Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases (PMCA) extrude Ca(2+) ions out of the cell and contribute to generation of calcium oscillations. Calcium signaling is crucial for transcriptional regulation of dopamine secretion by neuroendocrine PC12 cells. Low resting [Ca(2+)]c in PC12 cells is maintained mainly by two Ca(2+)-ATPases, PMCA2 and PMCA3. Recently, we found that Ca(2+) dependent phosphatase calcineurin was excessively activated under conditions of experimental downregulation of PMCA2 or PMCA3. Thus, the aim of this study was to explain if, via modulation of the Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway, PMCA2 and PMCA3 affect intracellular signaling in pheochromocytoma/neuronal cells/PC12 cells. Secondly, we tested whether this might influence dopamine secretion by PC12 cells.
The bulk of human genes undergo alternative splicing (AS) upon response to physiological stimuli. AS is a great source of protein diversity and biological processes and is associated with the development of many diseases. Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor, characterized by an excessive Ca2+-dependent secretion of catecholamines. This underlines the importance of balanced control of calcium transport via regulation of gene expression pattern, including different calcium transport systems, such as plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCAs), abundantly expressed in pheochromocytoma chromaffin cells (PC12 cells). PMCAs are encoded by four genes (Atp2b1, Atp2b2, Atp2b3, Atp2b4), whose transcript products undergo alternative splicing giving almost 30 variants.
Cellular calcium homeostasis is controlled predominantly by the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA). From four PMCA isoforms, PMCA1 and PMCA4 are ubiquitous, while PMCA2 and PMCA3 are found in excitable cells. We have previously shown that suppression of neuron-specific PMCAs in non-differentiated PC12 cells changed the cell morphology and triggered neuritogenesis. Using the microarrays, real-time PCR and immunodetection, we analyzed the effect of PMCA2 or PMCA3 reduction in PC12 cells on gene expression, with emphasis on calmodulin (CaM), neuromodulin (GAP43) and MAP kinases. In PMCA-suppressed lines total CaM increased, and the calm I and calm II genes appeared to be responsible for this effect. mRNA and protein levels of GAP43 were increased, however, the amount of phosphorylated form was lower than in control cells. Localization of CaM/GAP43 and CaM/pGAP43 differed between control and PMCA-reduced cells. In both PMCA-modified lines, amounts of ERK1/2 increased. While pERK1 decreased, the pERK2 level was similar in all examined lines. PMCA suppression did not change the p38 amount, but the p-p38 diminished. JNK2 protein decreased in both PMCA-reduced cells without changes in pJNK level. Microarray analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of certain genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, migration, differentiation, apoptosis and cell signaling. Suppression of neuron-specific PMCA isoforms affected the phenotype of PC12 cells enabling adaptation to the sustained increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. This is the first report showing function of PMCA2 and PMCA3 isoforms in the regulation of signaling pathways in PC12 cells.
PMCA1-4 isoforms have been recently recognised as regulators of various signalling pathways in mammalian cells. PMCAs were found to interact with calcineurin A in an isoform specific manner. In this study we focus on the interaction of calcineurin A with PMCA4 and its effect on catecholamine secretion in PC12 cells with reduced PMCA2 or PMCA3 content. Reduction of synthesis of PMCA2 or PMCA3 led to upregulation of PMCA4 manifested by preferential interaction of PMCA4 with calcineurin A. On the other hand, we observed a significant reduction of dopamine secretion, which did not correspond with an increased [Ca(2+)](c). This result indicates that the interaction of PMCA4 with calcineurin A plays a regulatory role in the signalling during catecholamine secretion.
Noradrenaline and adrenaline are secreted by adrenal medulla chromaffin cells via exocytosis. Exocytosis of catecholamines occurs after cell stimulation with various endogenous activators such as nicotine or after depolarization of the plasma membrane and is regulated by calcium ions. Cytosolic [Ca(2+)] increases in response to cell excitation and triggers a signal-initiated secretion. Annexins are known to participate in the regulation of membrane dynamics and are also considered to be involved in vesicular trafficking. Some experimental evidence suggests that annexins may participate in Ca(2+)-regulated catecholamine secretion. In this report the effect of annexin A6 (AnxA6) isoforms 1 and 2 on catecholamine secretion has been described. Overexpression of AnxA6 isoforms and AnxA6 knock-down in PC12 cells were accompanied by almost complete inhibition or a 20% enhancement of dopamine secretion, respectively. AnxA6-1 and AnxA6-2 overexpression reduced Delta[Ca(2+)](c) upon depolarization by 32% and 58%, respectively, while AnxA6 knock-down increased Delta[Ca(2+)](c) by 44%. The mechanism of AnxA6 action on Ca(2+) signalling is not well understood. Experimental evidence suggests that two AnxA6 isoforms interact with different targets engaged in regulation of calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells.
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