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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Comparison of Dermal Autograft and Acellular Dermal Matrix in Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: Long-term Aesthetic Outcomes and Capsular Contracture.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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The use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in tissue expander breast reconstruction has been touted to reduce capsular contracture rates and improve aesthetic outcomes. Autogenous dermal grafts have shown to be a safer and more cost-effective alternative to ADM. The purpose of this study was to compare the capsular contracture rates and long-term aesthetic outcomes of tissue expander breast reconstruction using dermal autografts with ADM-assisted reconstruction.
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Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay Detects HIV Drug Resistance Associated With Virologic Failure Among Antiretroviral-Naive Adults in Kenya.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is increasing in some areas of Africa. Detection of TDR may predict virologic failure of first-line nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated the utility of a relatively inexpensive oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) to detect clinically relevant TDR at the time of ART initiation.
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Studies in fat grafting: Part III. Fat grafting irradiated tissue--improved skin quality and decreased fat graft retention.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Following radiation therapy, skin becomes fibrotic and can present a difficult problem for reconstructive surgeons. There is an increasing belief that fat grafting under irradiated skin can reverse the damage caused by radiation. The present study evaluated the effect of fat grafting on irradiated skin, along with fat graft quality and retention rates in irradiated tissue.
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Capillary force seeding of hydrogels for adipose-derived stem cell delivery in wounds.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Effective skin regeneration therapies require a successful interface between progenitor cells and biocompatible delivery systems. We previously demonstrated the efficiency of a biomimetic pullulan-collagen hydrogel scaffold for improving bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell survival within ischemic skin wounds by creating a "stem cell niche" that enhances regenerative cytokine secretion. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) represent an even more appealing source of stem cells because of their abundance and accessibility, and in this study we explored the utility of ASCs for hydrogel-based therapies. To optimize hydrogel cell seeding, a rapid, capillary force-based approach was developed and compared with previously established cell seeding methods. ASC viability and functionality following capillary hydrogel seeding were then analyzed in vitro and in vivo. In these experiments, ASCs were seeded more efficiently by capillary force than by traditional methods and remained viable and functional in this niche for up to 14 days. Additionally, hydrogel seeding of ASCs resulted in the enhanced expression of multiple stemness and angiogenesis-related genes, including Oct4, Vegf, Mcp-1, and Sdf-1. Moving in vivo, hydrogel delivery improved ASC survival, and application of both murine and human ASC-seeded hydrogels to splinted murine wounds resulted in accelerated wound closure and increased vascularity when compared with control wounds treated with unseeded hydrogels. In conclusion, capillary seeding of ASCs within a pullulan-collagen hydrogel bioscaffold provides a convenient and simple way to deliver therapeutic cells to wound environments. Moreover, ASC-seeded constructs display a significant potential to accelerate wound healing that can be easily translated to a clinical setting.
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Studies in fat grafting: Part II. Effects of injection mechanics on material properties of fat.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Although fat grafting can address many soft-tissue deficits, results remain inconsistent. In this study, the authors compared physical properties of fat following injection using an automated, low-shear device or the modified Coleman technique.
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Pediatric polysomnographic studies at a tertiary-care hospital in Singapore.
Indian Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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To investigate the indications for conducting polysomnography studies and their outcomes.
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Positive Selection for Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type-IB Promotes Differentiation and Specification of Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Toward an Osteogenic Lineage.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Adipose tissue represents an abundant and easily accessible source of multipotent cells that may serve as an excellent building block for tissue engineering. However, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are a heterogeneous group and subpopulations may be identified with enhanced osteogenic potential.
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The Role of Stem Cells During Scarless Skin Wound Healing.
Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle)
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Significance: In early gestation, fetal skin wounds undergo regeneration and healing without a scar. This phenomenon is intrinsic to early fetal skin but disappears during late gestation. Adult wounds undergo repair via a fibroproliferative response that leads to incomplete regeneration of the original tissue and a resultant scar. This outcome can have devastating effects for patients and is a significant financial burden to the healthcare system. Recent Advances: Studies have demonstrated the possible role of several stem cells in wound healing. In particular, epidermal stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells have been implicated in wound repair and regeneration. Recently, stem cells with adult epidermal stem cell markers have been found in fetal skin dermis. These cells are thought to play a role in scarless fetal wound healing. Critical Issues: Despite numerous studies on scarless fetal wound healing, the exact mechanism is still largely unknown. Although inflammation is greatly reduced, the stem cell profile of regenerating fetal skin wounds remains unknown. Without a detailed understanding of stem cell differences between fetal and adult wounds, the ability to prevent or treat both normal and pathologic excessive scarring, in the form of keloids and hypertrophic scars, is limited. Future Directions: Further studies on differences between fetal and adult skin-specific stem cells may elucidate the mechanism of scarless wound healing in the early fetus. With this knowledge, the potential to reduce scarring in adult wounds may be achieved.
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Studies in fat grafting: Part I. Effects of injection technique on in vitro fat viability and in vivo volume retention.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Fat grafting has become increasingly popular for the correction of soft-tissue deficits at many sites throughout the body. Long-term outcomes, however, depend on delivery of fat in the least traumatic fashion to optimize viability of the transplanted tissue. In this study, the authors compare the biological properties of fat following injection using two methods.
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Outcome analysis of expander/implant versus microsurgical abdominal flap breast reconstruction: a critical study of 254 cases.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Expander-implant breast reconstruction (EIBR) and microsurgical abdominal flap breast reconstruction (MAFBR) are currently the two most frequent breast reconstruction techniques performed in the United States. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes between EIBR and MAFBR in order to help future breast cancer patients to be more knowledgeable and better informed in choosing their optimal reconstruction option.
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Diabetes impairs the angiogenic potential of adipose-derived stem cells by selectively depleting cellular subpopulations.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Pathophysiologic changes associated with diabetes impair new blood vessel formation and wound healing. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ASCs) have been used clinically to promote healing, although it remains unclear whether diabetes impairs their functional and therapeutic capacity.
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Quality of life and patient satisfaction after microsurgical abdominal flap versus staged expander/implant breast reconstruction: a critical study of unilateral immediate breast reconstruction using patient-reported outcomes instrument BREAST-Q.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Staged expander-implant breast reconstruction (EIBR) and microsurgical abdominal flap breast reconstruction (MAFBR) are the most common modes of breast reconstruction (BR) in the United States. Whether the mode of breast reconstruction has an impact on patient quality of life (QoL) and satisfaction remains a question. A retrospective study was conducted identifying a population of 119 patients who underwent unilateral immediate BR. Only patients who were eligible for either EIBR or MAFBR based on preoperative characteristics were included in the study. The following parameters were retrieved: demographics, mode of reconstruction, cancer, recovery, QoL, and patient satisfaction. The latter two parameters were determined using the BREAST-Q BR module questionnaire. Two-way analysis of variance with mode of reconstruction and occurrence of complication as independent variables was used to determine the effect on patient satisfaction and QoL. The association between mode of reconstruction and patient response with each item of the QoL and satisfaction survey domains was analyzed. The overall response rate was 62.2 %. Non-respondents and respondents did not significantly differ in demographics, surgery type, cancer staging, adjuvant therapy, and complication rate. Age and BMI were significantly higher in MAFBR, while level of education was higher in EIBR. MAFBR had higher scores in psychosocial and sexual wellbeing, satisfaction with outcome, breast, information, and plastic surgeon when compared with patients who underwent EIBR. For patients eligible for both MAFBR and EIBR, MAFBR is associated with higher levels of satisfaction and QoL. Comprehensive pre-operative information of pros and cons of both modes of BR is crucial for patients to make a well-informed decision, thus, resulting in higher levels of satisfaction.
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Tissue engineering and regenerative repair in wound healing.
Ann Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Wound healing is a highly evolved defense mechanism against infection and further injury. It is a complex process involving multiple cell types and biological pathways. Mammalian adult cutaneous wound healing is mediated by a fibroproliferative response leading to scar formation. In contrast, early to mid-gestational fetal cutaneous wound healing is more akin to regeneration and occurs without scar formation. This early observation has led to extensive research seeking to unlock the mechanism underlying fetal scarless regenerative repair. Building upon recent advances in biomaterials and stem cell applications, tissue engineering approaches are working towards a recapitulation of this phenomenon. In this review, we describe the elements that distinguish fetal scarless and adult scarring wound healing, and discuss current trends in tissue engineering aimed at achieving scarless tissue regeneration.
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Effect of surgical subspecialty training on patent ductus arteriosus ligation outcomes.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Surgical outcomes data for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation come primarily from single institution case series. The purpose of this study was to evaluate national PDA ligation trends, and to compare outcomes between pediatric general (GEN) and pediatric cardiothoracic (CT) surgeons.
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Residual Disease and HPV Persistence after Cryotherapy for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2/3 in HIV-Positive Women in Kenya.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To assess residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 disease and clearance of high-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) infections at 6 months after cryotherapy among HIV-positive women.
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Long-term prognosis after intracerebral haemorrhage: systematic review and meta-analysis.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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There is uncertainty about the long-term prognosis after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature for studies reporting long-term survival and ICH recurrence, and their predictors.
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Phase I study of oxaliplatin in combination with gemcitabine, irinotecan, and 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (G-FLIE) in patients with metastatic solid tumors including adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.
J Gastrointest Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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The aims of this study were to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oxaliplatin in combination with fixed doses of gemcitabine, irinotecan, and 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (G-FLIE) in solid tumors, including advanced pancreatic cancer, and to evaluate the toxicity of the regimen.
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Outcome of elderly patients undergoing intracranial meningioma resection - a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Br J Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Background. Intracranial meningioma is a common condition in the elderly population. Surgical resection in this group of patients may be rendered more hazardous due to the patients ageing physiology and to multiple comorbidities. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarise outcome data of elderly patients undergoing intracranial meningioma resection. Methods. Using Ovid Medline, longitudinal studies published from 2002 to October 2012 with patients aged ? 65 years that described outcomes after intracranial meningioma resection were reviewed. Outcome data included mortality, recurrence, complication rate and length of hospital stay (LoS). Grading score systems and covariates for predicting outcome were collected. Pooled estimates of mortality data were calculated in StatsDirect using a random effects method. I(2) statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Results. Thirteen eligible studies with a total of 7010 patients (mean age, 73.6 years) were included, in which 82% patients came from one study. The pooled estimates of 90-day and 1-year mortality from available data were 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6-9.1%; n = 735; I(2) = 32.1) and 9.6% (95% CI, 7.0-12.6%; n = 564; I(2) = 24.3), respectively. The overall complication rates ranged from 2.7% to 29.8%, and the overall incidence of complications was 20% per patient (range, 3-61%). Other outcome data were heterogeneous mainly due to incomparable study designs. Conclusions. Current evidence indicates satisfactory surgical outcomes in the elderly with intracranial meningiomas, though the risks of complications necessitate careful consideration when deciding to operate. Risk factor analysis emphasised the importance of considering pre-operative status and comorbidities during patient selection. Future research should address the causes and prevention of complications, and compare outcomes between younger and older patients using detailed stratifications of tumour characteristics.
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Isolation of human adipose-derived stromal cells using laser-assisted liposuction and their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Harvesting adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering is frequently done through liposuction. However, several different techniques exist. Although third-generation ultrasound-assisted liposuction has been shown to not have a negative effect on ASCs, the impact of laser-assisted liposuction on the quality and differentiation potential of ASCs has not been studied. Therefore, ASCs were harvested from laser-assisted lipoaspirate and suction-assisted lipoaspirate. Next, in vitro parameters of cell yield, cell viability and proliferation, surface marker phenotype, osteogenic differentiation, and adipogenic differentiation were performed. Finally, in vivo bone formation was assessed using a critical-sized cranial defect in athymic nude mice. Although ASCs isolated from suction-assisted lipoaspirate and laser-assisted lipoaspirate both successfully underwent osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, the cell yield, viability, proliferation, and frequency of ASCs (CD34(+)CD31(-)CD45(-)) in the stromal vascular fraction were all significantly less with laser-assisted liposuction in vitro (p < .05). In vivo, quantification of osseous healing by micro-computed tomography revealed significantly more healing with ASCs isolated from suction-assisted lipoaspirate relative to laser-assisted lipoaspirate at the 4-, 6-, and 8-week time points (p < .05). Therefore, as laser-assisted liposuction appears to negatively impact the biology of ASCs, cell harvest using suction-assisted liposuction is preferable for tissue-engineering purposes.
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Clustering patterns of human papillomavirus infections among HIV-positive women in Kenya.
Infect. Agents Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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HIV-positive women are at increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and, especially, multiple infections compared to HIV-negative women. Whether certain HPV types have a tendency to cluster in multiple infections beyond or below what would be expected by shared risk factors (e.g., sexual behavior and the degree of immunosuppression) is unclear. We, therefore, investigated clustering patterns of 44 HPV types in HIV-positive women from Kenya.
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Enhancing in vivo survival of adipose-derived stromal cells through Bcl-2 overexpression using a minicircle vector.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Tissue regeneration using progenitor cell-based therapy has the potential to aid in the healing of a diverse range of pathologies, ranging from short-gut syndrome to spinal cord lesions. However, there are numerous hurdles to be overcome prior to the widespread application of these cells in the clinical setting. One of the primary barriers to effective stem cell therapy is the hostile environment that progenitor cells encounter in the clinical injury wound setting. In order to promote cellular survival, stem cell differentiation, and participation in tissue regeneration, relevant cells and delivery scaffolds must be paired with strategies to prevent cell death to ensure that these cells can survive to form de novo tissue. The Bcl-2 protein is a prosurvival member of a family of proteins that regulate the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Using several strategies to overexpress the Bcl-2 protein, we demonstrated a decrease in the mediators of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. This was shown through the use of two different clinical tissue repair models. Cells overexpressing Bcl-2 not only survived within the wound environment at a statistically significantly higher rate than control cells, but also increased tissue regeneration. Finally, we used a nonintegrating minicircle technology to achieve this in a potentially clinically applicable strategy for stem cell therapy.
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Comparing pap smear, via, and hpv cervical cancer screening methods among hiv-positive women by immune status and antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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A rigorous comparison of cervical cancer screening methods utilizing data on immune status, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and colposcopy-directed biopsy has not been performed among HIV-positive women.
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Influence of long-term social interaction on chirping behavior, steroid levels and neurogenesis in weakly electric fish.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Social interactions dramatically affect the brain and behavior of animals. Studies in birds and mammals indicate that socially induced changes in adult neurogenesis participate in the regulation of social behavior, but little is known about this relationship in fish. Here, we review studies in electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhychus) that link social stimulation, changes in electrocommunication behavior and adult neurogenesis in brain regions associated with electrocommunication. Compared with isolated fish, fish living in pairs have greater production of chirps, an electrocommunication signal, during dyadic interactions and in response to standardized artificial social stimuli. Social interaction also promotes neurogenesis in the periventricular zone, which contributes born cells to the prepacemaker nucleus, the brain region that regulates chirping. Both long-term chirp rate and periventricular cell addition depend on the signal dynamics (amplitude and waveform variation), modulations (chirps) and novelty of the stimuli from the partner fish. Socially elevated cortisol levels and cortisol binding to glucocorticoid receptors mediate, at least in part, the effect of social interaction on chirping behavior and brain cell addition. In a closely related electric fish (Brachyhypopomus gauderio), social interaction enhances cell proliferation specifically in brain regions for electrocommunication and only during the breeding season, when social signaling is most elaborate. Together, these studies demonstrate a consistent correlation between brain cell addition and environmentally regulated chirping behavior across many social and steroidal treatments and suggest a causal relationship.
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Outcome comparison between younger and older patients undergoing intracranial meningioma resections.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Studies directly comparing the outcomes of intracranial meningioma resection between elderly and younger patients are currently limited. This study aimed to assess the perioperative complications, mortalities and functional outcomes in these two groups. Consecutive elderly patients (aged ? 65) and tumor-location-matched younger patients who underwent intracranial meningioma resections were retrospectively reviewed. Outcomes were assessed at 30-day, 90-day, 6-month and 1-year. We used a standardized classification of operative complications, and conducted subgroup analyses based on tumor location [convexity, parasagittal and falcine (CPF) as one group; skull base (SB) as another]. There were 92 patients in each group. The mean age was 74.6 ± 6.4 years in the elderly and 49.3 ± 10.1 years in the younger groups. The cumulative 30-day, 90-day and 1-year mortality rates were 0, 2.2 and 4.3 % for the elderly, respectively, and 1.1 % for all time points in the young. These differences were not statistically significant. Overall, the elderly suffered from more perioperative complications (P = 0.010), and these were mostly minor complications according to the classification of operative complications. However, these differences were observed only in the SB but not in the CPF subgroup. More elderly patients had impaired functional outcome 1-year after surgery. Significantly more elderly patients had new neurological deficits 1-year after surgery (26.1 vs. 6.6 %; P = 0.001). Comparable mortality rates were observed in elderly and younger patients. However, the elderly had more minor complications and poorer functional outcomes. Patient selection remains key to good clinical outcome.
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Dermal autografts as a substitute for acellular dermal matrices (ADM) in tissue expander breast reconstruction: a prospective comparative study.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in tissue expander breast reconstruction has several advantages but increased complications have been reported. Dermal autografts may offer a safer and more cost-effective alternative. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the outcomes of tissue expander breast reconstruction using dermal autografts with ADM-assisted reconstruction. Patients undergoing tissue expander breast reconstruction with either ADM or dermal autografts were enrolled. Autografts were harvested from the lower abdomen. At each follow-up visit, patients were surveyed on a seven-point scale for scar and overall satisfaction. Biopsies taken at the time of device exchange were evaluated histologically with CD34 staining to assess tissue integration and vessel ingrowth. Expansion parameters, complications, procedural costs, and operative times were compared. Forty-eight patients were enrolled (76 breasts). Twenty-seven patients received ADM, and twenty-one patients received dermal autograft. Wound healing complications were significantly higher in the ADM group (14.8% versus 4.8%, p-value = 0.03), as were major complications (18.5% versus 0%, p-value < 0.01). Histologic vessel counts in the autograft group averaged 21 vessels/mm(2), compared to 7 vessels/mm(2) in the ADM group (p-value < 0.01). There was no difference between the two groups in scar satisfaction or overall satisfaction. Patients receiving dermal autograft had a lower incidence of major complications and delayed wound healing than patients who received ADM. Despite harvest time, the overall cost of the ADM-assisted expander placement was higher. Dermal autograft-assisted breast reconstruction offers many of the benefits of ADM, but with a lower cost and improved safety profile.
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Modeling self-agency among people with schizophrenia: empirical evidence for consumer-based recovery.
Psychopathology
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Self-agency--the awareness of ones own capacity to make decisions and to engage in deliberate action - is often interfered with or lost during the course of severe mental illness. Most existing literature on self-agency is either of experimental or qualitative nature, and empirical evidence is scanty.
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Comparison of HPV DNA testing in cervical exfoliated cells and tissue biopsies among HIV-positive women in Kenya.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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HIV-positive women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) (especially with multiple types), and develop cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer more frequently than HIV-negative women. We compared HPV DNA prevalence obtained using a GP5+/6+ PCR assay in cervical exfoliated cells to that in biopsies among 468 HIV-positive women from Nairobi, Kenya. HPV prevalence was higher in cells than biopsies and the difference was greatest in 94 women with a combination normal cytology/normal biopsy (prevalence ratio, PR = 3.7; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.4-5.7). PR diminished with the increase in lesion severity (PR in 58 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)/CIN2-3 = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.2). When HPV-positive, cells contained 2.0- to 4.6-fold more multiple infections than biopsies. Complete or partial agreement between cells and biopsies in the detection of individual HPV types was found in 91% of double HPV-positive pairs. The attribution of CIN2/3 to HPV16 and/or 18 would decrease from 37.6%, when the presence of these types in either cells or biopsies was counted, to 20.2% when it was based on the presence of HPV16 and/or 18 (and no other types) in biopsies. In conclusion, testing HPV on biopsies instead of cells results in decreased detection but not elimination of multiple infections in HIV-positive women. The proportion of CIN2/3 attributable to HPV16 and/or 18 among HIV-positive women, which already appeared to be lower than that in HIV-negative, would then further decrease. The meaning of HPV detection in cells and random biopsy from HIV-positive women with no cervical abnormalities remains unclear.
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CD90 (Thy-1)-positive selection enhances osteogenic capacity of human adipose-derived stromal cells.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Stem cell-based bone tissue engineering with adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) has shown great promise for revolutionizing treatment of large bone deficits. However, there is still a lack of consensus on cell surface markers identifying osteoprogenitors. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting has identified a subpopulation of CD105(low) cells with enhanced osteogenic differentiation. The purpose of the present study was to compare the ability of CD90 (Thy-1) to identify osteoprogenitors relative to CD(105).
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Cadmium exposure and liver disease among US adults.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Effects of chronic cadmium exposure on liver disease and liver-related mortality are unknown. We evaluated the association of creatinine-corrected urinary cadmium levels with hepatic necroinflammation, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver-related mortality, and liver cancer mortality in the US general population.
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The seed and the soil: optimizing stem cells and their environment for tissue regeneration.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The potential for stem cells to serve as cellular building blocks for reconstruction of complex defects has prompted significant enthusiasm in the field of regenerative medicine. Clinical application, however, is still limited, as implantation of cells into hostile wound environments may greatly hinder their tissue forming capacity. To circumvent this obstacle, novel approaches have been developed to manipulate both the stem cell itself and its surrounding environmental niche. By understanding this paradigm of seed and soil optimization, innovative strategies may thus be developed to harness the true promise of stem cells for tissue regeneration.
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Micro-computed tomography evaluation of human fat grafts in nude mice.
Tissue Eng Part C Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Although autologous fat grafting has revolutionized the field of soft tissue reconstruction and augmentation, long-term maintenance of fat grafts is unpredictable. Recent studies have reported survival rates of fat grafts to vary anywhere between 10% and 80% over time. The present study evaluated the long-term viability of human fat grafts in a murine model using a novel imaging technique allowing for in vivo volumetric analysis.
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Male, Mobile, and Moneyed: Loss to Follow-Up vs. Transfer of Care in an Urban African Antiretroviral Treatment Clinic.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics, reasons for transferring, and reasons for discontinuing care among patients defined as lost to follow-up (LTFU) from an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.
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Knowing a sexual partner is HIV-1-uninfected is associated with higher condom use among HIV-1-infected adults in Kenya.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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The relation between awareness of sexual partners HIV serostatus and unprotected sex was examined in HIV clinic enrollees. Increased condom use was associated with knowing that a partner was HIV-negative (adjusted odds ratio = 5.99; P < 0.001) versus not knowing partners status. Partner testing may increase condom use in discordant couples.
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Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus hand infections in the pediatric population.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Recent studies have reported rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) hand infections in patients without risk factors ranging from 26% to 73%. The purpose of our study was to review a large series of pediatric hand infections to determine the rate of MRSA and identify potential risk factors.
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Expedient treatment of a collodion baby.
Case Rep Dermatol Med
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Only ~270 cases of collodion babies have been reported in the literature since 1892. As the name suggests, the term "collodion baby" refers to a phenotype that can be characterized by a yellow, shiny, tight parchment-like membrane stretched over the skin. Although the collodion membrane is only an evanescent condition of the newborn, neonatal complications can occur in 45% of all collodion babies, leading to a mortality rate of ~11% in the first few weeks of life. Most children born as collodion babies will spontaneously desquamate within 2 weeks, but may be as long as 3 months. Eventually, these children develop signs of one of several types of ichthyosis, which gives the skin the appearance of "fish scales." We report a unique case of a Caucasian male that was born as a Collodion baby at the University of Kentucky Childrens Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky. Although the impairment of the skin barrier function put the patient at risk for a number of complications, he improved significantly after being treated with emollients and antibiotics. In contrast to previous findings, we found that skin emollients were beneficial and did not increase the risk of infection.
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Implementation of free cotrimoxazole prophylaxis improves clinic retention among antiretroviral therapy-ineligible clients in Kenya.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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To determine whether implementation of free cotrimoxazole (CTX) provision was associated with improved retention among clients ineligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) enrolled in an HIV treatment program in Kenya.
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Atypical Clinical and Diagnostic Features in Ménétriers Disease in a Child.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Ménétriers disease is one of the rarest protein-losing gastropathies in childhood. It is characterized clinically by non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms and edema, biochemically by hypoalbuminemia, and pathologically by enlarged gastric folds. In adults, this disease can be devastating with significant morbidity and mortality. In childhood, it is a self-limiting, transient and benign illness. Its treatment is largely supportive with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) while oral intake is encouraged. Acute onset of vomiting in healthy school age children can be initially explained by acute viral gastroenteritis. However, persistent vomiting associated with hematemesis and severe abdominal pain should warrant further work-up. This case report illustrates a self-limiting and rare cause of protein-losing enteropathy called Ménétriers disease that presented with several variant clinical features not typically described in association with this entity.
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Younger age at HAART initiation is associated with more rapid growth reconstitution.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Patterns of growth following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) administration among children are not well defined. The objective of this study was to determine rates and predictors of growth reconstitution among children on HAART.
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Environmental complexity, seasonality and brain cell proliferation in a weakly electric fish, Brachyhypopomus gauderio.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Environmental complexity and season both influence brain cell proliferation in adult vertebrates, but their relative importance and interaction have not been directly assessed. We examined brain cell proliferation during both the breeding and non-breeding seasons in adult male electric fish, Brachyhypopomus gauderio, exposed to three environments that differed in complexity: (1) a complex natural habitat in northern Uruguay, (2) an enriched captive environment where fish were housed socially and (3) a simple laboratory setting where fish were isolated. We injected fish with BrdU 2.5 h before sacrifice to label newborn cells. We examined the hindbrain and midbrain and quantified the density of BrdU+ cells in whole transverse sections, proliferative zones and two brain nuclei in the electrocommunication circuitry (the pacemaker nucleus and the electrosensory lateral line lobe). Season had the largest effect on cell proliferation, with fish during the breeding season having three to seven times more BrdU+ cells than those during the non-breeding season. Although the effect was smaller, fish from a natural environment had greater rates of cell proliferation than fish in social or isolated captive environments. For most brain regions, fish in social and isolated captive environments had equivalent levels of cell proliferation. However, for brain regions in the electrocommunication circuitry, group-housed fish had more cell proliferation than isolated fish, but only during the breeding season (season × environment interaction). The regionally and seasonally specific effect of social environment on cell proliferation suggests that addition of new cells to these nuclei may contribute to seasonal changes in electrocommunication behavior.
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The consequences of post-election violence on antiretroviral HIV therapy in Kenya.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Over 1000 individuals were killed and 600,000 were displaced during post-election violence (PEV) in Kenya in 2008. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on continuous access to medications which may have been interrupted due to PEV. In a mixed-methods retrospective review, treatment interruption of ART during PEV was measured among 2534 HIV-positive adults attending the Coptic Hope Center for Infectious Diseases in Nairobi, Kenya. Clients experiencing treatment interruption were compared between the PEV period (30 December 2007 to 28 February 2008) and the same time period one year earlier. Treatment interruption was defined as visiting the pharmacy ?48 hours after antiretrovirals were calculated to have been completed. Despite clinical services remaining open throughout the PEV period, more clients (16.1%) experienced treatment interruption than during the comparison period (10.2%). Mean daily pharmacy visits were significantly lower (87 vs. 104; p < 0.006) and more variable (p = 0.03) during PEV. Among clients present at both periods (n = 1605), the odds of treatment interruption were 71% higher during PEV (95% confidence interval [CI], 34-118%). In multivariate analysis, men (odds ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76) and clients traveling ?3 hours to clinic (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.28-2.71) were significantly more likely to experience treatment interruption. Clients affected by PEV were interviewed about factors associated with treatment interruption using semi-structured methods. Clients described fear, lack of transportation, and violence as contributing to treatment interruption. Widespread violence associated with the 2007 election in Kenya revealed the dependence of HIV patients on a stable civil society and infrastructure to access medications. Without the ability to maintain consistent HIV therapy, some patients face rapid treatment failure. HIV programs should have appropriate contingency plans wherever political instability may occur. Peace may be one of the most effective and most important public health interventions in Africa.
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Anthocyanin-rich fractions of blackberry extracts reduce UV-induced free radicals and oxidative damage in keratinocytes.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Hull blackberries were purified using solid phase extraction to obtain anthocyanin-rich methanol fractions. This method concentrated phenolics and anthocyanins, recovering 97% and 76% of the total yield in puree or powder extracts, respectively, which represented a 24-63 fold increase of the total antioxidant capacity when compared with either the water fraction or the original extract. The ability of these fractions to protect primary keratinocytes against UV-induced oxidative damage was assessed. Anthocyanin-rich methanol fractions derived from either blackberry powder or puree exhibited strong antioxidant properties, protecting against UV-induced ROS nearly as efficiently as N-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, the fractions up-regulated the expression of catalase, MnSOD, Gpx1/2 and Gsta1 antioxidant enzymes. Thus, it is concluded that blackberry extracts may protect keratinocytes against UV-mediated oxidative damage.
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Cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya.
Curr. HIV Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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The prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa has not been well described.
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A randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of counseling and alarm device on HAART adherence and virologic outcomes.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Behavioral interventions that promote adherence to antiretroviral medications may decrease HIV treatment failure. Antiretroviral treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa confront increasing financial constraints to provide comprehensive HIV care, which include adherence interventions. This study compared the impact of counseling and use of an alarm device on adherence and biological outcomes in a resource-limited setting.
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Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): a randomised trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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Mobile (cell) phone communication has been suggested as a method to improve delivery of health services. However, data on the effects of mobile health technology on patient outcomes in resource-limited settings are limited. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone communication between health-care workers and patients starting antiretroviral therapy in Kenya improved drug adherence and suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA load.
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Interactive Publication: The document as a research tool.
Web Semant
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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The increasing prevalence of multimedia and research data generated by scientific work affords an opportunity to reformulate the idea of a scientific article from the traditional static document, or even one with links to supplemental material in remote databases, to a self-contained, multimedia-rich interactive publication. This paper describes our concept of such a document, and the design of tools for authoring (Forge) and visualization/analysis (Panorama). They are platform-independent applications written in Java, and developed in Eclipse using its Rich Client Platform (RCP) framework. Both applications operate on PDF files with links to XML files that define the media type, location, and action to be performed. We also briefly cite the challenges posed by the potentially large size of interactive publications, the need for evaluating their value to improved comprehension and learning, and the need for their long-term preservation by the National Library of Medicine and other libraries.
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Psychiatric morbidity following miscarriage in Hong Kong.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2010
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The aim of this study is to examine the pattern of psychiatric morbidity up to 3 months following miscarriage and to identify the risk factors of post-miscarriage depressive disorder among Chinese women in Hong Kong.
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Risk factors for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in SARS survivors.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most prevalent long-term psychiatric diagnoses among survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
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Impact of prior HAART use on clinical outcomes in a large Kenyan HIV treatment program.
Curr. HIV Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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HIV treatment programs in Africa typically approach all enrolling patients uniformly. Growing numbers of patients are antiretroviral experienced. Defining patients on the basis of antiretroviral experience may inform enrollment practices, particularly if medical outcomes differ.
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Lower risk of resistance after short-course HAART compared with zidovudine/single-dose nevirapine used for prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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Antiretroviral resistance after short-course regimens used to prevent mother-to-child transmission has consequences for later treatment. Directly comparing the prevalence of resistance after short-course regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine (ZDV/sdNVP) will provide critical information when assessing the relative merits of these antiretroviral interventions.
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The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized controlled trial protocol.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya.
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Third-order torque and self-ligating orthodontic bracket-type effects on sliding friction.
Angle Orthod
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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To examine the influence of third-order torque on kinetic friction in sliding mechanics involving active and passive self-ligating brackets.
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Long-term psychiatric morbidities among SARS survivors.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was the first massive infectious disease outbreak of the 21st century. However, it is unlikely that this outbreak will be the last. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term psychiatric morbidities in survivors of SARS.
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Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins hypoplastic mandible comparison using three-dimensional morphometric analysis.
J Craniofac Surg
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Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome are both associated with mandibular hypoplasia. It has been hypothesized, however, that the mandible may be differentially affected. The purpose of this study was to therefore compare mandibular morphology in children with Pierre Robin sequence with children with Treacher Collins syndrome using three-dimensional analysis of computed tomographic scans. A retrospective analysis was performed identifying children with Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome undergoing computed tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed, and ramus height, mandibular body length, and gonial angle were measured. These were then compared with those in control children with normal mandibles and with the clinical norms corrected for age and sex based on previously published measurements. Mandibular body length was found to be significantly shorter for children with Pierre Robin sequence, whereas ramus height was significantly shorter for children with Treacher Collins syndrome. This resulted in distinctly different ramus height-mandibular body length ratios. In addition, the gonial angle was more obtuse in both the Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome groups compared with the controls. Three-dimensional mandibular morphometric analysis in patients with Pierre Robin sequence and Treacher Collins syndrome thus revealed distinctly different patterns of mandibular hypoplasia relative to normal controls. These findings underscore distinct considerations that must be made in surgical planning for reconstruction.
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Offering an American graduate medical HIV course to health care workers in resource-limited settings via the Internet.
PLoS ONE
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Western accredited medical universities can offer graduate-level academic courses to health care workers (HCWs) in resource-limited settings through the Internet. It is not known whether HCWs are interested in these online courses, whether they can perform as well as matriculated students, or whether such courses are educationally or practically relevant.
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Craniosynostosis: molecular pathways and future pharmacologic therapy.
Organogenesis
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Craniosynostosis describes the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures and can lead to dramatic manifestations in terms of appearance and functional impairment. Contemporary approaches for this condition are primarily surgical and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The additional post-operative problems of suture refusion and bony relapse may also necessitate repeated surgeries with their own attendant risks. Therefore, a need exists to not only optimize current strategies but also to develop novel biological therapies which could obviate the need for surgery and potentially treat or even prevent premature suture fusion. Clinical studies of patients with syndromic craniosynostosis have provided some useful insights into the important signaling pathways and molecular events guiding suture fate. Furthermore, the highly conserved nature of craniofacial development between humans and other species have permitted more focused and step-wise elucidation of the molecular underpinnings of craniosynostosis. This review will describe the clinical manifestations of craniosynostosis, reflect on our understanding of syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostoses and outline the different approaches that have been adopted in our laboratory and elsewhere to better understand the pathogenesis of premature suture fusion. Finally, we will assess to what extent our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis, achieved through laboratory-based and clinical studies, have made the possibility of a non-surgical pharmacological approach both realistic and tangible.
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Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone.
Lasers Surg Med
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Although mechanical osteotomies are frequently made on the craniofacial skeleton, collateral thermal, and mechanical trauma to adjacent bone tissue causes cell death and may delay healing. The present study evaluated the use of plasma-mediated laser ablation using a femtosecond laser to circumvent thermal damage and improve bone regeneration.
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Models of cranial suture biology.
J Craniofac Surg
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Craniosynostosis is a common congenital defect caused by premature fusion of cranial sutures. The severe morphologic abnormalities and cognitive deficits resulting from craniosynostosis and the potential morbidity of surgical correction espouse the need for a deeper understanding of the complex etiology for this condition. Work in animal models for the past 20 years has been pivotal in advancing our understanding of normal suture biology and elucidating pathologic disease mechanisms. This article provides an overview of milestone studies in suture development, embryonic origins, and signaling mechanisms from an array of animal models including transgenic mice, rats, rabbits, fetal sheep, zebrafish, and frogs. This work contributes to an ongoing effort toward continued development of novel treatment strategies.
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Enhancing stem cell survival in vivo for tissue repair.
Biotechnol. Adv.
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The ability to use progenitor cells for regenerative medicine remains an evolving but elusive clinical goal. A serious obstacle towards widespread use of stem cells for tissue regeneration is the challenges that face these cells when they are placed in vivo into a wound for therapy. These environments are hypoxic, acidic, and have an upregulation of inflammatory mediators creating a region that is hostile towards cellular survival. Within this environment, the majority of progenitor cells undergo apoptosis prior to participating in lineage differentiation and cellular integration. In order to maximize the clinical utility of stem cells, strategies must be employed to increase the cells ability to survive in vivo through manipulation of both the stem cell and the surrounding environment. This review focuses on current advances and techniques being used to increase in vivo stem cell survival for the purpose of tissue regeneration.
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Repair of a critical-sized calvarial defect model using adipose-derived stromal cells harvested from lipoaspirate.
J Vis Exp
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Craniofacial skeletal repair and regeneration offers the promise of de novo tissue formation through a cell-based approach utilizing stem cells. Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) have proven to be an abundant source of multipotent stem cells capable of undergoing osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic differentiation. Many studies have explored the osteogenic potential of these cells in vivo with the use of various scaffolding biomaterials for cellular delivery. It has been demonstrated that by utilizing an osteoconductive, hydroxyapatite-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HA-PLGA) scaffold seeded with ASCs, a critical-sized calvarial defect, a defect that is defined by its inability to undergo spontaneous healing over the lifetime of the animal, can be effectively show robust osseous regeneration. This in vivo model demonstrates the basis of translational approaches aimed to regenerate the bone tissue - the cellular component and biological matrix. This method serves as a model for the ultimate clinical application of a progenitor cell towards the repair of a specific tissue defect.
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Social novelty enhances brain cell proliferation, cell survival, and chirp production in an electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.
Dev Neurobiol
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For many animals, enriched environments and social interaction promote adult neurogenesis. However, in some cases, the effect is transient, and long-term environmental stimuli have little benefit for neurogenesis. In electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, fish housed in pairs for 7 days show higher density of newborn brain cells (cell addition) than isolated fish, but fish paired for 14 days have rates of cell addition similar to isolated controls. We examined whether introduction of social novelty can sustain elevated levels of cell addition and prevent long-term habituation to social interaction. We also monitored electrocommunication signals ("chirps") as a measure of the behavioral response to social novelty. We paired fish for 14 days with one continuous partner (no social novelty), two sequential partners changed after 7 days (low novelty) or seven sequential partners changed every 2 days (high novelty). On Day 11, we injected fish with BrdU, sacrificed fish 3 days later and quantified BrdU labeling in the diencephalic periventricular zone. Fish exposed to no novelty had BrdU labeling similar to isolated fish. Fish with low novelty showed small increases in BrdU labeling and those with high novelty had much greater BrdU labeling. Similarly, chirp rates were greater in fish with low novelty than with no novelty and greatest yet in fish with high novelty. By varying the timing of novelty relative to BrdU injection, we showed that social novelty promoted both proliferation and survival of newborn cells. These results indicated that brain cell proliferation and survival is influenced more by social change than simply the presence of social stimuli.
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In-depth analysis of patient-clinician cell phone communication during the WelTel Kenya1 antiretroviral adherence trial.
PLoS ONE
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The WelTel Kenya1 trial demonstrated that text message support improved adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and suppression of HIV-1 RNA load. The intervention involved sending weekly messages to patients inquiring how they were doing; participants were required to respond either that they were well or that there was a problem.
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of (1-halo-2-naphthyl) carbamate-based inhibitors of KIAA1363 (NCEH1/AADACL1).
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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KIAA1363 is a serine hydrolase whose activity has been shown to be positively associated with tumor cell invasiveness. Thus, inhibitors of KIAA1363 represent a novel targeted therapy approach towards cancer. AX11890 ((1-bromo-2-naphthyl) N,N-dimethylcarbamate) was identified as a KIAA1363 inhibitor with an IC(50) value of 1.2 ?M and was shown using ESI-MS to carbamylate the catalytic residue Ser(191). SAR studies explored both substitution of the 1-bromo group and derivatization of the 6-position. Activity-based protein profiling demonstrated AX13057 inhibited tumor-localized KIAA1363 in SK-OV-3 xenograft-bearing mice.
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Rethinking the blastema.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
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The phenomenon of tissue regeneration has been well documented across many species. Although some possess the capacity to completely restore an entire amputated limb, others are limited to just the distal digit tip. Initiation of limb regeneration has been described to start with the formation of a blastema, the composition of which has long been thought to consist of undifferentiated pluripotent cells derived through the process of dedifferentiation. Competing theories have been proposed, however, including cellular contributions through transdifferentiation and tissue-specific stem cells. Recent studies have now begun to shed light on this controversy, demonstrating tissue resident stem cells to be an evolutionarily conserved measure for limb regeneration.
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Increased incidence of symptomatic peripheral neuropathy among adults receiving stavudine- versus zidovudine-based antiretroviral regimens in Kenya.
J. Neurovirol.
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The incidence of peripheral neuropathy (PN) among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing stavudine (d4T) versus zidovudine (ZDV) is not well described. We compared 1-year incidence between d4T- and ZDV-based regimens in adults initiating ART in a programmatic setting in Kenya. Of 1,848 adults on ART, 1,579 (85 %) initiated d4T-based and 269 (15 %) initiated ZDV-based regimens. One-year incidence of symptomatic PN per 100 person-years was 21.9 (n=236) among d4T users and 6.9 (n=7) among ZDV users (P=0.0002). D4T was associated with 2.7 greater risk of PN than ZDV (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.7, P=0.009). In settings with continued d4T use, such as Africa, the effects of d4T on PN compared to ZDV should be considered when choosing ART regimens.
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Specific antibody deficiency in children with chronic wet cough.
Arch. Dis. Child.
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The prevalence and clinical significance of specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SAD) in children are poorly understood. The authors sought to determine the prevalence of SAD in children with chronic wet cough, through a retrospective study of all children with chronic wet cough attending our tertiary respiratory clinic over a 12-month period. Antibody levels to 13 pneumococcal serotypes were measured following vaccination with the unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumovax II, and clinical data were reviewed. Twenty-four children over 2 years of age with chronic wet cough were vaccinated. Fourteen (58%) failed to mount an adequate antibody response, consistent with SAD. Children with SAD were more likely than children with normal antibody responses to require intravenous antibiotics (p=0.035) and to have abnormal chest radiographs (p=0.029). The authors conclude that SAD is present in a significant number of children with chronic wet cough. The clinical significance and long-term outcome of SAD warrant further investigation in prospective studies.
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Incidence and correlates of HIV-1 RNA detection in the breast milk of women receiving HAART for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission.
PLoS ONE
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The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine and Disease Modeling.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
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In 2006, Dr. Yamanaka created the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) by reprogramming adult fibroblasts back to an immature, pluripotent state. Effectively bypassing the ethical constraints of human embryonic stem cells, iPSCs have expanded the horizons of regenerative medicine by offering a means to derive autologous patient-matched cells and tissues for clinical transplantation. However, persisting safety concerns must be addressed prior to their widespread clinical application. In this review, we discuss the history of iPSCs, derivation strategies, and current research involving gene therapy and disease modeling. We review the potential of iPSCs for improving a range of cell-based therapies and obstacles to their clinical implementation.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.