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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Active cigarette smoking, variants in carcinogen metabolism genes and breast cancer risk among pre- and postmenopausal women in Ontario, Canada.
Breast J
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with various diseases including many cancers; however, evidence regarding breast cancer risk remains inconclusive with some studies reporting no association, and others an increased risk with long duration and early initiation of smoking. Genetic variation in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may modify these associations. Breast cancer cases were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) during 2003-2004 and population controls through random digit dialing methods. All subjects completed self-administered questionnaires. Subsequently, saliva samples were obtained from cases (N = 1,776) and controls (N = 1,839) for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for active smoking variables, and interactions were assessed between smoking and 36 carcinogen-metabolizing candidate gene variants. No statistically significant association was found between active smoking and breast cancer risk among all women nor when stratified by menopausal status; however, nonsignificant increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was observed among current smokers and women smoking before first pregnancy. Several statistically significant interactions were observed between smoking and genetic variants (CYP1A2 1548C>T, CYP1A1 3801T>C, CYP1B1 4326G>C, NAT1 c.-85-1014T>A, UGT1A7 W208R 622T>C, SOD2 c.47T>C, GSTT1 deletion). However, in analyses stratified by these genotypes, smoking ORs had wide confidence intervals (and with few exceptions included 1.0) making interpretations difficult. Active smoking was not associated with breast cancer risk, although several significant interactions were observed between smoking, carcinogen-metabolizing genetic variants, and breast cancer risk.
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0219?The association between shift work and obesity in Canada: A cross-sectional study using a novel exposure assessment tool.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Shift work entailing circadian rhythm disruption is linked to chronic disease. One suggestion is that obesity mediates the relationship, yet research investigating the link between shift work and obesity report mixed findings, with a propensity towards a positive association. Since a paucity of research in this area has been conducted in Canada, this study examined the association between shift work and obesity within two Canadian studies; one of Ontario females, and the other, a highly educated nation-wide sample.
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Gene-environment interaction involving recently identified colorectal cancer susceptibility Loci.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with risk of colorectal cancer. Prior research has evaluated the presence of gene-environment interaction involving the first 10 identified susceptibility loci, but little work has been conducted on interaction involving SNPs at recently identified susceptibility loci, including: rs10911251, rs6691170, rs6687758, rs11903757, rs10936599, rs647161, rs1321311, rs719725, rs1665650, rs3824999, rs7136702, rs11169552, rs59336, rs3217810, rs4925386, and rs2423279.
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Genome-wide diet-gene interaction analyses for risk of colorectal cancer.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Dietary factors, including meat, fruits, vegetables and fiber, are associated with colorectal cancer; however, there is limited information as to whether these dietary factors interact with genetic variants to modify risk of colorectal cancer. We tested interactions between these dietary factors and approximately 2.7 million genetic variants for colorectal cancer risk among 9,287 cases and 9,117 controls from ten studies. We used logistic regression to investigate multiplicative gene-diet interactions, as well as our recently developed Cocktail method that involves a screening step based on marginal associations and gene-diet correlations and a testing step for multiplicative interactions, while correcting for multiple testing using weighted hypothesis testing. Per quartile increment in the intake of red and processed meat were associated with statistically significant increased risks of colorectal cancer and vegetable, fruit and fiber intake with lower risks. From the case-control analysis, we detected a significant interaction between rs4143094 (10p14/near GATA3) and processed meat consumption (OR = 1.17; p = 8.7E-09), which was consistently observed across studies (p heterogeneity = 0.78). The risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat was increased among individuals with the rs4143094-TG and -TT genotypes (OR = 1.20 and OR = 1.39, respectively) and null among those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.03). Our results identify a novel gene-diet interaction with processed meat for colorectal cancer, highlighting that diet may modify the effect of genetic variants on disease risk, which may have important implications for prevention.
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Adolescent dietary fiber, vegetable fat, vegetable protein, and nut intakes and breast cancer risk.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The importance of early-life exposures in breast cancer development is increasingly recognized. However, limited research has evaluated the relationship between adolescent diet and subsequent risk of breast cancer and reported inconsistent results. This population-based case-control study investigated the associations of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence with adult breast cancer risk. Women, ages 25-74 years, who were diagnosed with first primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2003, were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Controls were identified through random-digit dialing and age-frequency matched to cases. Diet at ages 10-15 was assessed with a 55-item food frequency questionnaire among 2,865 cases and 3,299 controls. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Inverse associations were found between intakes of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts during adolescence and breast cancer risk, which persisted after controlling for adult intakes. The ORs (95 % CI) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 0.66 (0.55-0.78; P trend < 0.0001) for fiber, 0.80 (0.68-0.95; P trend = 0.01) for vegetable protein, 0.74 (0.63-0.87; P trend = 0.002) for vegetable fat, and 0.76 (0.61-0.95 for ?1 serving/day vs. <1 serving/month intake; P trend = 0.04) for nuts. The reduced risk for adolescent intakes of fiber, vegetable protein, and nuts was largely limited to postmenopausal women (P interaction ? 0.05). Dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence were associated with reduced breast cancer risk.
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Convergence of genes and cellular pathways dysregulated in autism spectrum disorders.
Dalila Pinto, Elsa Delaby, Daniele Merico, Mafalda Barbosa, Alison Merikangas, Lambertus Klei, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Xiao Xu, Robert Ziman, Zhuozhi Wang, Jacob A S Vorstman, Ann Thompson, Regina Regan, Marion Pilorge, Giovanna Pellecchia, Alistair T Pagnamenta, Bárbara Oliveira, Christian R Marshall, Tiago R Magalhães, Jennifer K Lowe, Jennifer L Howe, Anthony J Griswold, John Gilbert, Eftichia Duketis, Beth A Dombroski, Maretha V de Jonge, Michael Cuccaro, Emily L Crawford, Catarina T Correia, Judith Conroy, Inês C Conceição, Andreas G Chiocchetti, Jillian P Casey, Guiqing Cai, Christelle Cabrol, Nadia Bolshakova, Elena Bacchelli, Richard Anney, Steven Gallinger, Michelle Cotterchio, Graham Casey, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Kerstin Wittemeyer, Kirsty Wing, Simon Wallace, Herman van Engeland, Ana Tryfon, Susanne Thomson, Latha Soorya, Bernadette Rogé, Wendy Roberts, Fritz Poustka, Susana Mouga, Nancy Minshew, L Alison McInnes, Susan G McGrew, Catherine Lord, Marion Leboyer, Ann S Le Couteur, Alexander Kolevzon, Patricia Jimenez Gonzalez, Suma Jacob, Richard Holt, Stephen Guter, Jonathan Green, Andrew Green, Christopher Gillberg, Bridget A Fernandez, Frederico Duque, Richard Delorme, Geraldine Dawson, Pauline Chaste, Cátia Café, Sean Brennan, Thomas Bourgeron, Patrick F Bolton, Sven Bölte, Raphael Bernier, Gillian Baird, Anthony J Bailey, Evdokia Anagnostou, Joana Almeida, Ellen M Wijsman, Veronica J Vieland, Astrid M Vicente, Gerard D Schellenberg, Margaret Pericak-Vance, Andrew D Paterson, Jeremy R Parr, Guiomar Oliveira, John I Nurnberger, Anthony P Monaco, Elena Maestrini, Sabine M Klauck, Hakon Hakonarson, Jonathan L Haines, Daniel H Geschwind, Christine M Freitag, Susan E Folstein, Sean Ennis, Hilary Coon, Agatino Battaglia, Peter Szatmari, James S Sutcliffe, Joachim Hallmayer, Michael Gill, Edwin H Cook, Joseph D Buxbaum, Bernie Devlin, Louise Gallagher, Catalina Betancur, Stephen W Scherer.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Rare copy-number variation (CNV) is an important source of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We analyzed 2,446 ASD-affected families and confirmed an excess of genic deletions and duplications in affected versus control groups (1.41-fold, p = 1.0 × 10(-5)) and an increase in affected subjects carrying exonic pathogenic CNVs overlapping known loci associated with dominant or X-linked ASD and intellectual disability (odds ratio = 12.62, p = 2.7 × 10(-15), ?3% of ASD subjects). Pathogenic CNVs, often showing variable expressivity, included rare de novo and inherited events at 36 loci, implicating ASD-associated genes (CHD2, HDAC4, and GDI1) previously linked to other neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as other genes such as SETD5, MIR137, and HDAC9. Consistent with hypothesized gender-specific modulators, females with ASD were more likely to have highly penetrant CNVs (p = 0.017) and were also overrepresented among subjects with fragile X syndrome protein targets (p = 0.02). Genes affected by de novo CNVs and/or loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants converged on networks related to neuronal signaling and development, synapse function, and chromatin regulation.
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer.
Brian M Wolpin, Cosmeri Rizzato, Peter Kraft, Charles Kooperberg, Gloria M Petersen, Zhaoming Wang, Alan A Arslan, Laura Beane-Freeman, Paige M Bracci, Julie Buring, Federico Canzian, Eric J Duell, Steven Gallinger, Graham G Giles, Gary E Goodman, Phyllis J Goodman, Eric J Jacobs, Aruna Kamineni, Alison P Klein, Laurence N Kolonel, Matthew H Kulke, Donghui Li, Nuria Malats, Sara H Olson, Harvey A Risch, Howard D Sesso, Kala Visvanathan, Emily White, Wei Zheng, Christian C Abnet, Demetrius Albanes, Gabriella Andreotti, Melissa A Austin, Richard Barfield, Daniela Basso, Sonja I Berndt, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Michelle Brotzman, Markus W Büchler, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Peter Bugert, Laurie Burdette, Daniele Campa, Neil E Caporaso, Gabriele Capurso, Charles Chung, Michelle Cotterchio, Eithne Costello, Joanne Elena, Niccola Funel, J Michael Gaziano, Nathalia A Giese, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Megan J Gorman, Myron Gross, Christopher A Haiman, Manal Hassan, Kathy J Helzlsouer, Brian E Henderson, Elizabeth A Holly, Nan Hu, David J Hunter, Federico Innocenti, Mazda Jenab, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay-Tee Khaw, Eric A Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Vittorio Krogh, Juozas Kupcinskas, Robert C Kurtz, Andrea LaCroix, Maria T Landi, Stefano Landi, Loic Le Marchand, Andrea Mambrini, Satu Mannisto, Roger L Milne, Yusuke Nakamura, Ann L Oberg, Kouros Owzar, Alpa V Patel, Petra H M Peeters, Ulrike Peters, Raffaele Pezzilli, Ada Piepoli, Miquel Porta, Francisco X Real, Elio Riboli, Nathaniel Rothman, Aldo Scarpa, Xiao-Ou Shu, Debra T Silverman, Pavel Soucek, Malin Sund, Renata Talar-Wojnarowska, Philip R Taylor, George E Theodoropoulos, Mark Thornquist, Anne Tjønneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Pavel Vodicka, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Nicolas Wentzensen, Chen Wu, Herbert Yu, Kai Yu, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Robert Hoover, Patricia Hartge, Charles Fuchs, Stephen J Chanock, Rachael S Stolzenberg-Solomon, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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We performed a multistage genome-wide association study including 7,683 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 14,397 controls of European descent. Four new loci reached genome-wide significance: rs6971499 at 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.84, P = 3.0 × 10(-12)), rs7190458 at 16q23.1 (BCAR1/CTRB1/CTRB2, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.30-1.65, P = 1.1 × 10(-10)), rs9581943 at 13q12.2 (PDX1, OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20, P = 2.4 × 10(-9)) and rs16986825 at 22q12.1 (ZNRF3, OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.12-1.25, P = 1.2 × 10(-8)). We identified an independent signal in exon 2 of TERT at the established region 5p15.33 (rs2736098, OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.85, P = 9.8 × 10(-14)). We also identified a locus at 8q24.21 (rs1561927, P = 1.3 × 10(-7)) that approached genome-wide significance located 455 kb telomeric of PVT1. Our study identified multiple new susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer that are worthy of follow-up studies.
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Association between allergies and risk of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Less than 10% of pancreatic cancer cases survive 5 years, yet its etiology is not well understood. Studies suggest allergies are associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk. Our study collected additional information on allergies (including skin prick test results and differentiation of allergic/nonallergic asthma), and is the first to assess possible confounding by allergy medications.
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Risk of colorectal cancer for carriers of mutations in MUTYH, with and without a family history of cancer.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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We studied 2332 individuals with monoallelic mutations in MUTYH among 9504 relatives of 264 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases with a MUTYH mutation. We estimated CRC risks through 70 years of age of 7.2% for male carriers of monoallelic mutations (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6%-11.3%) and 5.6% for female carriers of monoallelic mutations (95% CI, 3.6%-8.8%), irrespective of family history. For monoallelic MUTYH mutation carriers with a first-degree relative with CRC diagnosed by 50 years of age who does not have the MUTYH mutation, risks of CRC were 12.5% for men (95% CI, 8.6%-17.7%) and 10% for women (95% CI, 6.7%-14.4%). Risks of CRC for carriers of monoallelic mutations in MUTYH with a first-degree relative with CRC are sufficiently high to warrant more intensive screening than for the general population.
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Associations between anxiety, depression, antidepressant medication, obesity and weight gain among Canadian women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Some mental illnesses have been suggested to be associated with obesity, although results are somewhat inconsistent and research has focused mainly on depression.
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Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk.
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Allergies and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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In order to quantify the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with history of any allergy and specific allergies, to investigate differences in the association with risk according to age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index, and to study the influence of age at onset, we pooled data from 10 case-control studies. In total, there were 3,567 cases and 9,145 controls. Study-specific odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and body mass index. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed by using the Cochran Q statistic. Study-specific odds ratios were pooled by using a random-effects model. The odds ratio for any allergy was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 1.00) with heterogeneity among studies (P < 0.001). Heterogeneity was attributable to one study; with that study excluded, the pooled odds ratio was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.84) (Pheterogeneity = 0.23). Hay fever (odds ratio = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96) and allergy to animals (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94) were related to lower risk, while there was no statistically significant association with other allergies or asthma. There were no major differences among subgroups defined by age, gender, smoking status, or body mass index. Older age at onset of allergies was slightly more protective than earlier age.
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High coffee intake, but not caffeine, is associated with reduced estrogen receptor negative and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with no effect modification by CYP1A2 genotype.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Associations between caffeine and coffee consumption and breast cancer risk are uncertain, with studies suggesting inverse and null associations. Variation in cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), a gene responsible for caffeine metabolism, may modify these associations. Cases (n = 3,062) were recruited through the Ontario Cancer Registry and controls (n = 3,427) through random digit dialing. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between breast cancer risk and intakes of 7 caffeine-containing items and total caffeine, and examine whether a genetic variant in CYP1A2 (rs762551) modified these associations. Analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER), menopausal, and smoking status. Generally, coffee and caffeine were not associated with breast cancer risk; however, a significant reduction in risk was observed with the highest category of coffee consumption [?5 cups per day vs. never, multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (MVOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 0.98]. Variant rs762551 did not modify associations. In stratified analyses, high coffee intake was associated with reduced risk of ER- (MVOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.92) and postmenopausal breast cancer (MVOR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94). High coffee consumption, but not total caffeine, may be associated with reduced risk of ER- and postmenopausal breast cancers, independent of CYP1A2 genotype. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings.
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Assessing the validity of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The Food- Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is a dietary assessment tool frequently used in large-scale nutritional epidemiology studies. The goal of the present study is to validate a self-administered version of the Hawaii FFQ modified for use in the general adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL).
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Interaction of polymorphisms in mitotic regulator genes with cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Mitotic regulator genes have been associated with several cancers, however little is known about their possible association with pancreatic cancer. Smoking and family history are the strongest risk factors for this highly fatal disease. The main purpose of this study was to determine if polymorphisms of mitotic regulator genes are associated with pancreatic cancer and whether they modify the association between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Ontario with 455 pathology-confirmed pancreatic cancer cases and 893 controls. Cigarette smoking history was collected using questionnaires and DNA obtained from blood samples. Genotypes were determined by mass-spectrometry. Odds ratio estimates were obtained using multivariate logistic regression. Interactions between genetic variant and smoking were assessed using stratified analyses and the likelihood ratio statistic (significance P < 0.05). Variants of MCPH1, FYN, APC, PRKCA, NIN, TopBP1, RIPK1, and SNW1 were not independently associated with pancreatic cancer risk. A significant interaction was observed between pack-years and MCPH1-2550-C > T (P = 0.02). Compared to never smokers, individuals with 10-27 pack-years and MCPH1-2550-CC genotype were at increased risk for pancreatic cancer (MVOR = 2.49, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.55, 4.00) as were those with >27 pack-years and MCPH1-2550-TC genotype (MVOR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.45, 4.05). A significant interaction was observed between smoking status and TopBP1-3257-A > G (P = 0.04) using a dominant model. Current smokers with the TopBP1-3257 A allele were at increased risk for pancreatic cancer (MVOR = 2.55, 95% CI: 1.77, 3.67). MCPH1-2550-C > T and TopBP1-3257-A > G modify the association between smoking and pancreatic cancer. These findings provide insights into the potential molecular mechanisms behind smoking-associated pancreatic cancer.
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Association between allergies, asthma, and breast cancer risk among women in Ontario, Canada.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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To investigate the association between allergies, asthma, and breast cancer risk in a large, population-based case-control study.
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Polymorphisms in genes related to one-carbon metabolism are not related to pancreatic cancer in PanScan and PanC4.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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The evidence of a relation between folate intake and one-carbon metabolism (OCM) with pancreatic cancer (PanCa) is inconsistent. In this study, the association between genes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to OCM and PanCa was assessed.
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Consumption of flaxseed, a rich source of lignans, is associated with reduced breast cancer risk.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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To investigate the association between intake of flaxseed-the richest source of dietary lignans (a class of phytoestrogens)-and breast cancer risk.
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Genetic variants in vitamin d pathway genes and risk of pancreas cancer; results from a population-based case-control study in ontario, Canada.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent studies of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and pancreas cancer have suggested a potential role of the vitamin D pathway in the etiology of this fatal disease. Variants in vitamin-D related genes are known to affect 25(OH)D levels and function and it is unknown if these variants may influence pancreatic cancer risk. The association between 87 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 genes was evaluated within the Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Pancreatic cancer cases with pathology confirmed adenocarcinoma were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (n?=?628) and controls were identified through random digit dialing (n?=?1193). Age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. SNPs in the CYP24A1, CYP2R1, calcium sensing receptor (CASR), vitamin D binding protein (GC), retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRA) and megalin (LRP2) genes were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. For example, pancreas cancer risk was inversely associated with CYP2R1 rs10741657 (AA versus GG, OR?=?0.70; 95%CI: 0.51-0.95) and positively with CYP24A1 rs6127119 (TT versus CC. OR?=?1.94; 95%CI: 1.28-2.94). None of the associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Vitamin D pathway gene variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk and future studies are needed to understand the possible role of vitamin D in tumorigenesis and may have implications for cancer-prevention strategies.
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Calcium and vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario.
Can J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2011
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Previous epidemiological studies have been suggestive but inconclusive in demonstrating inverse associations of calcium, vitamin D, dairy product intakes with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a large population-based comparison of such associations in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON).
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Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: an implementation guideline.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. Several high-quality systematic reviews and practice guidelines exist to inform the most effective screening options. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. We developed an implementation guideline to answer the question: What interventions have been shown to increase the uptake of cancer screening by individuals, specifically for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers?
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What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP) change in completed screening tests.
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Vitamin D-related genetic variants, interactions with vitamin D exposure, and breast cancer risk among Caucasian women in Ontario.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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Vitamin D, from diet and sunlight exposure, may be associated with reduced breast-cancer risk. This study investigated if candidate gene variants in vitamin D pathways are associated with breast cancer risk, or modify the associations between breast cancer and vitamin D exposure.
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Ultraviolet sunlight exposure during adolescence and adulthood and breast cancer risk: a population-based case-control study among Ontario women.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Recent studies suggest that vitamin D may be associated with reduced breast cancer risk, but most studies have evaluated only dietary vitamin D intake. The associations among ultraviolet radiation from sunlight, factors related to cutaneous vitamin D production, and breast cancer risk were evaluated in a population-based case-control study conducted in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2004 (n = 3,101 cases and n = 3,471 controls). Time spent outdoors was associated with reduced breast cancer risk during 4 periods of life (>21 vs. ?6 hours/week age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 0.85 in the teenage years; OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.76 in the 20s-30s; OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.88 in the 40s-50s; and OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.66 in the 60s-74 years). Sun protection practices and ultraviolet radiation were not associated with breast cancer risk. A combined solar vitamin D score, including all the variables related to vitamin D production, was significantly associated with reduced breast cancer risk. These associations were not confounded or modified by menopausal status, dietary vitamin D intake, or physical activity. This study suggests that factors suggestive of increased cutaneous production of vitamin D are associated with reduced breast cancer risk.
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Genotype-environment interactions in microsatellite stable/microsatellite instability-low colorectal cancer: results from a genome-wide association study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of a number of common susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC); however, none of these GWAS have considered gene-environment (G × E) interactions. Therefore, it is unclear whether current hits are modified by environmental exposures or whether there are additional hits whose effects are dependent on environmental exposures.
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Management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study using novel case ascertainment.
Can J Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) is largely incurable, although recent progress has been made in the safety of surgery for PA and in adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to describe the management of PA in Ontario, Canada.
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Vitamin D intake from food and supplements among Ontario women based on the US block food frequency questionnaire with and without modification for Canadian food values.
Can J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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To measure and compare dietary vitamin D intake among women in Ontario using a modified Block 1998 (US) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) before and after modification for Canadian-specific vitamin D food fortification.
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Cigarette smoking, genetic variants in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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The risk of colorectal cancer associated with smoking is unclear and may be influenced by genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize cigarette carcinogens. The authors examined the colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking and 26 variants in carcinogen metabolism genes in 1,174 colorectal cancer cases and 1,293 population-based controls recruited in Canada by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry from 1997 to 2001. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated by multivariable logistic regression. Smoking for >27 years was associated with a statistically significant increased colorectal cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.53) in all subjects. Colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking was higher in males for smoking status, duration, and intensity. The CYP1A1-3801-CC (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.94) and CYP2C9-430-CT (AOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99) genotypes were associated with decreased risk, and the GSTM1-K173N-CG (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.25) genotype was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Statistical interactions between smoking and genetic variants were assessed by comparing logistic regression models with and without a multiplicative interaction term. Significant interactions were observed between smoking status and SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.02), NAT2-857 (P = 0.01), and CYP1B1-4390 (P = 0.04) variants and between smoking duration and NAT1-1088 (P = 0.02), SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.04), and NAT1-acetylator (P = 0.03) status. These findings support the hypothesis that prolonged cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer and that this risk may be modified by variation in carcinogen metabolism genes.
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Pickled meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC): a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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Although a large body of epidemiological research suggests that red meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer, little is known regarding how such an association varies across populations and types of red meat. The objective of this study was to assess whether an association exists between the intakes of total red meat and pickled red meat and the risk of colorectal cancer in study subjects residing in Newfoundland and Labrador.
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Vitamin D and calcium intakes and breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Some evidence suggests that vitamin D may reduce breast cancer risk. Despite the biological interaction between vitamin D and calcium, few studies have evaluated their joint effects on breast cancer risk.
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Case-control study of overweight, obesity, and colorectal cancer risk, overall and by tumor microsatellite instability status.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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Being overweight or obese is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer, more so for men than for women. Approximately 10%-20% of colorectal tumors display microsatellite instability (MSI), defined as the expansion or contraction of small repeated sequences in the DNA of tumor tissue relative to nearby normal tissue. We evaluated associations between overweight or obesity and colorectal cancer risk, overall and by tumor MSI status.
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A genome-wide association study identifies pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 13q22.1, 1q32.1 and 5p15.33.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2010
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We conducted a genome-wide association study of pancreatic cancer in 3,851 affected individuals (cases) and 3,934 unaffected controls drawn from 12 prospective cohort studies and 8 case-control studies. Based on a logistic regression model for genotype trend effect that was adjusted for study, age, sex, self-described ancestry and five principal components, we identified eight SNPs that map to three loci on chromosomes 13q22.1, 1q32.1 and 5p15.33. Two correlated SNPs, rs9543325 (P = 3.27 x 10(-11), per-allele odds ratio (OR) 1.26, 95% CI 1.18-1.35) and rs9564966 (P = 5.86 x 10(-8), per-allele OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.13-1.30), map to a nongenic region on chromosome 13q22.1. Five SNPs on 1q32.1 map to NR5A2, and the strongest signal was at rs3790844 (P = 2.45 x 10(-10), per-allele OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.71-0.84). A single SNP, rs401681 (P = 3.66 x 10(-7), per-allele OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.11-1.27), maps to the CLPTM1L-TERT locus on 5p15.33, which is associated with multiple cancers. Our study has identified common susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer that warrant follow-up studies.
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Genetic variation in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-binding protein (GC) and risk for colorectal cancer: results from the Colon Cancer Family Registry.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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Epidemiologic evidence supports a role for vitamin D in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Variants in vitamin D-related genes might modify the association between vitamin D levels and CRC risk. In this analysis, we did a comprehensive evaluation of common variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-binding protein (GC; group-specific component) genes using a population-based case-unaffected sibling control design that included 1,750 sibships recruited into the Colon Cancer Family Registry. We also evaluated whether any associations differed by calcium supplement use, family history of CRC, or tumor characteristics. Heterogeneity by calcium and vitamin D intake was evaluated for a subset of 585 cases and 837 sibling controls who completed a detailed food frequency questionnaire. Age- and sex-adjusted associations were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Overall, we did not find evidence for an association between any single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in VDR or GC and risk for CRC (range of unadjusted P values 0.01-0.98 for VDR and 0.07-0.95 for GC). None of these associations was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. We also found no evidence that calcium or vitamin D intake (food and supplement) from the food frequency questionnaire modified the association estimates between VDR and GC SNPs and CRC. We did observe associations between SNPs in GC and microsatellite unstable CRC, although these results should be confirmed in additional studies. Overall, our results do not provide evidence for a role of common genetic variants in VDR or GC in susceptibility to CRC.
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Associations between smoking, alcohol consumption, and colorectal cancer, overall and by tumor microsatellite instability status.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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Both smoking and alcohol consumption have been associated with modestly increased risks of colorectal cancer (CRC). Reports have suggested that these associations may differ by tumor molecular subtype, with stronger associations for microsatellite unstable (MSI-H) tumors.
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Family history of hormonal cancers and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study conducted in Ontario.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Aggregation of cancers among families with highly penetrant genetic mutations such as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is well-described. However, there is a paucity of data regarding familial aggregation of hormonal cancers (cancers of the breast, endometrial, ovarian and prostate) and colorectal cancer (CRC) in the general population. We investigated the association between having a first-degree family history of breast, endometrial, ovarian, or prostate cancer and CRC risk. Population-based CRC cases and controls were recruited by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry (OFCCR). Logistic regression was conducted to obtain odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). First-degree family history of breast cancer was associated with a modest, borderline statistically significant increased CRC risk (age-, sex-adjusted OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.5). The magnitude of CRC risk was greatest if more than one first-degree kin had breast cancer (age-, sex-adjusted OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.0), as well as if the kin was diagnosed at >50 years of age (age-, sex-adjusted OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8). Family history of ovarian cancer was associated with reduced CRC risk (multivariate-adjusted OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3, 1.0). Although statistically significant increases in CRC risk were observed in the age-, sex-adjusted OR estimates for family history of endometrial and prostate cancers, the associations were no longer significant after multivariate-adjustment. In conclusion, individuals with a first-degree kin with breast cancer may have a modest increased risk for CRC compared to individuals without.
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Penetrance of colorectal cancer among MLH1/MSH2 carriers participating in the colorectal cancer familial registry in Ontario.
Hered Cancer Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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Several DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, responsible for the majority of Lynch Syndrome cancers, have been identified, predominantly MLH1 and MSH2, but the risk associated with these mutations is still not well established. The aim of this study is to provide population-based estimates of the risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) by gender and mutation type from the Ontario population.
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Association between frequency and intensity of recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk by age period.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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The objective of this study was to examine the association between recreational physical activity across the life span and epithelial ovarian cancer. This relationship was investigated using data from the Ontario arm of the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance Study, a Canadian population-based case-control study. Data were collected from 240 epithelial ovarian cases and 891 female controls using a self-administered questionnaire. The frequency and intensity of recreational activity in four age periods (mid-teens, early 30s, early 50s, 2 years ago) were examined. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Participation up to two times/week, but not more than two times/week, in strenuous recreational activity in mid-teens (OR = 1.69, 95% CI=1.15-2.49) and early 30s (OR = 1.45, 95% CI=1.03-2.05) was associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. For activity 2 years ago, participation in both strenuous activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI=0.47-1.01) and moderate activity (OR = 0.55, 95% CI=0.34-0.88) up to two times/week was associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk. Participating more than two times/week was not associated with ovarian cancer risk. Strenuous activity performed in early 50s and moderate activity performed in mid-teens, early 30s, and early 50s were unrelated to risk. In conclusion, strenuous recreational activity early in life may increase the risk of ovarian cancer, whereas more recent recreational activity may reduce the risk.
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Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the ABO locus associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of pancreatic cancer, a cancer with one of the lowest survival rates worldwide. We genotyped 558,542 SNPs in 1,896 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 1,939 controls drawn from 12 prospective cohorts plus one hospital-based case-control study. We conducted a combined analysis of these groups plus an additional 2,457 affected individuals and 2,654 controls from eight case-control studies, adjusting for study, sex, ancestry and five principal components. We identified an association between a locus on 9q34 and pancreatic cancer marked by the SNP rs505922 (combined P = 5.37 x 10(-8); multiplicative per-allele odds ratio 1.20; 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.28). This SNP maps to the first intron of the ABO blood group gene. Our results are consistent with earlier epidemiologic evidence suggesting that people with blood group O may have a lower risk of pancreatic cancer than those with groups A or B.
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The association of tumor microsatellite instability phenotype with family history of colorectal cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Family history is a strong predictor of colorectal cancer risk; however, a diagnosis of colorectal cancer among first-degree relatives has not been systematically investigated as a function of the colorectal cancer molecular subtypes related to tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) status. We investigated whether the observable familial colorectal cancer risks differed according to tumor MSI subtypes, stratified as MSI-High (>30% instability), MSI-Low (<30% instability), and MSS (no instability). Data from 3,143 population-based colorectal cancer cases from five institutions were assessed for family history according to the Amsterdam criteria and the Bethesda guidelines, age at diagnosis, sex, tumor location, and MSI status. The distribution of patient characteristics by MSI status was compared using polytomous logistic regression. Overall, 2.8% colorectal cancer cases met the Amsterdam criteria and 37% met the Bethesda guidelines. There were 14% MSI-High, 13% MSI-Low, and 73% MSS colorectal cancers. MSI-High (P<0.0001) and MSI-Low tumors (P=0.01) were more proximally located than MSS tumors. MSI-High tumors were more common among females (P<0.001). The highest proportion of MSI-High tumors occurred in cases<40 years of age whereas the age-dependent distribution of MSI-Low tumors was unchanged. MSI-High tumors showed a statistically significant association with increasing numbers of first-degree relatives with colorectal cancer (P=0.002); this association disappeared, however, when MSI-High cases meeting Amsterdam criteria were removed from the analysis. MSI-Low tumors did not show a similar association with family history of colorectal cancer. Familial risk associated with MSI-High tumors is primarily driven by the Amsterdam-criteria patients. MSI-Low tumors may represent a distinct subtype of colorectal cancer with respect to certain epidemiologic variables studied here.
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Germline MutY human homologue mutations and colorectal cancer: a multisite case-control study.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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The MutY human homologue (MYH) gene is a member of the base-excision repair pathway involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. The objective of this study was to determine colorectal cancer (CRC) risk associated with mutations in the MYH gene.
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Fecal occult blood testing: people in Ontario are unaware of it and not ready for it.
Can Fam Physician
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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To determine factors that influence awareness of, and readiness to undergo, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening.
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Lifestyle, dietary, and medical history factors associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Ontario, Canada.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has one of the worst survival rates of all the cancers. Established risk factors for this malignancy are smoking, body mass index (BMI) and family history of pancreatic cancer. Findings are inconsistent regarding pancreatitis, diabetes, allergies, intake of fruit, vegetables, red meat, alcohol, caffeine, vitamin C, calcium, and folate supplements. Possible pancreatic cancer risk factors were evaluated within the population-based Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study.
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A pooled analysis of smoking and colorectal cancer: timing of exposure and interactions with environmental factors.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Considerable evidence suggests that cigarette smoking is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). What is unclear, however, is the impact of quitting smoking on risk attenuation and whether other risk factors for CRC modify this association.
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Phytoestrogen intake from foods, during adolescence and adulthood, and risk of breast cancer by estrogen and progesterone receptor tumor subgroup among Ontario women.
Int. J. Cancer
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Phytoestrogen intake may reduce breast cancer risk and limited evidence suggests this association may hold for hormone receptor-positive tumors only. The study aims were to assess whether the association between phytoestrogen intake during adolescence and adulthood and breast cancer risk varies by estrogen and progesterone receptor (ERPR) tumor subgroup. Cases were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (2002-2003), and ERPR status was ascertained from pathology reports for 81% of cases (n = 2,438). Controls were identified through random digit dialing of Ontario households (n = 3,370). Published phytoestrogen food values were applied to food frequency questionnaire responses to assess isoflavone, lignan and total phytoestrogen intake, during adolescence and adulthood. Polytomous multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for association between phytoestrogen intake and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor ERPR tumor subgroups. Among premenopausal women, few associations were observed for adolescent or adult phytoestrogen intake across all tumor subgroups. Among postmenopausal women, adolescent phytoestrogen intake (isoflavone, lignan and total) was associated with reduced risk across all hormone receptor subgroups; however, statistical significance was most consistent within the ER+PR+ subgroup. For example, ER+PR+ postmenopausal breast cancer risk was associated with adolescent phytoestrogen intake (highest vs. lowest: OR = 0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.96). Among all women and postmenopausal women, ORs for high adult lignan intake were all below 1.0 within each tumor subgroup, suggesting reduced breast cancer risk, although none reached statistical significance. In conclusion, adolescent phytoestrogen intake was associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer, particularly for ER+PR+ tumor subgroup.
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Use of isoflavone supplements is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
Int. J. Cancer
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Botanical supplements are widely used and contain diverse ingredients, including isoflavones. Food-based isoflavones have been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. However, no study has comprehensively evaluated supplements identified by isoflavone content and breast cancer risk. Associations between ever use of 28 isoflavone supplements and breast cancer risk in Ontario, Canada were evaluated using cases (n = 3,101) identified in 2002-2003 from the Ontario Cancer Registry and controls (n = 3,471) identified through random digit dialing methods. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Several individual supplements were associated with reduced breast cancer risk (e.g., Natural HRT; AOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.69; n(users) = 58). Use of any isoflavone supplements was associated with reduced risk when ? 3 were ever used (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.86; n(users) = 332; p(trend) = 0.008) or any was taken >5 years (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.94; n(users) = 325; p(trend) = 0.01); high content supplements were consistently associated with reduced risk. Risk reduction was confined to postmenopausal breast cancer for both individual and combined supplements, and was strongest in the latter among high content users who ever took ? 3 supplements (AOR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.81; n(users) = 118; p(trend) = 0.04) or any >5 years (AOR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; n(users) = 60; p(trend) = 0.03). Associations did not differ by estrogen-progesterone tumor receptor status. In conclusion, isoflavone supplements were associated with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Further research to examine these novel findings is warranted, given the low supplement use and potential limitations of our results.
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Intake of phytoestrogen foods and supplements among women recently diagnosed with breast cancer in Ontario, Canada.
Nutr Cancer
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Phytoestrogens are found in foods such as soy (isoflavones) and flaxseed (lignans), and certain botanical supplements. Their role in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer recurrence and treatment is controversial, and it is unknown how this affects intake among patients. The Ontario Cancer Registry was used to identify 417 population-based breast cancer cases (mean time from diagnosis was 57 days). A questionnaire was mailed to determine intake of phytoestrogen foods and supplements in the last 2 mo, changes since diagnosis and differences by ER tumor status or hormonal treatment. Of 278 (67%) respondents, 56% consumed soy foods, 39% consumed isoflavone-rich foods (tofu, soybeans, soy milk, soy nuts), and 70% ate lignan-rich foods, including flaxseed (33%). Only soy milk, flaxseed, and flaxseed bread were commonly consumed more than once/wk. Few patients (4%) took isoflavone (soy, red clover, kudzu, licorice, isoflavones) or lignan/flaxseed supplements. Since diagnosis, 17% started or stopped soy foods (most stopped); this was more prevalent among those receiving hormonal treatment (20%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 14, 26) than not (6%; 95% CI: 1, 12). No other differences by ER status or hormonal treatment were observed. Research is needed to confirm this and to explore influencing factors.
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Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer.
Kevin B Jacobs, Meredith Yeager, Weiyin Zhou, Sholom Wacholder, Zhaoming Wang, Benjamín Rodríguez-Santiago, Amy Hutchinson, Xiang Deng, Chenwei Liu, Marie-Josèphe Horner, Michael Cullen, Caroline G Epstein, Laurie Burdett, Michael C Dean, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Joshua Sampson, Charles C Chung, Joseph Kovaks, Susan M Gapstur, Victoria L Stevens, Lauren T Teras, Mia M Gaudet, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, Jarmo Virtamo, Philip R Taylor, Neal D Freedman, Christian C Abnet, Alisa M Goldstein, Nan Hu, Kai Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Linda Liao, Ti Ding, You-Lin Qiao, Yu-Tang Gao, Woon-Puay Koh, Yong-Bing Xiang, Ze-Zhong Tang, Jin-Hu Fan, Melinda C Aldrich, Christopher Amos, William J Blot, Cathryn H Bock, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Curtis C Harris, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Lorna H McNeill, Benjamin A Rybicki, Ann G Schwartz, Lisa B Signorello, Margaret R Spitz, John K Wiencke, Margaret Wrensch, Xifeng Wu, Krista A Zanetti, Regina G Ziegler, Jonine D Figueroa, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Nuria Malats, Gaëlle Marenne, Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Dalsu Baris, Molly Schwenn, Alison Johnson, Maria Teresa Landi, Lynn Goldin, Dario Consonni, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Melissa Rotunno, Preetha Rajaraman, Ulrika Andersson, Laura E Beane Freeman, Christine D Berg, Julie E Buring, Mary A Butler, Tania Carreon, Maria Feychting, Anders Ahlbom, J Michael Gaziano, Graham G Giles, Göran Hallmans, Susan E Hankinson, Patricia Hartge, Roger Henriksson, Peter D Inskip, Christoffer Johansen, Annelie Landgren, Roberta Mckean-Cowdin, Dominique S Michaud, Beatrice S Melin, Ulrike Peters, Avima M Ruder, Howard D Sesso, Gianluca Severi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Kala Visvanathan, Emily White, Alicja Wolk, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Debra T Silverman, Manolis Kogevinas, Juan R Gonzalez, Olaya Villa, Donghui Li, Eric J Duell, Harvey A Risch, Sara H Olson, Charles Kooperberg, Brian M Wolpin, Li Jiao, Manal Hassan, William Wheeler, Alan A Arslan, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Charles S Fuchs, Steven Gallinger, Myron D Gross, Elizabeth A Holly, Alison P Klein, Andrea LaCroix, Margaret T Mandelson, Gloria Petersen, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Paige M Bracci, Federico Canzian, Kenneth Chang, Michelle Cotterchio, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Judith A Hoffman Bolton, Mazda Jenab, Kay-Tee Khaw, Vittorio Krogh, Robert C Kurtz, Robert R McWilliams, Julie B Mendelsohn, Kari G Rabe, Elio Riboli, Anne Tjønneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Joanne W Elena, Herbert Yu, Laufey Amundadottir, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Peter Kraft, Fredrick Schumacher, Daniel Stram, Sharon A Savage, Lisa Mirabello, Irene L Andrulis, Jay S Wunder, Ana Patiño García, Luis Sierrasesúmaga, Donald A Barkauskas, Richard G Gorlick, Mark Purdue, Wong-Ho Chow, Lee E Moore, Kendra L Schwartz, Faith G Davis, Ann W Hsing, Sonja I Berndt, Amanda Black, Nicolas Wentzensen, Louise A Brinton, Jolanta Lissowska, Beata Peplonska, Katherine A McGlynn, Michael B Cook, Barry I Graubard, Christian P Kratz, Mark H Greene, Ralph L Erickson, David J Hunter, Gilles Thomas, Robert N Hoover, Francisco X Real, Joseph F Fraumeni, Neil E Caporaso, Margaret Tucker, Nathaniel Rothman, Luis A Pérez-Jurado, Stephen J Chanock.
Nat. Genet.
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In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls from 13 genome-wide association studies, we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones in DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. We observed mosaic abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of >2 Mb in size in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%), with abnormal cell proportions of between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, frequency increased with age, from 0.23% under 50 years to 1.91% between 75 and 79 years (P = 4.8 × 10(-8)). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals; odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; P = 0.016), with stronger association with cases who had DNA collected before diagnosis or treatment (OR = 1.45; P = 0.0005). Detectable mosaicism was also more common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least 1 year before diagnosis with leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR = 35.4; P = 3.8 × 10(-11)). These findings underscore the time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and potentially other late-onset diseases.
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Pathway analysis of genome-wide association study data highlights pancreatic development genes as susceptibility factors for pancreatic cancer.
Carcinogenesis
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Four loci have been associated with pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Pathway-based analysis of GWAS data is a complementary approach to identify groups of genes or biological pathways enriched with disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose individual effect sizes may be too small to be detected by standard single-locus methods. We used the adaptive rank truncated product method in a pathway-based analysis of GWAS data from 3851 pancreatic cancer cases and 3934 control participants pooled from 12 cohort studies and 8 case-control studies (PanScan). We compiled 23 biological pathways hypothesized to be relevant to pancreatic cancer and observed a nominal association between pancreatic cancer and five pathways (P < 0.05), i.e. pancreatic development, Helicobacter pylori lacto/neolacto, hedgehog, Th1/Th2 immune response and apoptosis (P = 2.0 × 10(-6), 1.6 × 10(-5), 0.0019, 0.019 and 0.023, respectively). After excluding previously identified genes from the original GWAS in three pathways (NR5A2, ABO and SHH), the pancreatic development pathway remained significant (P = 8.3 × 10(-5)), whereas the others did not. The most significant genes (P < 0.01) in the five pathways were NR5A2, HNF1A, HNF4G and PDX1 for pancreatic development; ABO for H.pylori lacto/neolacto; SHH for hedgehog; TGFBR2 and CCL18 for Th1/Th2 immune response and MAPK8 and BCL2L11 for apoptosis. Our results provide a link between inherited variation in genes important for pancreatic development and cancer and show that pathway-based approaches to analysis of GWAS data can yield important insights into the collective role of genetic risk variants in cancer.
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Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.
Nutr J
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Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada.
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Genetic variants in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis
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Individual susceptibility to the toxic effects of cigarette smoke may be modified by inherited variability in carcinogen metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate pancreatic cancer risk associated with cigarette smoking and 33 variants within carcinogen metabolism genes and examine whether these variants modify the association between smoking and pancreatic cancer. A population-based study was conducted with 455 pancreatic cancer cases and 893 controls. Epidemiological and smoking data were collected from questionnaires and variants were genotyped by mass spectrometry. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (ASOR) and multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (MVOR) estimates were obtained using multivariate logistic regression, and interactions between each variant and smoking were investigated. Current smoker status [MVOR = 2.29, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.62, 3.22], 10-27 pack-years (MVOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.18), >27 pack-years (MVOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.46) and longer durations of smoking (19-32 years: MVOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05; >32 years: MVOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.45) were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. CYP1B1-4390-GG (ASOR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.86) and Uridine 5-diphospho glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A7-622-CT (ASOR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.99) were associated with reduced risk. N-acetyltransferase 1-640-GT/GG (ASOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.05), GSTM1 (rs737497)-GG (ASOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.95), GSTM1 gene deletion (ASOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 3.52, 6.79) and glutathione S-transferase theta-1 gene deletion (ASOR = 4.41, 95% CI: 2.67, 7.29) were associated with increased risk. Significant interactions were observed between pack-years and EPHX1-415 (P = 0.04) and smoking status and N-acetyltransferase 2-857 (P = 0.03). Variants of carcinogen metabolism genes are independently associated with pancreatic cancer risk and may modify the risk posed by smoking.
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Reported intake of selected micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland, Labrador and Ontario, Canada.
Anticancer Res.
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The impact of micronutrient intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of selected micronutrients with risk of incident CRC in study participants from Newfoundland, Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada.
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Passive cigarette smoke exposure during various periods of life, genetic variants, and breast cancer risk among never smokers.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
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The association between passive cigarette smoke exposure and breast cancer risk is inconclusive and may be modified by genotype. The authors investigated lifetime passive cigarette smoke exposures, 36 variants in 12 carcinogen-metabolizing genes, and breast cancer risk among Ontario, Canada, women who had never smoked (2003-2004). DNA (saliva) was available for 920 breast cancer cases and 960 controls. Detailed information about passive smoke exposure was collected for multiple age periods (childhood, teenage years, and adulthood) and environments (home, work, and social). Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by multivariable logistic regression, and statistical interactions were assessed using the likelihood ratio test. Among postmenopausal women, most associations between passive smoke and breast cancer risk were null, whereas among premenopausal women, nonsignificant positive associations were observed. Significant interactions were observed between certain types of passive smoke exposure and genetic variants in CYP2E1, NAT2, and UGT1A7. While these interactions were statistically significant, the magnitudes of the effect estimates were not consistent or easily interpretable, suggesting that they were perhaps due to chance. Although the results of this study were largely null, it is possible that premenopausal women exposed to passive smoke or carrying certain genetic variants may be at higher risk of breast cancer.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.