Loreto Department, Peru, we collected mosquitoes landing on humans at a forest site and inside and outside of residences and military barracks at periurban, rural, and village sites. We collected 11 Anopheles spp. from these four sites. An. darlingi, the principal malaria vector in the region, accounted for 98.7% of all Anopheles spp. collected at Puerto Almendra. Peaks in landing activity occurred during the December and April collection periods. However, the percent of sporozoite-positive Anopheles spp. was highest 1-2 months later, when landing activity decreased to approximately 10% of the peak activity periods. At all sites, peak landing activity occurred about 2 hours after sunset. These data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, population density, and seasonal and habitat distribution of potential malaria vectors within the Amazon Basin region.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.