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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Arm span and ulnar length are reliable and accurate estimates of recumbent length and height in a multiethnic population of infants and children under 6 years of age.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Surrogate measures are needed when recumbent length or height is unobtainable or unreliable. Arm span has been used as a surrogate but is not feasible in children with shoulder or arm contractures. Ulnar length is not usually impaired by joint deformities, yet its utility as a surrogate has not been adequately studied. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the accuracy and reliability of ulnar length measured by different tools as a surrogate measure of recumbent length and height. Anthropometrics [recumbent length, height, arm span, and ulnar length by caliper (ULC), ruler (ULR), and grid (ULG)] were measured in 1479 healthy infants and children aged <6 y across 8 study centers in the United States. Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models for recumbent length and height were developed by using ulnar length and arm span as surrogate measures. The agreement between the measured length or height and the predicted values by ULC, ULR, ULG, and arm span were examined by Bland-Altman plots. All 3 measures of ulnar length and arm span were highly correlated with length and height. The degree of precision of prediction equations for length by ULC, ULR, and ULG (R(2) = 0.95, 0.95, and 0.92, respectively) was comparable with that by arm span (R(2) = 0.97) using age, sex, and ethnicity as covariates; however, height prediction by ULC (R(2) = 0.87), ULR (R(2) = 0.85), and ULG (R(2) = 0.88) was less comparable with arm span (R(2) = 0.94). Our study demonstrates that arm span and ULC, ULR, or ULG can serve as accurate and reliable surrogate measures of recumbent length and height in healthy children; however, ULC, ULR, and ULG tend to slightly overestimate length and height in young infants and children. Further testing of ulnar length as a surrogate is warranted in physically impaired or nonambulatory children.
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Erythrocyte folate concentrations, CpG methylation at genomically imprinted domains, and birth weight in a multiethnic newborn cohort.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Epigenetic mechanisms are proposed to link maternal concentrations of methyl group donor nutrients with the risk of low birth weight. However, empirical data are lacking. We have examined the association between maternal folate and birth weight and assessed the mediating role of DNA methylation at nine differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of genomically imprinted genes in these associations. Compared with newborns of women with folate levels in the lowest quartile, birth weight was higher in newborns of mothers in the second (? = 143.2, se = 63.2, P = 0.02), third (? = 117.3, se = 64.0, P = 0.07), and fourth (? = 133.9, se = 65.2, P = 0.04) quartiles, consistent with a threshold effect. This pattern of association did not vary by race/ethnicity but was more apparent in newborns of non-obese women. DNA methylation at the PLAGL1, SGCE, DLK1/MEG3 and IGF2/H19 DMRs was associated with maternal folate levels and also birth weight, suggestive of threshold effects. MEG3 DMR methylation mediated the association between maternal folate levels and birth weight (P =0.06). While the small sample size and partial scope of examined DMRs limit our conclusions, our data suggest that, with respect to birth weight, no additional benefits may be derived from increased maternal folate concentrations, especially in non-obese women. These data also support epigenetic plasticity as a key mechanistic response to folate availability during early fetal development.
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A population-based study of associations between preeclampsia and later cardiovascular risk factors.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Women with a history of preeclampsia are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. Their offspring may carry similar risks. The aim was to study cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors 11 years after the delivery among women who were diagnosed with mild, moderate, or severe preeclampsia, and their offspring, compared with women without preeclampsia and their offspring.
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Menopausal hormone therapy and lung cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis: the California Teachers Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous results from research on menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and lung cancer survival have been mixed and most have not studied women who used estrogen therapy (ET) exclusively. We examined the associations between MHT use reported at baseline and lung cancer-specific mortality in the prospective California Teachers Study cohort. Among 727 postmenopausal women diagnosed with lung cancer from 1995 through 2007, 441 women died before January 1, 2008. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for lung-cancer-specific mortality were obtained by fitting multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models using age in days as the timescale. Among women who used ET exclusively, decreases in lung cancer mortality were observed (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.93). No association was observed for estrogen plus progestin therapy use. Among former users, shorter duration (<5 years) of exclusive ET use was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer mortality (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.89), whereas among recent users, longer duration (>15 years) was associated with a decreased risk (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38-0.95). Smoking status modified the associations with deceases in lung cancer mortality observed only among current smokers. Exclusive ET use was associated with decreased lung cancer mortality.
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Do longer formula feeding and later introduction of solids increase risk for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia?
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Milk formula feeding can elevate insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, possibly impacting leukemogenesis. The intent of the current study is to examine the associations between infant feeding practices and age at introduction of solids on risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Incident cases of infant and childhood (aged ?14 years) ALL (n = 142) were enrolled in a case-control study. Cases were frequency matched on age, sex, race, and ethnicity to two sets of controls (n = 284 total). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between infant feeding practices and age at the introduction of solids and the odds ratio of ALL. In adjusted multivariable analyses, each additional month of formula feeding was associated with a 1.17 (1.09-1.25) odds ratio; each additional month of age at introduction of solids was associated with a 1.18 (1.07-1.30) odds ratio. In this study, longer duration of formula feeding and later age at the introduction of solid foods were independently associated with increased risk of ALL. Additional studies are needed to address the factors influencing duration of formula feeding and delayed introduction of solids. The results support the potential role of energy balance in early life as a contributor to risk for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
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The associations of body image, anxiety, and smoking among Mexican-origin youth.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Among Mexican-origin teenagers, anxiety is associated with cigarette experimentation, while among girls and young women from other ethnic groups the desire to be thin is associated with smoking. However, little is known about the associations of body image concerns with smoking in Mexican-origin youth, particularly when accounting for anxiety.
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Associations between dietary intake of choline and betaine and lung cancer risk.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Evidence from human and animal research indicates that choline metabolic pathways may be activated during a variety of diseases, including cancer. We report results of a case-control study of 2821 lung cancer cases and 2923 controls that assessed associations of choline and betaine dietary intakes with lung cancer. Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we report a significant association between higher betaine intake and lower lung cancer risk that varied by smoking status. Specifically, no significant association was observed between betaine intake and lung cancer among never-smokers. However, higher betaine intake was significantly associated with reduced lung cancer risk among smokers, and the protective effect was more evident among current than former smokers: for former and current smokers, the ORs (95% CI) of lung cancer for individuals with highest as compared to lowest quartiles of intake were 0.70(0.55-0.88) and 0.51(0.39-0.66) respectively. Significant linear trend of higher betaine intake and lower lung cancer risk was observed among both former (p(trend)?=?0.002) and current (p(trend)<0.0001) smokers. A similar protective effect was also observed with choline intake both in overall analysis as well as among current smokers, with p-values for chi-square tests being 0.001 and 0.004 respectively, but the effect was less evident, as no linear trend was observed. Our results suggest that choline and betaine intake, especially higher betaine intake, may be protective against lung cancer through mitigating the adverse effect of smoking.
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Investigating multiple candidate genes and nutrients in the folate metabolism pathway to detect genetic and nutritional risk factors for lung cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Folate metabolism, with its importance to DNA repair, provides a promising region for genetic investigation of lung cancer risk. This project investigates genes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, CBS, SHMT1, TYMS), folate metabolism related nutrients (B vitamins, methionine, choline, and betaine) and their gene-nutrient interactions.
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Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants.
Int J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (?37 weeks of gestation) were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (?3rd tertile), those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile) were 130?g heavier at birth, (?-coefficient = 230, se = 58.0, P = 0.0001), after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ?30?kg/m(2); the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P ? 0.0004). Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.
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Tuberculosis and oncogenic HPV: potential co-infections in women at high-risk of cervical cancer in rural China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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The study was embedded in Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study II with the aim of examining the association between history of diagnosed tuberculosis or cervical inflammation and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, persistent oncogenic HPV infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN3+) in an isolated rural population of China. A total of 8,798 women were recruited for cervical cancer screening and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Of the women in the study, 2.7% and 34% reported a diagnosis of tuberculosis and cervical inflammation, respectively. In the model for HPV infection, HPV persistence and CIN3+, we show an increasing magnitude of effect of tuberculosis with increasing severity of disease, as demonstrated by the increasing odds ratios from 1.68 for HPV positivity, to 1.75 for persistent HPV and then 2.08 for CIN3+. Women reporting a diagnosis of tuberculosis, cervical inflammation or both tuberculosis and cervical inflammation were at 75%, 22% and 113% higher odds of persistent HPV infection, respectively. One percent of the study population was diagnosed with tuberculosis and cervical inflammation, placing them at 90% and 113% higher odds of infection with HPV and persistent HPV, respectively. Tuberculosis and oncogenic HPV are identified for the first time as co-infections in rural unscreened women in Shanxi Province, China, highlighting the importance of infection history in assessing an individual s risk for HPV infection, persistence and CIN3+.
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Gestational vitamin D and the risk of multiple sclerosis in offspring.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Vitamin D may have a protective role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the effect of gestational vitamin D on adult onset MS has not been studied.
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Dietary patterns affect lung cancer risk in never smokers.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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A number of studies suggest a role of dietary factors as risk predictors of lung cancer in never smokers. However, it is difficult to interpret the observed associations of lung cancer risk with any particular dietary item due to high correlation among different dietary items. In this study, we derived uncorrelated patterns of dietary items in the never smokers and evaluated the association of these patterns with lung cancer risk, using food frequency data from 299 never-smoker lung cancer patients and 317 controls enrolled in an ongoing case-control lung cancer study. We identified 2 major dietary patterns in never smokers: a "healthy eating" pattern including vegetables, fruits, and low-fat food items, and a "mixed dishes" pattern including most foods with positive loadings. Using multivariable regression analysis, we show that the healthy eating pattern is associated with a significant reduction of lung cancer risk among never smokers. The effect of the healthy eating pattern remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, education, caloric intake, secondhand smoke exposure, and family history of cancer. This finding, if confirmed in a prospective study, has a clear preventive significance, by promoting interventions encouraging healthier diets.
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Methylation variation at IGF2 differentially methylated regions and maternal folic acid use before and during pregnancy.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Folic acid (FA) supplementation before and during pregnancy has been associated with decreased risk of neural tube defects although recent reports suggest it may also increase the risk of other chronic diseases. We evaluated exposure to maternal FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in relation to aberrant DNA methylation at two differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulating Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) expression in infants. Aberrant methylation at these regions has been associated with IGF2 deregulation and increased susceptibility to several chronic diseases. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we assessed FA intake before and during pregnancy in 438 pregnant women. Pyrosequencing was used to measure methylation at two IGF2 DMRs in umbilical cord blood leukocytes. Mixed models were used to determine relationships between maternal FA supplementation before or during pregnancy and DNA methylation levels at birth. Average methylation at the H19 DMR was 61.2%. Compared to infants born to women reporting no FA intake before or during pregnancy, methylation levels at the H19 DMR decreased with increasing FA intake (2.8%, p=0.03, and 4.9%, p=0.04, for intake before and during pregnancy, respectively). This methylation decrease was most pronounced in male infants (p=0.01). Methylation alterations at the H19 DMR are likely an important mechanism by which FA risks and/or benefits are conferred in utero. Because stable methylation marks at DMRs regulating imprinted genes are acquired before gastrulation, they may serve as archives of early exposures with the potential to improve our understanding of developmental origins of adult disease.
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Psychosocial risk and correlates of early menarche in Mexican-American girls.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Mexican-American girls have one of the fastest rates of decline in age at menarche. To date, no study has addressed the role of psychosocial factors on age at menarche in this population. Using data from a longitudinal cohort of Mexican-American girls from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area recruited in 2005, the authors investigated associations between family life and socioeconomic environment and age at menarche in 523 girls. After adjusting for maternal age at menarche, daughters age, and body mass index at baseline, perception of family life environment as conflict-prone was significantly associated with an earlier age at menarche (< 11 years). Additionally, there was a 2-fold higher risk (odds ratio = 2.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 4.40) of early menarche among daughters of mothers who were single parents compared with those who were not. Furthermore, girls who matured early had a 2.5-fold increased risk (odds ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 6.96) of experimenting with cigarettes compared with those who had an average-to-late age at menarche (? 11 years). This study provides important information regarding the role of family life environment and single parenting on age at menarche in Mexican Americans. Awareness of the impact of the family life environment and fathers absence during the early years should be emphasized when addressing early age at menarche across cultures.
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Associations among dietary supplement use and dietary and activity behaviors by sex and race/ethnicity in a representative multiethnic sample of 11th-grade students in Texas.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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The purpose of this study was to examine associations among dietary supplement use and dietary/activity patterns in a representative sample of adolescents by sex and race/ethnicity, a research area where extant data is limited.
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Menopausal hormone therapy does not influence lung cancer risk: results from the California Teachers Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Results from studies examining the association between hormone therapy (HT) and lung cancer risk disagree.
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Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST).
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Folic acid (FA) added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicines recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL) of 1,000 micrograms per day (?g/d) for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA) doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use.
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Pubertal development in daughters of women with pre-eclampsia.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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To compare clinical signs of puberty onset in daughters of pre-eclampsia and normotensive pregnancies.
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Serum estrogen and tumor-positive estrogen receptor-alpha are strong prognostic classifiers of non-small-cell lung cancer survival in both men and women.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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The role of tumor estrogen receptors (ERs) and serum estrogen in lung cancer is inconclusive. We investigated the hypothesis that ERs and functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the estrogen biosynthesis pathway are associated with poorer lung cancer survival. Lung cancer patients (n?=?305) from a National Cancer Institute-Maryland (NCI-MD) case-case cohort in the Baltimore metropolitan area were used as a test cohort. To validate, 227 cases from the NCI-MD case-control cohort and 293 cases from a Norwegian lung cancer cohort were studied. Information on demographics, tobacco and reproductive histories was collected in an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Serum estrogen, progesterone, tumor messenger RNA expression of hormone receptors and germ line DNA polymorphisms were analyzed for associations with lung cancer survival. Patients in the highest tertile of serum estrogen had worse survival in all three cohorts (P combined?
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Mineral intake and lung cancer risk in the NIH-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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Using data from a case-control study, we previously reported that low dietary intakes of magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), but not selenium (Se) and calcium (Ca), were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Due to dietary recall bias in case-control studies, our objective was to assess whether these findings hold in a prospective cohort study.
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Higher parity and shorter breastfeeding duration: association with triple-negative phenotype of breast cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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The combination of increased parity and shorter breastfeeding duration might increase the odds of the least differentiated triple-negative breast cancer (BC) phenotype, theoretically because an expanded progenitor cell population from each pregnancy would incompletely differentiate postpartum.
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Conference Report: Eighth Annual AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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The Eighth Annual Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research meeting was held in Houston, Texas, in November 2009. This report highlights significant presentations that advance the fields of chemoprevention, clinical trial recruitment and retention, cancer screening including optical imaging, energy balance, and nutritional epidemiology, and health communications and decision making. In findings from the randomized Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, dutasteride reduced the risk of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in high-risk men by 23% compared with placebo. Important clues about the dosing and window of susceptibility for supplementation with choline, vitamin D, and folate were revealed from epigenetic research that has implications for future nutritional epidemiology research. Noninvasive optical imaging techniques using endoscopic ultrasound and autofluorescence for the early detection of cancers in the lung, pancreas, and oral cavity are being studied. The report also addresses the challenges of promoting cancer prevention. Understanding how individuals process risk information and make sustained behavior changes and the effect of socioeconomic status on health disparities were identified as critical areas of research. This multidisciplinary research meeting of basic, clinical, and behavioral scientists and epidemiologists continues to play a major role in identifying the research priority areas of cancer prevention, elucidating new mechanisms of carcinogenesis for targeted chemoprevention therapies and delivering a comprehensive strategy for engaging individuals in the unifying goal to reduce cancer incidence.
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Gender-specific differences in birthweight and the odds of puberty: NHANES III, 1988-94.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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The association between birthweight and the odds ratio (OR) of pubertal status in girls aged between 8 and 11 and in boys aged between 8 and 12 was examined using the 1988-94 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Girls (n = 956), and boys (n = 1199), who had data on birthweight and Tanner staging were included. Maternal-reported birthweight, smoking in pregnancy and other information were provided in a home interview, while Tanner staging to assess pubertal status was part of a medical examination. Multiple logistic regression models were computed for the endpoints of the OR [95% confidence interval (CI)] of being Tanner Stage 2+ vs. 1 or being 2+ vs. 1 in an asynchronous pubertal pathway after adjustment for the complex sampling design of NHANES, age, race, height and body mass index (BMI). Birthweight was not associated with the OR of Tanner stage 2+ among girls; however, boys who were low birthweight (<2500 g) and boys born higher than average birthweight (3500-3999 g) were more likely to be Tanner stage 2+ than 1. Childhood BMI was associated with the OR of having entered puberty among girls, but not boys. In an analysis of asynchronous maturation, girls born at high birthweight (>4000 g) were more likely to have breast development 3+ than girls of normal birthweight, OR = 3.18 [95% CI 1.39, 8.25]. Thus, the birthweight-puberty association varies by gender and by pubertal pathway. Our findings need replication in prospective longitudinal studies, and research to understand the mechanisms underlying the relation of early life exposures to cancer risk.
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Preeclampsia and adiponectin in cord blood.
Horm Res Paediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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To compare cord blood concentrations of total adiponectin in the offspring of pregnancies with and without preeclampsia.
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Energy balance, the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway genes, and the risk of bladder cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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We evaluated the association between energy balance and risk of bladder cancer and assessed the joint effects of genetic variants in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genes with energy balance. The study included 803 Caucasian bladder cancer patients and 803 healthy Caucasian controls matched to cases by age (+/-5 years) and gender. High energy intake [odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.23-2.09] and low physical activity (odds ratio, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.10-3.79) were each associated with significantly increased risk of bladder cancer with dose-response pattern (P(trend) < 0.001). However, obesity (body mass index, > or =30) was not associated with the risk. Among 222 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in six genes of mTOR pathway were significantly associated with the risk. Further, the risk associated with high energy intake and low physical activity was only observed among subjects carrying a high number of unfavorable genotypes in the pathway. Moreover, when physical activity, energy intake, and genetic variants were analyzed jointly, the study population was clearly stratified into a range of low- to high-risk subgroups as defined energy balance status. Compared with subjects within the most favorable energy balance category (low energy intake, intensive physical activity, low number of unfavorable genotypes), subjects in the worst energy balance category (high energy intake, low physical activity, and carrying > or =7 unfavorable genotypes) had 21.93-fold increased risk (95% CI, 6.7-71.77). Our results provide the first strong evidence that physical activity, energy intake, and genetic variants in the mTOR pathway jointly influence bladder cancer susceptibility and that these results have implications for bladder cancer prevention.
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Diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero and depression in women.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor with long-term health effects, possibly including depression, following exposure in utero. Understanding the relation between in utero DES exposure and depression will provide insight to the potential adverse effects of bisphenol A, a functionally similar and ubiquitous endocrine disruptor. The association between in utero DES exposure and depression was assessed among participants in the Nurses Health Study II who first reported their history of antidepressant use in 1993 and lifetime history of depressive symptoms in 2001. DES exposure was reported by 1,612 (2.2%) women. A history of depression at baseline was higher among women exposed to DES in utero compared with those not exposed (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 1.72) (P < 0.001). Incident depression (first use of antidepressants among women who also reported depressive symptoms) during follow-up (1995-2005) was reported by 19.7% of women exposed to DES and 15.9% unexposed (age-adjusted OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.63) (P < 0.001). Adjustment for risk factors of depression and correlates of DES exposure moderately attenuated the association (multivariable-adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.51) (P = 0.0004). These results suggest that the neurophysiologic effects of in utero exposure to DES could lead to an increased risk of depression in adult life. Further research should assess whether in utero exposure to bisphenol A has similar adverse effects.
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Bioinformatics: Tools to accelerate population science and disease control research.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Population science and disease control researchers can benefit from a more proactive approach to applying bioinformatics tools for clinical and public health research. Bioinformatics utilizes principles of information sciences and technologies to transform vast, diverse, and complex life sciences data into a more coherent format for wider application. Bioinformatics provides the means to collect and process data, enhance data standardization and harmonization for scientific discovery, and merge disparate data sources. Achieving interoperability (i.e. the development of an informatics system that provides access to and use of data from different systems) will facilitate scientific explorations and careers and opportunities for interventions in population health. The National Cancer Institutes (NCIs) interoperable Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) is one of a number of illustrative tools in this report that are being mined by population scientists. Tools are not all that is needed for progress. Challenges persist, including a lack of common data standards, proprietary barriers to data access, and difficulties pooling data from studies. Population scientists and informaticists are developing promising and innovative solutions to these barriers. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the application of bioinformatics systems can accelerate population health research across the continuum from prevention to detection, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.
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Pooling dietary data using questionnaires with open-ended and predefined responses: implications for comparing mean intake or estimating odds ratios.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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In the current era of diet-gene analyses, large sample sizes are required to uncover the etiology of complex diseases. As such, consortia form and often combine available data. Food frequency questionnaires, which commonly use 2 different types of responses about the frequency of intake (predefined responses and open-ended responses), may be pooled to achieve the desired sample size. The common practice is to categorize open-ended responses into the predefined response categories. A problem arises when the predefined categories are noncontiguous: possible open-ended responses may fall in gaps between the predefined categories. Using simulated data modeled from frequency of intake among 1,664 controls in a lung cancer case-control study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, Texas, 2000-2005), the authors describe the effect of different categories of open-ended responses that fall in between noncontiguous, predefined response sets on estimates of the mean difference in intake and the odds ratios. A significant inflation of false positives appears when comparing mean differences of intake, while the bias in estimating odds ratios may be acceptably small. Therefore, if pooling data cannot be restricted to the same type of response, inferences should focus on odds ratio estimation to minimize bias.
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Construction of an N-nitroso database for assessing dietary intake.
J Food Compost Anal
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2009
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Dietary N-nitroso compounds are carcinogens synthesized during food processing from two main classes of precursors, oxides of nitrogen and amines or amides. Quantification of the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds is significant to human cancers, including those of the stomach and upper gastro-intestinal tract, colon, and brain. Previous studies investigating these cancers primarily used proxy estimates of N-nitroso intake and not a full and complete database. In this report, we describe the development of a database to be used in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) or twenty-four hour dietary records. Published analytical data for N-nitroso compounds were compiled and evaluated for inclusion in the database. The final database consisted of 23 different N-nitroso compounds for 500 foods from 39 different food subgroups. Next, database foods were matched to foods in a standard FFQ by imputation, or calculated value, or assumed zero. Using the FFQ modified with N-nitroso values, we evaluated the ability to compute N-nitroso intakes for a sample of healthy control subjects of cancer epidemiological studies. N-nitroso content of food items ranged from <0.01?g/100 g. to 142 ?g/100 g and the richest sources were sausage, smoked meats, bacon, and luncheon meats. The database is useful to quantify N-nitroso intake for observational and epidemiological studies.
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Pubertal development in Mexican American girls: the familys perspective.
Qual Health Res
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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Mexican American (MA) girls are entering puberty earlier than in the past, yet few studies have explored the perceptions surrounding puberty among this group. We conducted separate focus groups for fathers, mothers, and daughters aged 6 to 12 years to explore perceptions of body image, pubertal development, communications, and sources of puberty-related information in MA participants. Our results revealed parental concerns about daughters weight and pubertal development, as well as differences in their communication with their daughters. Although both parents willingly discussed pubertal issues concerning their daughters, mothers had a more active role in conveying pubertal information to daughters. Among the girls, there was a gap in knowledge about the pubertal process between the younger and older girls. Our findings present opportunities and challenges for addressing obesity as a pubertal risk factor in MA girls; however, more studies are needed to understand family beliefs and sociocultural dynamics surrounding puberty in MAs.
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Blood pressure in early adolescence in the offspring of preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2009
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To compare blood pressure (BP) in adolescence (11-12 years) among the offspring of preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies.
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N-nitroso compounds: assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population.
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Childhood abuse and age at menarche.
J Adolesc Health
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Physical and sexual abuse are prevalent social hazards. We sought to examine the association between childhood physical and sexual abuse and age at menarche.
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Parental smoking in pregnancy and the risks of adult-onset hypertension.
Hypertension
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Fetal exposure to parental smoking may lead to developmental adaptations and promote various diseases in later life. This study evaluated the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the daughter in adulthood, and assessed whether these associations are explained by birth weight or body weight throughout life. We used data on 33086 participants of the Nurses Health Study II and the Nurses Mothers Cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with the nurse daughter, with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension from 1989 until 2007. Overall, 8575 (25.9%) mothers and 18874 (57.0%) fathers smoked during pregnancy. During follow-up, 7825 incident cases of adult-onset hypertension were reported. Both maternal and paternal smoking of ? 15 cigarettes/d during pregnancy were associated with increased risks of hypertension (rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.29; and rate ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25, respectively) in the age-adjusted models. Further adjustment for birth weight did not affect the effect estimates appreciably, whereas additional adjustment for body shape and weight until age 18, or current body mass index, attenuated the associations with both maternal and paternal smoking (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.98-1.16; and rate ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12, respectively). The associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the offspring were largely explained by body weight throughout life, suggesting that these associations may not reflect direct intrauterine mechanisms.
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Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and birthweight: insights from a pooled analysis of case-control data from Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Eur. J. Cancer
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Heavy birthweight is one of the few established risk factors for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). To provide new insight into this relationship, particularly at the extremes (<1500 and > 4500 g), we pooled data from three of the largest childhood cancer case-control studies ever conducted.
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Depression in pregnancy, infant birth weight and DNA methylation of imprint regulatory elements.
Epigenetics
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Depressed mood in pregnancy has been linked to low birth weight (LBW, < 2,500 g), a risk factor for adult-onset chronic diseases in offspring. We examined maternal depressed mood in relation to birth weight and evaluated the role of DNA methylation at regulatory sequences of imprinted genes in this association. We measured depressed mood among 922 pregnant women using the CES-D scale and obtained birth weight data from hospital records. Using bisulfite pyrosequencing of cord blood DNA from 508 infants, we measured methylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulating imprinted genes IGF2/H19, DLK1/MEG3, MEST, PEG3, PEG10/SGCE, NNAT and PLAGL1. Multiple regression models were used to examine the relationship between depressed mood, birth weight and DMR methylation levels. Depressed mood was associated with a more that 3-fold higher risk of LBW, after adjusting for delivery mode, parity, education, cigarette smoking, folic acid use and preterm birth. The association may be more pronounced in offspring of black women and female infants. Compared with infants of women without depressed mood, infants born to women with severe depressed mood had a 2.4% higher methylation at the MEG3 DMR. Whereas LBW infants had 1.6% lower methylation at the IGF2 DMR, high birth weight (> 4,500 g) infants had 5.9% higher methylation at the PLAGL1 DMR compared with normal birth weight infants. Our findings confirm that severe maternal depressed mood in pregnancy is associated with LBW, and that MEG3 and IGF2 plasticity may play important roles.
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Association of cord blood methylation fractions at imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), plasma IGF2, and birth weight.
Cancer Causes Control
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Altered methylation at Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) regulatory regions has previously been associated with obesity, and several malignancies including colon, esophageal, and prostate adenocarcinomas, presumably via changes in expression and/or loss of imprinting, but the functional significance of these DNA methylation marks have not been demonstrated in humans. We examined associations among DNA methylation at IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), circulating IGF2 protein concentrations in umbilical cord blood (UCB) and birth weight in newborns.
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Insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 methylation at birth and risk of overweight and obesity in children.
J. Pediatr.
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To determine whether aberrant DNA methylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulating insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) expression in umbilical cord blood is associated with overweight or obesity in a multiethnic cohort.
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Intake of red meat and heterocyclic amines, metabolic pathway genes and bladder cancer risk.
Int. J. Cancer
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We analyzed the association between meat intake, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and bladder cancer (BC) risk in a large case-control study comprised of 884 BC cases and 878 healthy controls, recruited from 1999 to 2009. Epidemiologic and dietary data were collected via an in-person interview. Compared to the lowest quartile of red meat intake, the odds ratios (ORs) for the second, third and fourth quartiles were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.87-1.58), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.09-1.99) and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.41-2.68), respectively, (p-for trend <0.001). In a subset of participants with intakes of HCAs available, compared with those with the lowest quartile of intake, the ORs for the second, third and fourth quartiles were 1.47 (95% CI: 0.60-3.64), 2.58 (95% CI: 1.09-6.11) and 3.32 (95% CI: 1.37-8.01), respectively, (p for trend <0.001). In cumulative analysis of SNPs in the pathway, compared with subjects carrying 0-4 unfavorable genotypes, subjects carrying 5 and 6 or more unfavorable genotypes were at 1.60-fold (95% CI: 1.20-2.12) and 2.37-fold (95% CI: 1.82-3.10) increased risk, respectively. Moreover, subjects carrying six or more unfavorable genotypes and whose red meat intake was in the highest quartile were at 5.09-fold increased risk (95% CI: 2.89-8.96; p < 0.001). These results strongly support that high red meat intake, high intake of HCAs and carrying high number of unfavorable genotypes in the HCA metabolic pathways are associated with increased risk of BC in the study population.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.